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In the broadest sense, social sciences encompass society, human behavior, and its influence on the world. Social sciences help understand how society works, ranging from the causes of unemployment, economic growth, what makes people happy, and so on. The information it provides is vital for governments and policymakers, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities.

Social Sciences and Law

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Abstract

The present study aims to identify the most productive countries, journals, authors, institutions and the most used keywords in the field of special education during 2011–2020, based on the WoS database. The widespread effects of the papers and how they are related were analyzed with the bibliometric analysis method. The findings of the study showed that the USA is inarguably the most productive country, followed by England and Australia. On the other hand, there was a very strong positive correlation(r = 0.929) between the number of papers published by countries and their h-index, a similar finding was also found to be present between the countries' h-index and GDP per capita (r = 0.790). Moreover, it was found that the journals with the highest quartile (Q1 and Q2) in the field of special education published significantly more papers than the journals with the lowest quartile (Q3 and Q4). Matson, JL (USA), Sigafoos, J (New Zealand) and Lancioni, GE (Italy) were determined as the most prolific authors, respectively. Autism, intellectual disability, and Down syndrome were the phrases most frequently used as keywords. Our findings provide key information regarding the developments that the research direction of special education field has recently taken. This study also serves a potential roadmap for future studies.

Open access

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the effect of Turkish Music, which is played in the background in preschool education environments, on the intrinsic motivation levels of children in the preschool period. The study used a “quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design with retention test”, one of the quantitative research models. The study group of the study consists of 21 children aged 48–72 months, who were selected by purposive sampling method, attending the kindergartens of primary schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in the city center of Tokat, Türkiye. The “Motivation Scale for Preschool Children (DMQ18)” was employed as a data collection tool to measure the motivation levels of children. In the study, while routine training activities were applied in the experimental group, Turkish Music pieces selected in accordance with each activity were played in the background. In the experimental group, background Turkish Music was played five days a week for four weeks. In the control group, the teacher practiced only daily activities. The study found a significant difference between the control and experimental group post-tests in favor of the experimental group. The study contributed to the literature as the first study to reveal that Turkish Music, which is played in the background during activities in preschool educational environments, makes a significant contribution to the intrinsic motivation levels of children.

Open access

Abstract

In the third decade of the 21st century, the limitation of information has been replaced by the difficulty of selecting freely available information. Useful and irrelevant knowledge is available in enormous quantities on the online storage of increasingly growing server capacities. The world of education and history didactics are no exception either. Students, teachers and researchers share the need for key reference points that are solid in this field of science. As a discipline introducing sources and traces of the past and activities with higher order cognitive tasks, history didactics can be a promoter of the effective information selective process. Our study investigates the role and trends of the International Journal of Research on History Didactics, History Education and History Culture over the past decade and provides the reader with a mosaic of the most recent themes and approaches in the discipline. The most important objectives of our research are the detailed portrayal and analysis of the journal and outlining the key professional workshops, authors, current directions and issues of history didactics. As an annex to the study, we have created a thematic repertory containing the open-access online writings of the journal's archive between 2010 and 2021, thus allowing for thematic aggregation.

Open access

Abstract

In recent years, the integrated approach of STEM disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) has been adopted in the Middle East to improve students' scientific capacities and their formative thinking. Nevertheless, this approach encounters complications in the application, including many due to gender differences. Middle Eastern women's life and education is affected by conservative constraints and social norms where gender stereotypes and culture impact shared views about specific domains. Research regarding gender has frequently emphasized gender imbalance in virtually all STEM study fields and professions. This study explores STEM education's conceptual framework in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Likewise, it provides an overview of STEM teachers' practices and their gender perspectives in the classrooms. We investigate the implementations and gender differences in STEM education by scrutinizing relevant literature and studies in the selected countries. The conclusions indicate a shortage of teachers' knowledge in applying STEM education in classrooms and a need for more development programs that qualify teachers for STEM education applications. In addition, the results show that gender disparities are promoted by the education system and teachers who teach STEM subjects in schools because social norms and gender stereotypes influence them.

Open access

15 years of analyzing the Global Terrorism Database: An overview

A Global Terrorism Database elemzésének elmúlt 15 éve

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Zsombor Hermann

Summary.

This article provides an overview of research on terrorism using the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). It is an open-source database containing over 200,000 terrorist events, both domestic and transnational. After identifying seven prominent journals of terrorism, data were gathered on 442 articles citing the GTD. All were published between 2008 and the beginning of 2023. An increasing trend was found in the number of articles over the examined period, supporting the growing popularity of the GTD. Popular databases containing control variables were identified in the second part of the analysis. Finally, the most common research topics were introduced through examples. These included spatiotemporal trends, case studies, suicide bombers, and lone-wolf terrorists.

Összefoglalás.

Jelen kutatás áttekintést nyújt a nyílt forrású, Global Terrorism Database (GTD) nevű adatbázis terrorizmus kutatásában történő felhasználásáról. Az adatbázist 2007-ben tették közzé, ingyenesen elérhető bárki számára. Összesen több, mint 200.000 nemzetközi és belföldi terrorcselekményről tartalmaz adatokat. Az elmúlt 15 évben világszinten az egyik legjelentősebb terrorizmussal kapcsolatos nyilvános adatbázissá vált. A kutatás során először azonosítottam a terület 7 vezető folyóiratát, majd ezekből kigyűjtöttem az összes olyan, 2008 és 2023 eleje között megjelent publikációt, melyek hivatkoznak a GTD-re (n = 442). A megjelenési dátumukat elemezve megállapítottam, hogy az évente megjelent, erre az adatbázisra hivatkozó publikációk száma növekvő tendenciát követ. Ez azonban nem volt egyenletes. 2016 előtt lassú növekedés volt megfigyelhető, 2017-re viszont egy hirtelen ugrással elkezdett meredeken emelkedni a cikkek száma.

A 442 publikáció közül 50 nem volt elérhető, az absztrakt alapján pedig nem volt egyértelműen megállapítható a felhasznált adatbázis, vizsgált változók, így ezek nem kerültek bele az elemzésbe. Szintén kivontam az elemzésből a recenziókat, bibliográfiákat, szerkesztői ajánlásokat, konferenciaelőadások összefoglalóit, illetve azokat a cikkeket, ahol a GTD csak a szerző által idézett tanulmányban szerepel. Hatvanhat esetben a szerző (1) illusztrációként használt fel adatot, (2) a GTD terrorcselekmény definícióját idézte, vagy (3) a nyilvánosan elérhető adatbázisok bemutatása során említette meg ezt.

Végezetül 207 olyan publikáció maradt, ahol a szerző a GTD-ből nyert adatokat elemzett. Ezek vizsgálata során először megállapításra került, hogy a megjelenésük a teljes mintával azonos módon mutat növekvő tendenciát. A legtöbb kutatásban több adatbázist használtak a szerzők a GTD mellett, ezek jellemzően szintén nyilvánosan elérhetők. Innen származnak általában a kontrollváltozók, melyek politikai, kulturális, demográfiai, földrajzi, biztonsági és szociökonómiai területeket fednek le. Néhányan azonban saját adatbázist építettek különböző forrásokból. Következő lépésként példákon keresztül bemutatásra kerültek gyakori vizsgált témakörök. Ezek közé tartoznak tér- és időbeli tendenciák, terrorista csoportok és azok környezetükkel és egymással való kapcsolatainak elemzései. Szintén megjelentek öngyilkos merénylők, magányos elkövetők, illetve az állam és terrorista csoportok kapcsolatának vizsgálatai. Összességében az elemzés során bizonyosságot nyert, hogy a GTD jelentős hatással van a terrorizmus kutatására.

Open access

Az erőszak kockázatértékelése – pszichológiai szempontok

Risk assessment of violence – Psychological aspects

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
István Csomós

Összefoglalás.

Jelen tanulmány célja áttekintést adni arról, hogy a pszichológiai szempontok milyen módon használhatók fel az erőszakos magatartás kockázatának felmérése során a terrorizmus elleni küzdelemben. Ezzel az elméleti vizsgálódással azt kívánom bemutatni, hogy a pszichológiának milyen szemlélete van az erőszakos cselekmények, a szélsőséges, radikális gondolkodásmód hátterének megismerésében. Számos felfogás létezik a terrorista magatartás okainak és személyiségjellemzőinek leírására, amelyek alapján megállapítható, hogy nem létezik az ún. terrorista személyiség. Nincsenek olyan tulajdonságok, amelyek alapján egyértelműen meg lehet állapítani a különbséget a terroristák és az átlagnépesség között, nem létezik egyetlen közös terrorista profil. Az erőszakos magatartás kockázati tényező megismeréséhez az előzetes felmérésnek éppen ezért kiemelt jelentősége van a terrorcselekmények megelőzése szempontjából.

Summary.

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the ways in which psychological aspects can be used to assess the risk of violent behaviour in the fight against terrorism. Through this theoretical exploration, I aim to show how psychology can be used to understand the background of violent acts against the background of extremist, radical mindsets. There are several conceptions of the causes and personality traits of terrorist behaviour, which suggest that there is no such thing as a terrorist personality. There are no characteristics that can be used to clearly distinguish between terrorists and the general population, there is no single common terrorist profile. Understanding the risk factors for violent behaviour in advance is therefore of particular importance for the prevention of terrorist acts.

The different theoretical approaches to specific cases, at the individual level, do not always provide an explanation. However, without knowledge of the research on the subject it is more difficult to understand the motives that lead people to act cruelly towards others. There are many theories about the psychology of terrorism, but relatively few controlled ones, empirical studies. Terrorism was previously considered a pathological manifestation of psychological and behavioural deviance. Based on psychoanalytic concepts, the psychopathology of terrorism was thought to be rooted in unconscious motives from childhood. However, the psychological analysis is relevant to risk assessment because the terrorist can be very diverse in temperament, ideologies, thinking characteristics and cognitive abilities. Psychological aspects are an important part of the various risk analysis methods. In developing the use of specific methods, I believe it is important to ensure that they are effective in helping to prevent terrorist acts in practice. The ideas expressed in this study perhaps demonstrate that it is a very versatile method.

It is essential that, with the spread of the Internet and globalisation, more and more potential terrorists and radicalisers are coming to the attention of the intelligence and counter-intelligence services. Psychological aspects will continue to play an essential role in the development of risk analysis methods, given that the commission of a terrorist act is always the result of extreme human violence.

Open access

Az extrémizmus indikátorai

Indicators of extremism

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Noémi Emőke Baráth

Összefoglalás.

A cikk arra keresi a választ, hogy a terrorizmus és az extrémizmus kapcsán milyen indikátorokat tudunk azonosítani, és ezek mögött milyen okok és magyarázatok találhatók.

Áttekintjük a terrortámadások alakulását az utóbbi években, valamint azt, hogy az extrémizmusnak milyen társadalmi és egyéni aspektusai vannak. A tanulmányban elméleti forrásmunkák szintetizálása, valamint egy hazai és nemzetközi adatbázis leíró jellegű elemzése olvasható. Napjainkban a társadalmi és gazdasági válságok a biztonság és identitás újradefiniálására késztetnek, és ezek az egyének sajátos választását is befolyásolják: a meggyengült közösségek és értékek radikalizálódáshoz, extrémizmushoz és terrorizmushoz vezethetnek. Fontos, hogy a tárgyalt témakörben minél szélesebb körűen, multidiszciplináris szemlélettel és innovatívan álljunk a felderítéshez, elhárításhoz és tudományos kutatáshoz, annak érdekében, hogy csökkentsük a társadalmat veszélyeztető egyének és csoportok tevékenységét.

Summary.

The article examines what indicators we can identify in relation to terrorism and extremism and what reasons and explanations are behind them.

We review the development of terrorist attacks in recent years, as well as the social and individual aspects of extremism. The study includes a synthesis of theoretical source works and a descriptive analysis of a domestic and international database. Today’s social and economic crises, security and identity lead to redefining and this affects the specific response of individuals and weakened communities and values can lead to radicalization, extremism and terrorism. It is important to take a multidisciplinary and innovative approach to detection, prevention and research in the discussed topic, in order to reduce the activities of individuals and groups that threaten society.

According to the Hungarian model, since 2012–2013 the DEREX index, which is a percentage measure, shows the proportion of respondents who may be susceptible to extreme right-wing ideas and the political actions that can be derived from them, based on the pattern of their attitudes and values in a given society. From this point of view, based on the survey, this “threat” of extremism does not threaten Hungarian society. The definition of terrorism is still not unanimous acceptance, so the term extremism is increasingly being used (Berger 2018), which means extremism that can manifest itself in violence. All of this can be important because it is a complex phenomenon that is not limited to racial, religious, political categories and views, but leaves a mark on society and can cause damage.

Extremism is a phenomenon close to radicalism, which can be linked to terrorism in many cases, and this deserves attention in all countries of the world, whether directly or indirectly affected in terms of the risk of terrorism in the given society. If we want to take action against them, the goal can be to divide the political and military leaders, as well as to capture the leaders. It is worth lowering the profile of terrorists in the media, making the goals more expensive, and presenting the act in a different narrative instead of the role of a martyr. Amnesty programs may appear if this fits into society’s values. Furthermore, there are great opportunities in education through the implementation of integration and assimilation programs.

Open access

A dzsihádista merényletekben 2015 óta bekövetkezett változások Nyugat- és Észak-Európában

Changes in jihadist terrorism in Western and Northern Europe since 2015

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Zoltán Szabó

Összefoglalás.

A tanulmány bemutatja, hogyan és miként változtak meg a nyugat- és észak-európai dzsihádista terrortámadások végrehajtási módjai az elmúlt években, és esettanulmányokon keresztül igyekszik rávilágítani az elkövetők általános jellemzőire.

Summary.

This paper aims to show how terrorist attacks in Western and Northern Europe have changed in recent years, especially in comparison to the attacks in Paris in November 2015 and Brussels in March 2016. Case studies of successful attacks in 2021 and 2022 highlight the general characteristics of the perpetrators. Several conclusions can be drawn through brief profiles of Ndiaga Dieye, Abdellah Gmara, Jamel Gorchene, Ali Harbi Ali, Abdalrahman A., Emad al-Swealmeen, Franck Elong Abé, Zaniar Matapour and Yassine Mahi.

On one hand, it can be established that these persons have either entered the territory of the European Union as irregular immigrants or have committed terrorist acts as second-generation nationals of their countries. It can also be said that in recent years only lone perpetrators have been able to carry out successful attacks, i.e. the above-mentioned persons have planned and carried out their acts entirely on their own, with at most only tangential links to an Islamist terrorist organisation.

The common feature of the perpetrators is that they are all young men, with an average age of 33. They all had some form of mental disorder. Most of them have chosen to use a stabbing weapon, but it can be seen that they may be seeking to acquire firearms or to make explosives at home. They generally attacked “soft” targets, i.e. civilians, as they were expected to put up much less resistance than “hard” targets, i.e. police or soldiers. Nevertheless, it can be observed that many of the terrorists presented also attacked police officers, which may illustrate, among other things, a dislike of the authorities or a desire to see such an act receive more press coverage.

At one point in their lives, the individuals profiled in this study were clearly radicalised, i.e. they adopted and embraced opinions and views that ultimately led them to commit an act of terrorism. While no clear pattern of radicalisation can be drawn from the case studies, it is possible to identify a significant role for both online and offline spaces. Some may have decided to turn to extremist Islamism solely on the basis of online sources, but others may have first encountered radical ideas in prison.

The role of time is also an important factor. The speed with which someone becomes radicalised and the time it takes for them to commit a terrorist act (if at all) is individual-specific.

Finally, it is important to note that the process of radicalisation can be triggered or even accelerated by a perceived or real grievance against Muslims.

Open access