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In the broadest sense, social sciences encompass society, human behavior, and its influence on the world. Social sciences help understand how society works, ranging from the causes of unemployment, economic growth, what makes people happy, and so on. The information it provides is vital for governments and policymakers, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities.

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NMR characterization of the permeability and structure of Boda Claystone Formation (BCF)

BCF - reservoir rock by NMR

A Bodai Aleurolit Formáció (BAF) permeabilitásának és szerkezetének NMR jellemzése

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Vanda Papp
,
Róbert Janovics
, and
Mónika Kéri

Summary

High-level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep geological repositories, for which a possible geological environment in Hungary is the Boda Claystone Formation. In the repository site selection, the geochemical investigation of the host rock is necessary including the structural characterization. In this study, the porosity (p%~1.5% and 5.84%) and the T2cutoff value (0.12 ms and 0.10 ms) of two siliciclastic rock was determined by desktop low-field NMR, the value of which differed from the 3 ms accepted for clay-bound water and the 33 ms for movable water in clastic reservoirs. Based on the T2cutoff, the producible porosity was found to be high, however, based on the T2 distributions, the bound-water types dominate the composition of the water phase of the rock.

Open access

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the switch to online training exposed the digital divide between higher education institutions, with some significantly superior to others in terms of equipment and experience, as well as among students enrolled in the same institution. The purpose of this study was to investigate online training and educational inequality in TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) delivery in Kenya, during the COVID-19. A total of 16 unstructured discussions were conducted in four TVET institutions in the Western Kenya Region. Each college organized four conversations (two males only and two females only groups). The study took into account various reports and literature to provide the background and analyze the data to respond to the research questions. Additionally, the study collected data through desk reviews, unstructured conversations, reports, emails, WhatsApp messages, and phone calls that aid in situation analysis, utilizing a qualitative research methodology of situational analysis. Lack of experience with online training by trainers and trainees, along with inadequate training assistance, resulted in feelings of anxiety and unease. Trainees were frequently incapable of self-regulation and remained motivated to learn at home and they were unsure about the quality of the materials accessible to them. Recommendations on four major issues are given: providing complete support to trainees, trainers, and other institution personnel; improving remote and online training; ensuring policy certainty, implementation, and monitoring; and discovering and implementing effective interventions and innovations.

Open access

Abstract

International student satisfaction has become a widely studied topic with the emergence of English-language study programs in higher education institutions (HEIs). Numerous studies arose in connection with understanding what factors influence international student satisfaction, determining service elements as crucial indicators of student satisfaction. There is limited research on understanding international student satisfaction in Hungary, explicitly focusing on degree-seeking mobility. Therefore, the current study analyses international students' satisfaction through the example of a Hungarian university to uncover the factors affecting satisfaction and to determine points for improvement of unsatisfied needs. Based on the questionnaire findings, an importance–satisfaction analysis (ISA) was conducted to depict international students' pain points visually. The focus group discussion and the affinity diagrams revealed that international students need more free-time activities and opportunities to connect outside the university. In addition, usability testing highlighted crucial missing information from the university mentor organisation webpage, while the results of the online questionnaire showed that there is an urgent need to develop university services. Besides determining points for improvement, this study provides insights into utilising a comprehensive, novel methodology in researching degree-seeking mobile students in Hungary.

Open access

Abstract

The main concern of this article is to introduce the concept of the authentic gesture as a vital, largely self-determined expression of the child and to make it fruitful for art education. Because of the assumed educational importance of the concept, some hints to other learning areas will also be given. This should be done from a historical and systematic perspective against the background of relevant literature, above all the German-language literature and some other important voices, in which a number of further leading ideas can be found and discussed. Explicated in this way, the concept at issue leads to the question of the unknown per se, to which art education and education in general should open itself. This means that education opens up to something that, in its material and/or social form, evades a final assessment. Something enigmatic thus comes into view, because the unknown, by definition, is beyond exact description and extern evaluation. However, in and for the modern world, it can be paraphrased with a secular approach of transcendence as an inner-psychic space which is withdrawn from instrumental intervention including educational intervention and which must be protected at all costs as a central condition of freedom and human dignity.

Open access

Abstract

This paper argues that the mitigation of the normative pedagogy in the value heterogenous world has elicited the need to rephrase the teacher's role. While this study cannot reflect on all issues that have recently arisen, some core questions are addressed to examine the teacher-student relationship and highlight a few principles that teachers need to be aware of. This study links to previous works on responsive pedagogy, accepting the ambition to respond to individual needs but also discussing collective terms such as human freedom and cultural differences, which impact children's perspectives.

Accordingly, this paper is an attempt to provide an interdisciplinary framework based on educational philosophy, psychological evidence, and ethnographic studies to discuss the conflict between individual and community interests, basic human needs, individual differences, and ethical issues arising from diverse cultural backgrounds, and some contemporary phenomena that have affected the operations of schools. As a result, following a critical review of the introduced concepts, this paper suggests considering some educational responsibilities that may improve teachers' practice in the 21st century.

Open access

Solidarity – An aim of education?

Reflections on a vital topic of education for sustainable development (ESD) from the perspective of a responsive pedagogy

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Author:
Alexander Maier

Abstract

The demand for solidarity is made today by different social actors, e.g., from politics, religion or philosophy. Especially in the context of climate change and its social and ecological consequences, the demand for solidarity plays a major role. It is often referred to as the climate justice crisis. Therefore, solidarity can also be understood as a goal of education for sustainable development (ESD). In this context, ESD, which also sees itself as a concept of transformational education, prefers above all elements of a disruptive pedagogy through which students are to be led to new perspectives - for example, to solidarity with the victims of the consequences of climate change. The article takes up this concern of ESD, but would like to look at the educational goal of solidarity from the perspective of a responsive pedagogy. The starting point for this would not be the goals of ESD in the first place, but the needs of children and young people, as Ehrenhard Skiera has highlighted them in the context of his responsive pedagogy. Against this background, the article asks about the possibilities and preconditions for learning processes based on solidarity.

Open access

Application of color-coded Digital Variance Angiography in endovascular interventions

Színkódolt Digitális Variancia Angiográfia alkalmazása az endovaszkuláris intervenció területén

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
István Góg
,
János P. Kiss
,
Péter Sótonyi
, and
Krisztián Szigeti

Summary.

Digital Variance Angiography (shortly DVA) is a novel imaging technology used in the field of interventional radiology. Its use is primarily studied in lower-limb vascular diagnostics and interventions and based on the promising results of in-silico and retrospective clinical studies, a prospective clinical trial has been performed showing the remarkable dose-lowering capability of this technology, which is an all-time important goal in medicine regarding radiation safety. DVA can also be combined with a relatively un-investigated technology called color-coded angiography, which is based on visualizing flow related functional data to increase the efficiency and safety of vascular interventions. The use of this technique has been investigated during prostatic artery embolization with promising results and a retrospective analysis of lower-limb color-coded angiographies was also performed to compare color-coded DVA with color-coded digital subtraction angiography. The results of the latter investigation showed that color-coded DVA can reproduce the same data as a previously marketed method.

Összefoglalás.

A “Digital Variance Angiography” (DVA) az intervenciós radiológiában alkalmazott új módszer, melynek alkalmazási lehetőségeit döntően alsóvégtagi intervenciók során vizsgálták. Korábban végzett in silico és retrospektív vizsgálatok alapján felmerült, hogy a módszer segítségével a klinikai gyakorlatban alkalmazott sugárdózisnál alacsonyabb dózissal végezhető képalkotás, ezen hipotézist pedig egy nemrégiben végzett prospektív klinikai vizsgálat eredményei erősítették meg. A vizsgálat során a DVA módszerrel 70%-os sugárdózis csökkentést értek el, mely alapján elmondható, hogy a módszer jelentős mértékben képes hozzájárulni az intervenciós radiológiai tevékenységek biztonságosabbá tételéhez.

A DVA módszer mellett munkacsoportunk az ún. színkódolt angiográfia (“color-coded angiography”) vizsgálatával is foglalkozik, mely korábbi tanulmányok alapján számos területen adhat kiegészítő klinikai információt a vizsgált érbetegségről, a módszer egyértelmű klinikai előnyei azonban megfelelő klinikai vizsgálatok és vizsgálati protokollok hiányában jelenleg nem ismertek. A módszer kombinálható a DVA módszerrel, ennek gyakorlatban való vizsgálata céljából munkacsoportunk prosztata artéria embolizációs beavatkozások során alkalmazta a színkódolt DVA technikát. A tanulmány eredményei felvetették a színkódolt DVA („color-coded DVA”, „ccDVA”) klinikai előnyét a prosztata daganatok tápláló ereinek azonosításában, mely az embolizációs beavatkozások kulcs eleme. A vizsgálat limitáló tényezője volt, hogy csak kvalitatív analízist végeztünk, a ccDVA módszer által biztosított kvantitatív paraméterek nem kerültek elemzésre, emellett a módszer nem színkódolt technológiával került összevetésre.

Alsóvégtagi intervenciók során készült képanyag retrospektív vizsgálata során a színkódolt DVA más, klinikai gyakorlatban már elérhető technológiával (Siemens „iFlow”) való összehasonlítását is elvégeztük. A mérés során a beavatkozás előtt és után készült képeken a ballonos tágításra kijelölt érszakasztól proximálisan és disztálisan mérési pontok kerültek felvételre, ahol idő-intenzitás görbék kerültek kiolvasásra. A görbékből csúcs elnyelődés („peak attenuation”) és görbe alatti terület („area under curve”) paraméterek számítása történt meg. A ccDVA és iFlow módszerek eredményei közötti abszolút és relatív különbségeket számoltuk, illetve korreláció analízist végeztünk. Két különböző képalkotó protokoll alapján csoportosítottuk a vizsgálati anyagot. Eredményeink azt mutatták, hogy a színkódolt DVA bizonyos feltételek mellett képes jól reprodukálni a más technológia által biztosított klinikai adatokat. Az alacsony elemszám miatt biztos következtetéseket nem tudtunk levonni, azonban egy esetleges prospektív vizsgálat megtervezéséhez szükséges lényeges megfigyelésekre tettünk szert.

Open access

Diagnosztikumfejlesztés a sertés parvovírus 27a törzse ellen

Development a dual diagnostic PCR method against porcine parvovirus 27a

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Vivien Tamás
,
István Kiss
,
G. Zalán Homonnay
,
István Mészáros
,
Ferenc Olasz
, and
Zoltán Zádori

Összefoglalás.

A sertés parvovírus (PPV1) súlyos szaporodási zavarokat okoz sertésekben. Az elmúlt két évtizedben egy sajátos, új genotípus jelent meg Európában (27a). Felvetődött, hogy a PPV1-27a klaszter tagjai hátrányosan befolyásolhatják a PPV1 elleni hatékony vakcinázást. 93 GenBankban található részleges vagy teljes PPV1 nukleotid- és fehérjeszekvencia alapján megerősítettük, hogy a 27a klaszter valóban megkülönböztethető a faj más tagjaitól, és 5 jellemző pontmutációt határoztunk meg. A genetikai különbségek alapján kifejlesztettünk egy kettős allélspecifikus polimeráz láncreakciót a 27a klaszter tagjainak más PPV1 törzsektől való egyszerű és gyors megkülönböztetésére. Az érzékenyítés és a felhasználóbarátabbá tétel érdekében a módszert pedig továbbfejlesztettük qPCR alkalmazásra.

Summary.

Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) is a significant infectious agent responsible for severe reproductive failure in pigs. Until the 2000s, there was limited systematic study of genetic changes in the PPV genome, as it was believed to be highly immunologically stable. Vaccines developed from “ancient” strains were thought to provide comprehensive protection against all PPV variants. However, in the past two decades, a novel genotype, PPV-27a, has emerged in Europe, becoming the prototype of a distinct genetic cluster. Concerns were raised that members of the PPV-27a cluster might negatively impact effective vaccination against PPV.

Accurate identification and quantification of 27a viruses are crucial for understanding the biological significance of these variants. To provide an updated and reliable definition of 27a, 93 databank-deposited nucleotide and protein sequences of the VP2 of various PPV isolates were aligned. It was confirmed that the 27a cluster could be distinguished from other species members, though some divergences were noted compared to earlier defined genetic markers. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that five closely linked point mutations (261C, 682G, 1240T, 1255C, and 1306A) differentiate cluster members from other PPV variants.

Based on these genetic differences, a dual allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to easily and quickly differentiate 27a cluster members from other PPV strains. Two of the defined point mutations (261C and 682G) were utilized to create an allele-specific primer set (PS1) for the development of a 27a-specific asPCR system. The dual PCR had a detection limit of <1.66 × 104 copies/reaction. To enhance sensitivity and user-friendliness, the method was adapted for quantitative PCR (qPCR) with fluorescent probes. The sensitivity improvement of the method was approximately two logs (<1.66 × 104 copies/reaction for dual PCR versus <2.40 × 102 copies/reaction for dual qPCR).

To validate the PCR method, clinical samples were collected from cases of reproductive failure involving various types of fetal losses, including mummified or aborted fetuses. Both the dual PCR and dual qPCR were used to distinguish 27a and non-27a PPV viruses in these field samples. Thirty-one samples were investigated and from these twenty-six were found to be 27a positive with at least one of the methods. Remarkably, in eight of the fourteen cases, 27a-type viruses were detected, indicating a significant presence of these viruses in the samples.

The use of allele-specific PCR primers allows for the rapid differentiation of 27a-type viruses from other PPV genotypes. Depending on user preference, any of the PCR methods developed based on these findings can be utilized as diagnostic tools in veterinary practice. Additionally, this versatile PCR system’s application can facilitate field studies contributing to a clear assessment of virus prevalence and a better understanding of 27a biology.

Open access