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Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies
Authors:
Renátó Vági
,
István Üveges
,
Andrea Megyeri
,
Anna Fülöp
,
János Pál Vadász
,
Dániel Nagy
, and
Gergely Márk Csányi

Abstract

Access to justice is a significant area of legal research, especially for Socio-Legal studies. The main research topics of this area are economic or class differences, gender inequalities, or national and ethnic differences in access to justice. However, there is a less discussed aspect of access to justice: the differences between access to legal information and the differences in user groups in terms of comprehending and processing legal information. This is an important topic because there are significant differences among people's abilities to process and understand legal texts, depending on whether we are dealing with a lawyer who is an expert in the given field, a non-expert lawyer, or a citizen with a low or zero (legal) educational level. The paper argues that unsupervised machine learning solutions can help even out these differences. It presents different unsupervised solutions, mainly clustering and topic modelling, which can help to increase access to legal information. Then we present a case study in which we examine these unsupervised tools in the processing of resolutions of the Central Bank in Hungary and anonymized court decisions. The paper argues that these tools can reveal the hidden contextual regularities in unstructured legal texts, facilitating the search for legal texts even for non-legal-experts.

Open access

Abstract

When e-commerce appeared in the 1990s it brought with it disputes related to its operation. E-commerce is risky as the contracting parties do not even know each other, not to mention the fact that disputes have additional legal difficulties concerning jurisdiction and applicable law. However, e-commerce websites have worked out online dispute resolution (ODR) systems in order to maintain the trust of their users, employing an efficient and impartial method if problems arise from deals made on their website. These internal ODR systems are considered successful as they are faster, cheaper and more appropriate than asking for remedy from the courts.

As online marketplaces resolve tens of millions of disputes a year, their influence cannot be avoided. The traditional court system fails to protect consumer rights in high-volume and low-value international transactions in practice. This circumstance raises the question of whether internal dispute resolution systems of private e-commerce sites could develop in such a way that fulfils the minimum procedural fairness requirements for dispute resolution and that is acceptable according to substantial laws. Is justice served in online disputes? Who is responsible for making just decisions, and to what extent can ODR procedures be expected to meet the principles of traditional civil proceedings?

Open access

Abstract

The paper explores the potential applications of Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT in the legal field, focusing on how they can enhance access to law. We begin by elucidating the fundamental workings of LLMs and their current and future general applications. The core of our study predicts the utilization of LLMs in various legal domains, especially where tasks like text retrieval, generation, labeling, and classification are prevalent. We argue that tools like ChatGPT could play a pivotal role in these areas. Additionally, we discuss the limitations and customization requirements of LLMs, particularly for legal uses. An experiment conducted by one of the authors, involving a tailored version of GPT for small law firms, serves as a practical example, but building on this, the paper also proposes ways in which LLM-based applications could democratize access to justice, making legal assistance more accessible and efficient for the broader public. This study contributes to the understanding of the intersection between AI technology and legal services, highlighting both the opportunities and challenges in this field.

Open access

Abstract

The study presents the most important common features of current judicial systems and argues that the courts are finding it more difficult to fulfil their role in the 21st century in a changing social and economic context. The development of information technology is also challenging the courts, which can only respond adequately by bringing modern technology into the courts themselves, allowing clients to access the courts online, outside office hours, and to receive meaningful, fast and efficient assistance in resolving their disputes. The study proposes that, in addition to the right to a fair trial, the right to a modern trial should be a requirement for the state to ensure that these requirements are met. These two principles, complementing each other, would help to ensure access to justice for clients in the 21st century. The adoption and implementation of this new principle will require a number of legal and technological changes. Yet it is not their implementation that seems the most difficult, but a change in the general legal thinking about the functioning of the courts, according to which the court is primarily a physical place where disputes are settled, and its role is not to provide a wide range of services, but only to deliver judgments.

Open access

A drónok szerepe a terrortámadásokban – A fenyegetés új dimenziója

Role of Drones in Terrorist Attacks – The New Dimension of Threat

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
István Sabjanics
and
Illés Horváth

Összefoglalás.

A dróntechnológia alapjainak katonai alkalmazása a II. világháború folyamán terjedt el, és hamarosan a koreai háború (1950–1953) kulcsfontosságú hírszerzési eszközévé vált. A 2000-es évekig az UAV-k (pilóta nélküli légi járművek) gyártásának és forgalmazásának monopóliuma kizárólag a hadiipar kezében volt, de a technológiában rejlő hatalmas lehetőségek gyorsan meghódították a civil szektort, és a gyártás önálló iparággá fejlődött. A piac robbanása alighanem forradalmasította a technológiát. Ennek következtében a drónok mérete csökkent, hatótávolságuk jelentősen megnövekedett. A piac által indikált technológiai fejlődés azonban nem csupán a laikus felhasználókat fogta meg, de az irreguláris, illetőleg a terrorista szervezetekre is komoly hatást gyakorolt. A technológiában rejlő potenciált hamar felismerték, így nemcsak integrálták, de kettős célok érdekében tovább is fejlesztették. 1990-től 2018-ig 14 olyan támadás történt, amelyben az elkövetők házilag, kereskedelmi forgalomban kapható alkatrészek felhasználásával készített UAV-t használtak. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy megvilágítsa a drónok alkalmazásának lehetőségeit a terrorista csoportok körében, valamint, hogy rámutasson a lehetséges védelmi és biztonsági intézkedésekre.

Summary.

The military application of the fundamentals of drone technology spread during World War II (1939-1945) and soon became a key intelligence tool in the Korean War (1950-1953). Until the 2000s, the monopoly over the production and marketing of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) was held exclusively by the military industry, but the enormous potential of the technology quickly conquered the civilian sector, and manufacturing developed into an industry in its own right. The explosion of the market revolutionised the technology. It significantly reduced their size, increased their power capacity and, although there was also a significant change in rotor size, their power and range increased exponentially. At the same time, advances have also had a very positive impact on control: the ability to follow a person or object without direct pilot intervention, the ability to program an autonomous flight path on the user interface, the ability to return to the pilot in the event of signal loss, the ability to avoid obstacles in complex environments thanks to advanced optical sensors, and the cameras on some models with facial recognition technology. The use of drone technology by irregular organisations or terrorists dates back to the 1990s, and by 2018 there had been 14 terrorist attacks in which the perpetrators had used a homemade UAV using commercially available parts. The aim of this study is to shed light on the motivation of extremist groups and the potential for the use of drones. In addition, take stock of the possible ways of protection.

Open access

A nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatásra, valamint kis- és középvállalkozásokra gyakorolt hatásának értékelése adatvédelmi szempontból

Assessing the impact of large language models on higher education and SMEs from a data protection perspective

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
István Sabjanics

Összefoglalás.

Ez a tanulmány a mesterséges intelligencia és a nagy nyelvi modellek, különösen a ChatGPT hatásait vizsgálja a felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások tekintetében. A generatív mesterséges intelligencia felsőoktatási környezetben oktatási és kutatási szempontból egyaránt jelentős hatást gyakorolt, amely előirányozta az oktatás, különösen az oktatási és tanulási módszerek újragondolását. Fokozottabb és egyéni igényekhez igazított tanulási élményeket képes biztosítani a mesterséges intelligencia. A ChatGPT-hez hasonló nagy nyelvi modellek fejlődésének mértéke és gyors elterjedése forradalmasította a kommunikációt és az információfeldolgozást, lehetőséget teremtve az interaktívabb oktatási platformok bevezetésére. Ezzel párhuzamosan az üzleti szektor, különösen a kis- és középvállalkozások paradigmaváltáson mentek keresztül működésük hatékonyságának növelését és az ügyfélkapcsolati megoldásokat érintő innováció terén, amelynek alapja a mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazása. Ez a tanulmány azt vizsgálja, hogy ezek a szervezetek milyen módon használják a nagy nyelvi modelleket alkalmazó eszközöket a folyamataik racionalizálására, az ügyfélkapcsolatok javítására és a döntéshozatali képességek bővítésére. A tanulmány kitér a nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások által történő biztonságos és jogszerű alkalmazását érintő etikai megfontolásokra és az esetlegesen felmerülő kockázatokra.

Summary.

This study investigates the impact of artificial intelligence and large language models, in particular ChatGPT, in higher education and small and medium-sized enterprises. Generative AI in higher education settings has had a significant impact from both an educational and a research perspective, which has foreseen a rethinking of education, in particular teaching and learning methods. AI can provide enhanced and personalised learning experiences. The scale and rapid spread of the development of large language models such as ChatGPT has revolutionised communication and information processing, opening the way for the introduction of more interactive educational platforms. At the same time, the business sector, in particular SMEs, has undergone a paradigm shift in terms of operational efficiency and innovation in customer relationship solutions based on the use of artificial intelligence. This paper examines how these organisations are using tools that apply high-level language models to streamline their processes, improve customer relationships and enhance decision-making capabilities. The study also addresses the ethical considerations and potential risks associated with the safe and legal use of large language models in higher education and by SMEs.

First, the study focuses on assessing the privacy risks and opportunities of using large language models in higher education, specifically and separately on teaching and research. In conclusion the study suggest, that large language models have the potential to bring positive changes in higher education, especially in the form of personalised or small group sessions in virtual classrooms, in parallel with classroom or hybrid teaching, applications that support individual preparation and learning and better presentation of the curriculum. It is essential, however, that taking over the administrative tasks of trainers does not justify, or even justify, human supervision of AI. It is the responsibility of higher education institutions to establish ethical rules for the use of AI, especially large language models, balancing technological and pedagogical aspects, which can perhaps best be summarised as development and not substitution. Various large language models can help, but they cannot replace the unique qualities that human teachers can bring to the learning experience. In conclusion regarding SMEs, the emergence and pace of development of large language models has such a significant impact on the competitiveness of a business that their introduction and the associated technological changeover of a business in a very short time will be almost a matter of course. Guidelines and recommendations from international organisations and various market surveillance and data protection authorities are useful to help SMEs to effectively increase their competitiveness while remaining fully compliant with the regulatory environment.

Open access

Abstract

Several researchers have highlighted the need to strengthen school-based career education in Hungary. After reviewing the international literature on similar programs, this study reports on the impact of an innovative, multi-method career education course. It aimed to support Hungarian high school (ISCED 344) students in grades 10–11 in making decisions on further education and career choices, and in dealing with related uncertainties and difficulties, mainly through developing career management competence. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group of 92 students showed significantly better results on half of the 20 career orientation variables assessed six months after the end of the intervention of 12 three-quarter-hour sessions, with low effect sizes compared to the pre-intervention assessment, and the 96-student control group. In addition to a self-developed questionnaire, the CDDQ Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire; and the CFI Career Factors Inventory were used. The effectiveness of the intervention was independent of factors such as gender, age, academic performance, and parental education. The study concludes with the suggestion that an enhanced version of the course could be an officially recommended supplementary career education program in Hungarian high schools.

Open access

Abstract

Drama in Education (DiE) has been a well-known teaching technique for an active learning approach for students. It utilizes different forms of conventions to enhance a student's learning experience in the classroom, offering alternatives instead of the traditional teaching approaches. Drama can encourage students to learn and think critically and improve public speaking, communication, and confidence. The article portrays the use of drama activities in STEAM education by depicting the benefits and challenges. This study uses a qualitative approach to collect data, including relevant literature, descriptions of drama activities, and observation. The findings display that drama in STEAM education can improve and stimulate students' learning and knowledge in a particular subject. This study aimed to view 19 higher education students' perspectives of drama activities in STEAM. Two activities were completed during this pilot study and observations were made throughout the process. Furthermore, drama in STEAM stimulated the students, were more enthusiastic about exploring, examining and learning, socializing with their groupmates, and the confidence to perform.

Open access

Csővezetékintegritás-irányítási rendszer – válasz a földgázszállító rendszer üzemeltetésével kapcsolatos kihívásokra

Pipeline integrity management system - a response to the challenges of operation a natural gas transmission system

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Péter Chován
and
János Lukács

Összefoglalás.

A különböző szerkezetek és rendszerek biztonságos üzemeltetése gazdasági, környezeti és fenntarthatósági érdek. Ilyen rendszer a hazai nagynyomású, földgázszállító csőtávvezetéki rendszer, amelynek meghatározó része maga a csővezeték. A csővezetékeken előfordult káresetek ráirányították a figyelmet arra, hogy a megjelenő kihívásokra új, 21. századi válaszokra van szükség. A válasz kulcsa a csővezetékek integritásának biztosítása, rendszerszemléletű megközelítésben és informatikai támogatással. A megoldás a csővezetékintegritás-irányítási rendszer (PIMS), amely a kor technikai és technológiai színvonalán ötvözi az észszerű kockázatvállalás és a biztonságra való törekvés kompromisszumát. A közlemény bemutatja a bevezetés előtt álló hazai rendszert, illetve annak legfontosabb elemeit.

Summary.

The safe operation of different structures, of high importance and often unique systems, is important for the designer, contractor, the operator and the user; it is also an economic, environmental and sustainability interest. Safe operation must cover and manage the whole lifetime of the structure, which is a complex task. Such a system is the domestic high-pressure natural gas transmission pipeline system, of which the steel pipeline itself is a major part, with a length of approximately 6000 km. Damage to pipelines has highlighted the need for new 21st century responses to emerging challenges. The age of the pipeline has a negative impact on the occurrence of damages, while the development of technical and technological culture has a positive impact. We can be satisfied if the result is positive, i.e. if the response to the challenges reduces the relative frequency of incidents. The key to the response is to ensure the integrity of pipelines through a systems approach and complex IT support. Integrity is the ability to operate of a structure at any point in its life-cycle, including the reliable knowledge of the current state, potential threats and all relevant elements of their management. Identifying and detecting a threat (non-destructive testing), mapping its assessment principles and options, performing the assessment and then reflecting this through performance indicators, together define the direction to follow. Such a complex task is unthinkable without sufficient data in terms of quantity and quality, and special attention must be paid to the availability of such data. The solution is the Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS), which combines the technical and technological state of the art with the compromise between reasonable risk-taking and the striving of safety. This publication presents the domestic PIMS that is about to be implemented and its key elements. The logic of the regulation in line with leading international practice is described, the levels of assessment of threats to integrity are presented, and a flowchart of the operation of the envisaged system is presented too.

Open access

Abstract

During their studies, Roma university students enter into a milieu different from their family environment and this can affect their identity. In our research, we used life story interviews (N = 108) to study Roma university students who attended Roma College for Advanced Studies (RCAS). We were interested in how their identities were formed and what role their family Roma identity strategy and the RCAS played in it. In our analysis, we divided the Roma students into five categories (separated, integrated, assimilated, negative, marginalized) and these identity strategies were also used to determine the respondents' family identity. In the sample, the largest proportion consisted of those who had an integrated personal and family Roma identity strategy. The majority of the respondents had not changed identity strategies and also interpreted their personal identity according to the family pattern. Some of the Roma university students went to RCAS specifically to strengthen their Roma identity. Overall, it can be said that the family Roma identity strategy can be linked to the development of personal identity, and the RCAS can have a role in preserving and strengthening the Roma identity of university students.

Open access