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In the broadest sense, social sciences encompass society, human behavior, and its influence on the world. Social sciences help understand how society works, ranging from the causes of unemployment, economic growth, what makes people happy, and so on. The information it provides is vital for governments and policymakers, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities.

Social Sciences and Law

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Abstract

Brand names are prevalent in our society: they influence consumption and future buying behaviour. As research has shown, children are also aware of brands and brand names, and brand names learned in childhood can influence their attitude towards the known brands.

The collaboration of various scientific fields including pedagogy, psycholinguistics, and marketing communication enabled us to investigate the appearance of brand names in the verbal consciousness of 4–5-year-old kindergarten children of different nationalities.

In the frames of this research, brand names were identified by the application of an interdisciplinary and comparative word association experiment conducted with 100 Hungarian, 100 Russian, and 100 Laotian children, from the 4–5-year-old age group. The experiment is a traditional word association experiment and the research design was not set into the context of any brands or consumption habits research.

Results show that in the experiment, several globally known brand names were elicited (e.g. Lego, My Little Pony, Batman), however significant cross-cultural dissimilarities were also revealed. Most activated brand names can be connected to the world of children (e.g. toy brands), but in the experiment spontaneously elicited brands reflect not only the conception of childhood but also the society and culture surrounding the children.

Open access

Corrigendum: Demencia prevenció: A korai diagnózistól a személyre szabott intervencióig

Correction: Dementia Prevention: From Early Diagnosis to Personalised Intervention

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Annamária Manga, Menta Havadi-Nagy, Orsolya Székely, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Open access

Abstract

Taiwan government consolidated the kindergarten and daycare systems in 2012, and launched a new national curriculum framework, Early Childhood Education & Care Curriculum Framework (ECECCF), as a guidance for quality early childhood education programs. Research has shown that the effects of a new educational program highly depended on the fidelity of its implementation. It has thus been suggested that the degree of implantation of a program needs be evaluated before conducting further program evaluation.

Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct an Early Childhood Education Curriculum Framework Implementation Scale (ECECCF Implementation Scale) for Taiwanese preschool programs. 216 preschool classes in Taiwan were involved. The study consisted of two stages: In Stage 1, the exploratory factor analysis showed that the implementation of ECECCF could mostly be explained by four factors, and all the factors extracted had acceptable reliability and validity. In Stage 2, rubrics were constructed for each item and factor analysis was re-conducted, resulting in a 19-item scale of four factors (Awareness and Adjustment, Learning Centers Arrangement, Teaching Guidance and Curriculum Development). The reliability and validity tests shows that: (1) the final version of the ECECCF Implementation Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, explaining 62.9% of the total variance; (2) the criterion validity indicated that the ECECCF scale can not only be used for assessing the implementation of ECECCF, but also can be used for understanding teachers’ needs in instructional and operational curriculum for further professional development.

Open access

Introductory article for

Special issue: Conceptions of early childhood and institutions in a global context

Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Authors: Orsolya Endrődy, Bahbibi Rahmatullah, and István Lénárt

Abstract

The recognition of the importance of early childhood education (ECE) has been growing continuously in recent years. Early childhood institutions are where professional pedagogy and child-rearing practices meet first in someones' life (Tobin et al., 2009), it has great significance in education. Acknowledgement of the existence of the needs of young children's education is evident, however, we have limited chances to compare different education systems outside of Europe and the United States. Realizing this situation, we came to the conclusion that it is highly necessary and required to publish such an analytical issue in the Hungarian Education Research Journal. Teacher's views and their narratives of childhood are relevant if we aim to understand the fundamental differences of ECE institutions in any region or country. In our present investigation we collected data from Hungary, Laos and Malaysia in order to acquire greater knowledge on the conceptions of early childhood in the three countries. We assumed however that the teachers' qualification and the early childcare system is diverse, yet we have found similarities among the teachers' perception.

Open access

Abstract

This paper addresses the current educational rights of the Roma community (in the Czech Republic). The aim of the paper is to present the educational system, its advantages and disadvantages and the ways in which the legal system supports educational rights. The second part of the paper focuses on the exercising and negotiation of rights in the contemporary social context. The work is based on ethnographic research conducted since 2005 by the Levínská, Bittnerová, & Doubek team in socially excluded localities. The data analysis is based on the theoretical concept of cognitive anthropology and the cultural models theory (D’Andrare, & Strauss, 1992). Cultural models and the ways in which parents, students and teachers negotiate rights are presented. The tension between rationality and morality (Bateson, 1958) is demonstrated by the models’ endurance; communication, cognitive and material support; and independence. Although the system itself provides equal opportunities, the prospects that education affords are a fundamental problem. One obstacle is racial bias, which influences members of the dominant group. Another significant obstacle is poverty and the costs of higher education, which are beyond the financial capacity of poor families. A third obstacle is knowledge, which is insufficient in excluded localities and poor families, and that families are unable to give students adequate support in navigating the full scope of student responsibilities.

Open access

Abstract

In the last two decades more and more studies have emphasized the central role of teachers' social and emotional competence in their teaching performance. In spite of this, there are not enough programs focused on developing teachers' social and emotional competence that are integrated into teacher education. This is particularly true in Vietnam where the concepts of social and emotional competence (SEC) and social and emotional learning (SEL) are rather new. In the study, we present four main emerging impact aspects of teachers' SEC including teachers' well-being and career motivation, teacher-student relationship, classroom management, and the effectiveness of SEL implementation. The article gives some recommendations for teacher education regarding SEC issue in Vietnam as well. These recommendations would contribute to develop a new approach of teacher education to meet the country's new general education curriculum enacted in 2020.

Open access

Abstract

During the research entitled Teaching Creative Music, the focus is on getting to know creative music, which is becoming more and more widespread in Hungary, however using it, but still takes up little space in our music education, and its impact in high school and university environments is limited. The Kodály Concept contains a number of well-established practices also László Sáry’s collection of Creative Music Exercises (Sáry, 1999), mainly evoking Christian Wolff and John Cage, evoking the work of Stockhausen, also works well, but there is no teaching aid for the secondary school classes (9-12) based on different combinations of systematic vocal and rhythmic tasks – although in the 2017 NAT [“National Curriculum”], creative music activity as a reproduction is included as a requirement among the development tasks. There is also less experience among those pursuing higher music studies in terms of methodological preparation at the national level.

We believe that much more student-based assignments should be used in high school singing and music education so that their classroom motivation and musical creativity can develop further, and their subject-related knowledge deepen.

We are interested in the “rehabilitation” of this field, as there are a lot of opportunities in the creative music exercises, during which repetitive activity and musical creativity are essential, and Odena and Welch have already studied the latter (Odena–Welch, 2007).

Music pedagogical research supports the need to study the field, as high school students are undermotivated in their lessons and their musical creativity is not sufficiently exploited (Deliège–Wiggins, 2006).

In this article, we would like to explore an analysis of some of the practices of a creative music course over a semester in terms of how student activity and creativity changed during the 9 hours of the practice (measured with 3 groups per week). For all of this, we also use elements of Teachout and McKoy’s model, who examined music teacher attributes in terms of teacher success and failure.

Open access

Abstract

Anxiety has commonly been regarded as one of the most significant affective obstacles in language learning achievement, and has been the subject matter of many second language researches (MacIntyre & Gregersen, 2012; Huang, 2012; Hewitt & Stefenson, 2011; Riasati, 2011; Horwitz, 2001).

The primary purpose of the present study is to explore the anxiety levels of a class of students studying at the University of Dunaújváros and to investigate their attitude towards acquiring a second/foreign language. On the basis of the information gained the study is aiming at revealing some degree of correlation between students’ anxiety and their academic achievement.

Responses to the Foreign Language Anxiety Scale show that the relatively high levels of anxiety among these participants are related to the worry about (1) the consequences of failing their foreign language class, (2) thinking that the others are better at languages and (3) communication with native speakers of the foreign language. However, the results on the relationship between anxiety levels and academic achievements show no significant correlation between these two variables, which leads us to the conclusion that the participants’ anxiety levels do not exceed the level which would have a negative impact on their academic results.

Open access

Abstract

Our study seeks to outline the defining trends and phenomena of Hungarian public education and teacher training – with a focus on Hungarian history teaching – between 1990 and 2020. The authors were, on various levels and to various degrees, participants, and at times influential actors, in the processes presented in this study. From this, and as a consequence of their convictions, they advocate the aspect of continuity in the interest of maintaining Hungarian traditions, as well as the perspectives of renewal in the interest of implementing new Hungarian and foreign thinking, approaches and innovations.

This mosaic-like overview seeks to outline the main pillars of the context of Hungarian history teaching with the use of fundamental professional literature from the period on pedagogy and history didactics. The focus of the study is history teaching, and for a better understanding of its processes we highlight some important policy decisions and documents. We wish to show the education policy, pedagogical and educational-methodological environment in which the journal articles that provide the backbone of the volume were formulated.

Open access

Abstract

Designed for three age groups, Ko Nipa Africa! – Teach about Africa! awareness-raising and sensitization education program is aimed at developing social competencies, especially empathy, social sensitivity, and tolerance in childhood. In addition, its main task is to transform the misconceptions and prejudices about Africa present in Hungary with active learning. The series of programs seeks to bring the diverse cultural, natural, and historical values of the African continent closer to the younger generation using the approach of global education, and the method, and tools of experiential pedagogy. Since the founding of the program series in 2012, it has been tested, implemented, and reworked in dozens of educational institutions, and several studies have demonstrated positive changes in students' thinking as the result of sensitization.

Open access

Abstract

The study aims to determine the status of organizing science activities for preschoolers aged 5–6 and teachers' views on improving science education quality for 5–6-year-olds in Vietnam. The research was undertaken on 150 preschool teachers working with 5–6 years old classes in 24 public preschools in 3 provinces, including Quang Binh, Quang Tri, and Thua Thien Hue. Mixed methods, including surveys, interviews with teachers, and observation of science discovery activities, were used. According to the study results, science education activities were regularly organized in the preschools with specific plans following the school-year curriculum and the national ECE framework of Vietnam. Teachers used various methods and forms for organizing scientific activities, but the classroom environment was dominant. The participation of family and society in science activities at preschools was limited. Teachers also highlight some measures to improve the quality of science education in preschools, including providing necessary facilities, equipment, toys for preschools and increasing modern teaching methods. The findings of this study provide necessary evidence on science education for preschool children in practical terms as the basis for further studies on solutions to improve the efficiency of science education for preschool children in Vietnam.

Open access

Abstract

Thirty years have passed since Germany ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and is now on the verge of incorporating it into its Basic Law. This article takes a closer look at recent developments in strengthening children's rights in Germany, focusing on vulnerable children and youth, such as members of the Romani minority, and their educational development. While some improvements have been made in education, the COVID-19 pandemic brought new dimensions into play and exacerbated their vulnerability.

Open access

Abstract

Secondary school students are the members of gen Z, while their teachers mostly belong to gen X. Due to multitasking in virtual space, dotcom kids' attention, work memory, and brain activity are changing. Their vision of the future, attitude, and priorities are entirely different from those of earlier generations. The children of gen Z question and reject traditional authority; however, they are creative and innovative. In contrast to this, both the knowledge, the attitude, and the value system of their teachers are significantly different from those of the net generation.

The purpose of the research was to map adolescents' opinions about generation stereotypes as well as what their teachers think about them – according to the students. The anonymous digital questionnaire was spread in social media; adolescents assessed frequently mentioned statements about gen Z. According to the results, it can be claimed that there are some stereotypes, especially about the usage of digital tools and lasting concentration, which were proved to be true by adolescents. However, youngsters rejected stereotypes referring to the instability of their future perspective, behaviour on the sites of social media, and the quality of relationships. On the other hand, they believe that their teachers' opinion about them is different in many ways, such as in online communication, emotional attitudes, and digital safety.

Open access

Abstract

This article focuses on article 28 (right to education), article 29 (goals of education) and article 30 (children from minority or indigenous groups) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and their implementation in the several national policies of Western Europe, especially the UK and Ireland, and to a lesser extent, France. The present research looked more particularly into the situation of children from two communities: Gypsy, Roma and Travellers (referred to as GRT) and Irish Travellers. Although they are from different backgrounds, the analysis proved relevant because of the bridges that exist between their cultures and lifestyles, and because of their minority status within larger dominant communities, placing their children in the frontline of the UNCRC battle. The text of the UNCRC itself was a starting point. The research was mainly based on a series of reports from governments, from organizations such as the Traveller Movement, on articles from newspapers, and testimonies from GRT children and Irish Travellers. The results showed that the implementation of articles 28 to 30 of the UNCRC was being by and large slowly carried out by the countries under study. Yet, national disparities were evident. Also, their national policies revealed different contexts. Ireland seemed to be paving the way for the inclusion of minorities within the educational system.

Open access

Corrigendum: Erőművek életciklus-elemzése a fajlagos anyagfelhasználás tükrében

Correction: Life-cycle analysis of power plants in the light of specific material use

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Zoltán Korényi
Open access

Abstract

This paper seeks to compare the academic model of ‘militant democracy’ advocated in 1937 by Karl Loewenstein with the real political developments that had taken place only a few years before in Austria, under the responsibility of Engelbert Dollfuß. It further aims to to reveal the ‘missing link' between the actions (mere plans included) of - in particular - Catholic political leaders in Germany 1931/1933 (Heinrich Brüning, Franz v. Papen, Heinrich Held), directed at least from 1932 onwards in particular against the rise of the National Socialist movement, well-known both to Loewenstein and Dollfuß. It is argued that Loewenstein's model contains serious theoretical flaws and paves, at least when taken literally, the way to dangerous exaggerations, while the approach of the Dollfuß government was far more balanced. Any assessment of Dollfuß’ measures that – as is still the case in Austria – only focuses on the breach of the constitution then in force (the main document being the Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, B-VG) as such, without offering a better alternative to prevent the National Socialist danger is unconvincing, not only from a moral, but also, and in particular, from a legal perspective.

Full access
Hungarian Educational Research Journal
Authors: Bahbibi Rahmatullah, Norshakila Muhamad Rawai, Suzani Mohamad Samuri, and Sopia Md Yassin

Abstract

Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is commonly understood in Malaysia as providing care and education for young children from the age of newborn until about six years old, before they enter formal elementary education. Various curriculum and teaching approaches were developed to enhance children's learning experiences based on their needs, age, and ability to support all three main developmental aspects: cognitive (language development and problem-solving skills), physical (development of gross and fine motor skills), and social-emotional (interaction with others). This paper will provide an overview of Malaysia's ECCE from its early implementation until today based on literature review of related research conducted in Malaysia. The definition of ECCE in Malaysia, its history and development, ECCE providers and type of institutions, current ECCE curriculum, and ECCE related acts in Malaysia are presented. In addition, the challenges faced, its consequences, and future course of ECCE in Malaysia are also discussed. It is envisaged that this article would be a platform for the relevant stakeholders worldwide to gain an insight on the Malaysian ECCE, serve as a benchmark and act as a reference for their respective ECCE settings.

Open access

Abstract

The paper aims at providing an overview of hate crimes through an interdisciplinary lens based not only on theories but also empirical research results. The paper first deals with the central components of hate crimes: prejudice and aggression. Not only the classical social-psychological theories of these phenomena are discussed but also some newer ones. As hate crimes do not occur in a vacuum, the next chapter of the paper deals with the social, political, cultural context and factors that facilitate or impede the occurrence of hate crimes. Community disorganization, urban ecology, racial balance, residential stability, economic conditions, and the role of the media and the internet are discussed in detail. The last chapter of the paper deals with the perpetrators of hate crimes, let them be lonely ones or members of organized hate groups. The paper demonstrates that the investigation of hate crimes can only occur in an interdisciplinary setting that can simultaneously take into account legal, social, cultural, and political factors.

Open access

Abstract

The profound changes in both everyday life and the legal system over the last hundred years have transformed civil law as well. While the notion that civil law concerns relationships of private persons still prevails, the traditional public law–civil law division now seems questionable. This paper points out some of the key changes in civil law within the framework of the transformation of the legal system as a whole, and seeks to outline a different approach that may help better to understand the present situation.

Open access

Abstract

The pandemic caused a new digital scheme of work to be implemented in higher educational institutes to avoid physical contact, which is referred to as emergency remote teaching in the literature (Hodges, Moore, Lockee, Trust, & Bond, 2020). The inevitable consequence of emergency remote teaching (later on ERT) was that the students’ inter-and extra organisational relationships decreased significantly (Pusztai & Győri, 2021). Based on the results of previous studies, we know that the lack of student relationships is strongly related to ineffectiveness (Astin, 1993; Pusztai, 2015; Tinto, 1975), which was also identified during the period of ERT (Pusztai & Győri, 2021). In the current study, firstly, we hypothesised that the students’ social interactions, which were accomplished by video gaming, could compensate for isolation (Pisan, 2007) and improve their effectiveness. Secondly, we hypothesised that video gaming might prove ineffective due to stressful and uncertain periods as well as avoidance of activity. In our study, we applied database analysis (Learning Alone database, N = 677) and half-structured interviews (N = 19). In the quantitative sample, we identified that increased gaming time (compared to the time spent before the pandemic) was related to persistence reduction, whereas similar results were obtained with the reduced playing time. In addition, the interview participants reinforced that they used video gaming as a tool to maintain their relationships during ERT, and they tended to do so in their relationships with other students as well. Thus it can be said that video gaming is an extracurricular activity that could affect academic effectiveness positively and negatively at the same time.

Open access

Abstract

Hate crimes poison societies by threatening individual rights, human dignity and equality. They effect private lives, or even victims’ life and limb. Due to their ripple effect, they terrify whole communities, reinforce tensions between social groups, ultimately jeopardising peaceful coexistence. No society is immune from the signs of hatred, but whether they get tamed or whether prejudices are deepened, depends on the social measures that are applied vis-à-vis the phenomenon. The state’s reaction creates norms and will informs society about the current acceptable standards. European expectations help forming these. Standards developed by the European Court of Human Rights include the obligations to ensure that hate against social groups as a motivation is considered an aggravating circumstance or leads to penalty enhancement. States must also ensure that national investigation authorities show special vigilance to explore and unmask the bias motives behind hate crimes. Such European expectations still leave a wide room of manoeuvre to respond to hate crimes efficiently and dissuasively. But irrespectively of the national codification method, for legal provisions to reach the desired outcome, certain social preconditions must be met. For hate crime laws or provisions to work, states must reach a certain level of maturity from the viewpoint of democracy, fundamental rights in general and the rule of law, where guaranteeing judicial independence is an absolute minimum.

Open access

Az oktatási részvétel előrejelzése.

Demográfiai folyamatok és oktatáspolitikai beavatkozások

Participation in Education in the Context of Demographic Trends and Educational Policy Interventions

Educatio
Authors: Krisztián Széll and Csaba Tóth G.

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunkban arra keressük a választ, hogy az elkövetkező évtizedekben miként befolyásolhatják a hazai demográfiai folyamatok és oktatáspolitikai beavatkozások az oktatást igénybe vevők létszámát. Népesség-előreszámításaink szerint a következő évtizedekben folytatódik a hazai népesség 1980 óta tartó csökkenése. Elemzésünkből látható, hogy hosszú távon valamennyi képzési szinten csökkeni fog a nevelési-oktatási rendszert igénybe vevők létszáma, hozzátéve, hogy az oktatáspolitikának van némi mozgástere a létszámok alakításában. A várható létszámcsökkenés jelentős megtakarítást indukálhat, a kérdés az, hogy ezt mire használjuk fel, visszaforgatjuk vagy kivonjuk az oktatási rendszerből.

Summary. In our study, we seek to answer the question of how demographic trends and educational policy interventions in the coming decades may affect the number of people in education. Our population projections show that the decline in the domestic population since 1980 will continue in the coming decades. Our analysis shows that in the long term, the number of people in education and training at all levels of education will fall, adding that education policy has some room for manoeuvre in adjusting the number of students. The expected reduction in the number of students could generate substantial savings, the question is how to use them, whether to reinvest them or to withdraw them from the education system.

Open access

Diverzitás a felsőoktatásban: lehetőségek és kihívások

Diversity in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges

Educatio
Author: Márton Bagyura
Open access

Egyetemi tanári pályázatok minimális publikációs követelményeinek változása és várható hatása a társadalomtudományok területén

Changes in the Minimum Publication Requirements of Applying for Positions of University Full Professor and Their Expected Impact in the Field of Social Sciences

Educatio
Authors: Péter Sasvári and Brigitta Ludányi

Összefoglaló. Az egyetemi tanári pályázat összeállításához és értékeléséhez összeállított, a Magyar Akkreditációs Bizottság által elfogadott módosított útmutató 2020. szeptember 1-jétől lépett hatályba. A módosított követelményrendszer vizionálja a jelenlegi értékmérők átalakulását. A tudományos teljesítmény súlypontjaivá a folyóirat-publikációk váltak, azonban a hazai közlemények önmagukban nem elegendőek, a nemzetközi láthatóság és minőségi rangsor feltétele a nemzetközi publikálás, amely egyúttal a tudományos fokozatok elérésének is feltételévé vált. Jelen tanulmány a gazdaságtudomány, valamint a társadalomtudományok területén működő magyarországi egyetemek oktatóinak publikációs tevékenységén keresztül vizsgálja a módosított követelményrendszer hatását és következményeit az egyetemi tanári pályázat, valamint tágabb értelemben a nemzetközi tudományos elismertség vonatkozásában.

Summary. The modified Guidelines for the Compilation and Evaluation of the Applications for the Position of University Full Professors approved by the Hungarian Accreditation Committee was to enter into force on the 1st of September in 2020. The reshaped requirement system envisions the transformation of current assessment criteria. Journal publications have become the focus of scientific performance, however, publications in domestic journals alone are not enough; apart from being required for achieving international scientific visibility and quality ranking, international publications have also become a prerequisite for scientific degrees. The present study examines the impact and consequences of the modified requirement system on university professorships and, in a broader sense, on their international scientific recognition through the publication activities of lecturers from Hungarian universities in the fields of Economics and social sciences.

Open access

A felsőoktatási kínálat és a munkaerőpiaci kereslet találkozása

Matching Higher Education Supply and Labour Market Demand

Educatio
Authors: László Gadár, Zsuzsanna Banász, Zsolt Tibor Kosztyán, and András Telcs

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunkban arra kerestük a választ, hogy a friss diplomások munkaerőpiaci kereslete és kínálata mennyire illeszkedik egymáshoz. Kísérletet tettünk arra, hogy képzési területenként meghatározzuk a legjellemzőbb korai karrierutat egy erre alkalmas hálózatban, modulok feltárásával. Megnéztük a szakterületre leginkább jellemző elhelyezkedésektől való eltérések területi és intézményi eloszlásait. Elemzéseinkhez a Diplomás Pályakövetési Rendszer adatait használtuk fel. A 2014–2015-ös tanév 1. félévében, alapképzésben, legalább abszolutóriumot szerzett (22 759 fő) hallgatók elhelyezkedési adatait vizsgáltuk. Részletesebben két szakterület (gazdaságtudomány, műszaki) képzéseit vizsgáltuk intézményi és megyei bontásokban.

Summary. In this study, we investigated the performance of the recent graduates in the labour market in terms of the supply and the demand matching. A network science based method was introduced to identify the most typical occupations of the graduate’s training area by exploring modules. We analyzed the spatial and institutional differences in the average early career path. Our analysis is based on the data of Hungarian Administrative Career Tracking System. We examined the employment data of students who obtained a bachelor diploma in the 2014–2015 academic year (22,759 people). We studied more specifically the early career path of graduates who graduated in the economic or engineering training area.

Open access

Gutenberg és a MOOC

Gutenberg and MOOC

Educatio
Author: Éva Berde

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunkban a Tömeges Nyitott Online Kurzusok (angolul: Massive Open Online Education, rövidítése MOOC) kialakulásával és óriási méretű növekedésével foglalkozunk. A rövid előzményekkel rendelkező, mai formájában 2011-ben startolt új típusú oktatási forma jelenleg már alapképzéses és mesterképzéses diplomát is ad. Ily módon beszélhetünk MOOC egyetemekről, melyek sok szerző szerint a Christensen-féle romboló újítás megtestesítői a felsőoktatásban. A MOOC népszerűsége egyúttal jelzi, hogy a napjainkban lezajló generációváltás egyben oktástechnikai változással is párosul. Cikkünkben összehasonlítjuk a MOOC egyetemek jóléti hatásait a Gutenberg-féle könyvnyomtatás jóléti hatásaival. A szolgáltatói oldalhoz kapcsolódóan pedig bemutatjuk a MOOC-platformok jelenleg működő finanszírozási modelljeit.

Summary. The study analyses the emergence and huge growth of the Massive Open Online Education. This new type of education which started in 2011 in its current form and so has only a very short history, now offers both bachelor’s and master’s degree. MOOC universities are seen by many authors as the embodiment of Christensen’s destructive innovation. At the same time, the popularity of MOOC indicates that the generational change taking place today is accompanied by a change in educational technology. The present paper compares the welfare effects of MOOC universities with the welfare effects of Gutenberg’s book printing. In connection with the service provider side, the paper presents the financing models of the MOOC platforms as well.

Open access

HANNA: Gamifikált digitális tananyag hátrányos helyzetű tanulók nyelvtanulásának segítésére

HANNA: Gamified Digital Supplementary Course – Material Developed for Pupils from Disadvantaged Backgrounds

Educatio
Authors: Kálmán Abari, Fruzsina Szabó, and Tünde Polonyi

Összefoglaló. Gyorsan változó világunkban az oktatásnak lépést kell tartania a változásokkal, ezért szükséges a módszertan folyamatos fejlesztése, a tanítási-tanulási folyamat harmonikusabb illesztése a változó igényekhez. Oktatásunk komoly problémája a tanulók teljesítményében mutatkozó hatalmas különbség, ezért fontos szempont a hátrányos helyzetű tanulók eredményességének javítása. Tanulmányunk célja, hogy bemutassunk egy új fejlesztésű digitális nyelvoktató tananyagot (HANNA), amely hátrányos helyzetű 5–7. osztályos diákoknak készült, tabletalapú, és angol nyelvet oktat a tanár facilitáló segítségével. Bemutatjuk, hogy a HANNA szerkezetének kialakításában milyen szempontokat vettünk figyelembe, ismertetjük a tananyag felépítését és a tanulók motiválása érdekében megvalósított gamifikált elemeket.

Summary. As the world of education and technology is changing at a breathtaking speed, the methodology needs to be constantly updated, while the process of teaching-learning has to adjust to fresh demands. One of the most severe issues in our education is the increasing gap between students’ achievements, especially in low socio-economic environments. The purpose of our study is to introduce a new digital language course-material (HANNA) created specifically for pupils in grade 5–7 in low SES backgrounds. It is primarily to be employed in English language classes (ELT), is operated on tablets, and teaches English with the facilitating work of the teacher. We explore the principles underlying HANNA, reveal its structure and mechanism while detailing the gamified elements of the programme.

Open access

Képzési háttér és gyermekvállalási tervek

Educational Background and Childbearing Plans

Educatio
Authors: Zsuzsanna Veroszta and Zoltán Györgyi

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány a népesedési folyamatok és az oktatási rendszer kölcsönhatásának értelmezési keretében mozog. Ezen belül a szülői végzettség egy lehetséges demográfiai következményével, a második gyermek vállalásának tervezésére gyakorolt hatásával foglalkozik. Az elemzés a KSH NKI Kohorsz ’18 Magyar Születési Kohorszvizsgálat várandósok körében gyűjtött adatain alapul. Az eredmények alapján az anyák második gyermek vállalására vonatkozó terveiben mindkét szülő végzettségének önálló hatása mutatható ki. A szülői iskolázottság szintje és a második gyermek tervezése között pozitív a kapcsolat. Legerősebb a felsőfokú végzettség hatása, mely mindkét szülő esetében növeli a második gyermek tervezésének esélyét. A szakképzettség alacsony szinten csökkenti, ugyanakkor a magasabb, középfok feletti szinteken növeli a gyermekvállalási kedvet. Az anyai tervekre az apa legmagasabb iskolai végzettsége is kimutatható hatással bír. Az eredmények oktatáspolitikai szempontú értelmezésében kiemelhető a magasabb végzettségi szintek gyermekvállalásra gyakorolt pozitív hatása, valamint a szakmunkásképzés felé irányítás potenciálisan kedvezőtlen demográfiai következményeinek azonosítása.

Summary. The interpretive framework of the study is the interaction between demographic trends and the education system. Within this, it addresses a possible demographic consequence of parental education, i.e., its impact on the planning of having a second child. The analysis is based on the data of Cohort ’18 Growing Up In Hungary, collected among pregnant women by the Hungarian Demographic Research Institute in 2018 as a part of a Hungarian Birth Cohort Study. According to the results, the plans of the expecting mothers to have a second child significantly affected by the educational attainment. As regards directions, there is a linear positive relationship between the level of education and the odds of planning a second child. Higher educational background of both parents shows the strongest effect on the plans. Elementary vocational training works against planning chances, but upper vocational background increases the desire to have a second child. Educational attainment of the partner also has a significant effect on maternal childbearing plans. From the point of view of educational policy, the positive effect of higher education degree on having children can be highlighted. Potentially unfavorable demographic consequences of the direction towards vocational training can be also highlighted by the results.

Open access

A kognitív készségek hatása a diplomás bérekre

The Impact of Cognitive Skills on Earnings of Graduates

Educatio
Author: Anna Sebők

Összefoglaló. Ebben a cikkben Magyarországon elsőként vizsgálom a kognitív készségek szerepét a felsőoktatási végzettség megtérülésében. Az adatok a KRTK Adatbank Kapcsolt Államigazgatási Paneladatbázisából származnak (Sebők 2019). Az adatforrás lehetővé teszi a különböző államigazgatási adatbázisok együttes vizsgálatát a magyar lakosság 50%-os mintáján. Az elemzésben a 2008-ban 10. osztályos középiskolások kompetenciaeredményeit mint a korai kognitív készségek proxy változóját használom a hosszú távú diplomás pályakövetéses vizsgálatomban. A tanulmányban az oktatás hozamszámítási megközelítései közül a kereseti függvények módszerét alkalmazom.

Summary. This paper investigates the role of cognitive skills in the return to higher education (HE) in Hungary. It makes use of linked Hungarian administrative data, which contains labor market and educational information of about 50 percent of the Hungarian population, for the period of 2003 and 2017 (Sebők 2019). The estimates are focused on the early carrier path of HE graduates who completed their National Assessment of Basic Competencies 10th class tests in 2008. The paper uses Mincer-type regression models with the test scores as the the proxy variables of cognitive skills.

Open access

Középiskolások nyelvtanulásának eredményessége az anyagi, kulturális és társadalmi tőke tükrében

The Language Learning Effectiveness of Secondary School Students in the Light of Economic, Cultural and Social Capital

Educatio
Author: Ildikó Novák

Összefoglaló. A hatékony középiskolai nyelvtanulás kérdésköre az elmúlt évtizedekben a hazai kutatások középpontjába került. Ezen tanulmány egy gimnáziumi és technikumi tanulók körében folytatott kérdőíves pilot kutatás eredményeit mutatja be, melynek célja volt feltárni a tanulók anyagi, kulturális és társadalmi tőkéje, valamint nyelvtanulási eredményessége között meglévő kapcsolatot. Az eredmények összefüggést mutattak a nyelvtanulási eredményesség és a szülők iskolai végzettsége, a családi könyvtár nagysága és a csoporttagság között, azonban az anyagi tőkével való összefüggés nem volt megfigyelhető.

Summary. The importance of effective foreign language learning in Hungarian secondary schools has become a key focus of research in the last decades. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire-based pilot study conducted among secondary grammar and secondary technical school students to explore the relationship between the language learning effectiveness of the students and their economic, cultural, and social capital. The results showed correlations between language learning effectiveness and parental education, the size of the family library as well as group membership; however, no correlation with economic capital was detected.

Open access
Open access

Népesség, szelekció, oktatás

Population, Selection, Education

Educatio
Authors: Anikó Fehérvári, Tamás Híves, and Marianna Szemerszki

Összefoglaló. Írásunk a középiskolai és a felsőoktatási felvételi adatokat felhasználva mutatja be az elmúlt évtizedek beiskolázási trendjeit, fókuszálva az elmúlt másfél-két évtizedben végbemenő folyamatokra. A középiskolai beiskolázás adatai szerint egyrészt megállapítható, hogy a rendszerváltás utáni trend 2011 után megtört, a középiskolás korosztályon belül egyre csökken azok aránya, akik részt vesznek valamilyen középfokú képzésben, másrészt a képzésben maradók preferenciái ugyan az általános képzés felé törekednek, de a felvettek számát és arányát tekintve mégis a szakképzésben tanulnak többen. A felsőoktatásba újonnan bekerülők jelentős hányadát adják a frissen érettségizettek, akiknek a létszáma az utóbbi 15 évben folyamatosan csökken, ezzel egyidejűleg azonban a részidős képzésekben tanulók létszáma is meredeken visszaesett.

Summary. The study presents enrolment trends using secondary and tertiary enrolment data, focusing on trends over the last two decades. The data on secondary school enrolment shows that, on the one hand, the post-transition trend was broken after 2011, with the proportion of secondary school students enrolled in some form of upper secondary education decreasing, and on the other hand, while the preferences of those who remain in education are tending towards general education, more people are enrolled in vocational education and training in terms of both the number and the proportion of enrolments. A significant proportion of new entrants to higher education are recent graduates from secondary education, whose number have been declining steadily over the last 15 years, but at the same time the number of part-time students in higher education has also fallen sharply.

Open access

Oktatott tárgyak kiértékelése szubjektív hallgatói vélemények alapján

Course Evaluation through Subjective Student Feedback

Educatio
Authors: Éva Kenyeres, Éva Mihálykóné Orbán, and Csaba Mihálykó

Összefoglaló. A tanulmányban a hallgatói vélemények kiértékelésének egy lehetséges módját mutatjuk be. A hallgatói vélemények tipikusan szubjektívek, ezért nehéz mérőszámokat rendelni hozzájuk. Így a hallgatói véleményeztetést páros összehasonlításokkal tettük meg, és az így kialakult adatok alapján Thurstone-módszerrel sorba rendeztük az egyes tantárgyakat és oktatókat, számszerűsítettük a köztük kialakuló különbségeket. Munkánkban a Pannon Egyetem Mérnöki Karán BSc képzésen oktatott alapvető fontosságú tárgyak kiértékelését végeztük el néhány szempont alapján, de a módszer alkalmazható más tárgyakra, illetve szempontokra is.

Summary. In this paper, a method for evaluation of students’ opinions is presented. These opinions are subjective therefore it is difficult to characterize them by numbers/marks. We asked the opinions by comparing the objects in pairs and the data are evaluated by the Thurstone method. Applying this method, we could rank the objects (subjects or teachers) and we could also determine numerical values for presenting the differences between them. During this research, we have investigated the basic courses of the BSc studies of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Pannonia by some view of points, but the method is suitable for evaluating other subjects and other questions as well.

Open access

Roma népesség és oktatástervezés

Roma Population and Education Planning

Educatio
Author: Attila Papp Z.

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány népszámlálási és kutatási adatok segítségével a roma tanulókkal kapcsolatos oktatási kérdések értelmezésére, az esetleges oktatáspolitikai beavatkozások megalapozására tesz kísérletet. A szerző azt állítja, a romának gondolt tanulók jelenléte önmagában nem kellene semmilyen nyelvi-etnikai kihívást jelentsen, hiszen az esetek zömében – a népszámlálási adatok tanúsága szerint – szintén magyar anyanyelvű népességről van szó. Az igazi kihívást a roma populáció társadalmi szerkezetben elfoglalt helye jelenti: mivel az alsóbb társadalmi rétegekbe, gyakran társadalmon kívüli élethelyzetekbe szorulva élnek, ez visszahat az iskolai eredményességükre, illetve társadalmi integrációjukra is.

Summary. Based on census and research data the study tries to analyse the educational situation of Roma students, and it intends to describe some educational policy interventions. According to the author the school presence of the Roma students is not an ethnic or linguistique question as Hungarian language is their mother tongue. The real challenge is the social situation of the Roma population: as they live in lower social strata, often in underclass situation, this has an impact on their school performance, and finally on their social integration.

Open access

Szerkesztői előszó

Editors’ Preface

Educatio
Authors: Zsuzsanna Veroszta and Zoltán Györgyi
Open access

A tanulók éneklési attitűdjére ható tényezők vizsgálata

The Analysis of the Factors on Students’ Singing Attitude

Educatio
Authors: Judit Váradi and Zoltán Óváry

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány egy empirikus kutatás eredményét mutatja be, melynek célja négy közép-európai ország 19 iskolájában folyó zenei nevelési gyakorlat elemzése és a tanulók (N = 805) zenei kultúrájának kialakulására ható tényezők vizsgálata. A szakirodalmi előzmények ismeretében a felmérés feltérképezi az egyes országok oktatási sajátosságai közötti hasonlóságot és különbséget. Kiemelten vizsgálja a 8–15 éves tanulók énekléshez fűződő attitűdjét és az azt befolyásoló tényezőket, rávilágít a szülők kulturális tőkéjének hatására. Eredményeink szerint a különböző országok eltérő tananyaga és módszertani útmutatója ellenére a tevékenységközpontú, élményalapú oktatás iránymutató pedagógiai módszer a művészeti nevelés területén.

Summary. The study presents the results of an empirical research, the aim is analysing the music education in 19 schools of four Central European countries and examining the factors influencing the development of students’ musical culture (N = 805). Based on the background of the literature, the survey maps the similarities and differences between the educational peculiarities of each country. It examines the 8–15 years old pupils’ attitudes towards singing and the underlying factors, as well as the impact of parents’ cultural capital. According to our results, despite the different curricula and methodological guidelines of different countries, activity-based, experience-based education is a guiding pedagogical method in the field of arts education.

Open access

Útkereszteződésben a demográfia: populáció helyett társadalmak, mennyiséghez megértés

Demographics at a Crossroads: Societies Instead of Populations, Understanding in Addition to Quantity

Educatio
Author: Tímea Barna
Open access

Az akadémiai-ipari együttműködések szerepe a gyógyszerfejlesztésben pandémia idején

Drug development collaborations between Academia and Industry in Pandemia

Scientia et Securitas
Author: György Miklós Keserű

Összefoglaló. Egészen az ezredfordulóig a gyógyszeripari kutatás-fejlesztés világszerte hagyományosan nagyvállalati keretek között folyt. Az elmúlt évtizedekben azonban ebben a szegmensben jelentős átrendeződések tapasztalhatók, ugyanis a korai kutatási és fejlesztési projektek sok esetben már az egyetemi-akadémiai, illetve kkv-szektorból indulnak. A szervezeti keretek mellett a fejlesztések szakmai tartalma is változott, a hagyományos kismolekulás gyógyszerek mellett egyre meghatározóbb szerep jut a biológiai terápiáknak, valamint a hatóanyagok fejlesztése mára összekapcsolódott a releváns diagnosztikumok fejlesztésével. A projektek finanszírozásában is fontos változások történtek, egyre jelentősebb szerep jut az állami KFI finanszírozásnak és a (kockázati) tőkebefektetéseknek. A gyógyszeripari K+F szakmai, szervezeti és finanszírozási kereteinek változása jelentősen felértékelte és szélesítette a korábban is meglévő akadémiai-ipari kapcsolatokat. Az együttműködések fontos szerepet játszanak a COVID–19 járványra adott válaszokban is, amit a magyar egyetemek, kutatóintézetek, kis- és középvállalatok, valamint gyógyszeripari nagyvállalatok részvételével indult kutatások igazolnak.

Summary. Until the turn of the millennium, pharmaceutical research and development worldwide had traditionally taken place in pharmaceutical companies. In recent decades, however, significant rearrangements have been witnessed, as early-stage research and development projects often start at the universities or the academic and SME sectors. In addition to the organizational framework, the professional content has also changed: in addition to traditional small molecule drugs, biological therapies are playing an increasingly important role, and the development of active ingredients is now linked to the development of relevant diagnostics. Important changes have also taken place in the financing of projects, with public RDI financing and (venture) capital investments playing an increasing role. Changes in the professional, organizational and funding frameworks for pharmaceutical R&D have significantly enhanced and broadened existing academic-industrial relations. Collaborations also play an important role in the responses to the COVID-19 epidemic, as evidenced by research involving Hungarian universities, research institutes, small and medium-sized enterprises, and large pharmaceutical companies. The first example is a collaboration of an academic research group and a spin-off company formed from this environment. Researchers of the Eötvös University (ELTE) and others working at the Research Centre for Natural Sciences (RCNS) applied phage display technology to discover new protease inhibitors. They established EvolVeritas Ltd, a spin-off company developing high affinity and high specificity inhibitors of the TMPRSS2 protease that is involved in the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry to host cells. In a parallel research program, the same consortium is working on new inhibitors of the MASP2 protease contributing to the coronavirus mediated activation of innate immunity, particularly the complement system. This latter approach would result in the effective control of microthrombosis events associated with serious COVID-19 infections. Both of the approaches are in the early preclinical phase and further investment would be needed to push these projects into clinical testing. The second example is a collaboration between an academic research group and an SME to reposition of azelastine, an approved antihistamine drug that was found to be effective in blocking SARS-CoV-2 mediated pathogenesis. After successful preclinical studies, the partners have now initiated clinical trials to demonstrate the efficacy of azelastine nasal drops in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infections. The third example is a collaboration of academic research groups, a SME and a pharmaceutical company. This consortium develops an antibody-like fusion protein therapeutics that can neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 virus. One component of the ACE2-Fc fusion protein is the relevant portion of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) produced by recombinant technologies, which binds to the spike protein of the pathogen. The virus thus binds to the fusion protein instead of the ACE2 receptors in human cells. Another component is responsible for the long half-life of IgG, the so-called Fc region. The consortium confirmed that the ACE2-Fc fusion protein inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture, and prevents disease in experimental animals. Preclinical development and the preparation of the core documentation is ongoing, which will soon be submitted to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to initiate clinical trials. The final example is a joint development project that involved a research group, an SME and two pharmaceutical companies. The objective of this program is process development and pharmaceutical formulation of favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral with a treatment potential against COVID-19. The consortium completed the process development of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and developed finished dosage formulations available for clinical testing. Clinical trials are ongoing that aim investigating safety and efficacy of favipiravir in COVID-19 infected patients. All of the examples described here demonstrate the power of collaborations that helped the participants to give diverse and effective responses to the unprecedented pandemic challenge of COVID-19. We believe that these experiences would encourage the members of the academic and industry community to formulate further collaborations to tackle the unmet medical need in our societies.

Open access

COVID–19 járvány hatása a pszichiátriai megbetegedések gyakoriságára – PTSD

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of psychiatric illnesses – PTSD

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Mária Zsóka Bellavics, Zsombor Hermann, and József Haller

Összefoglaló. A poszttraumás stressz zavar (PTSD) egy súlyos mentális állapot, amely nehezen gyógyítható, és évtizedeken keresztül fennállhat. Gyakorisága 1–3%-ról világszerte 20% körülire emelkedett a COVID–19 járvány után. Az észlelt gyakoriság nem függött a vizsgált populációk érintettségétől: a gyakoriság közel azonos volt fertőzöttek, karanténba kerültek, pusztán életmódváltozást elszenvedők és egészségügyi szakemberek körében. Ez vetekszik a háborús helyzetekben tapasztaltakkal, azzal a különbséggel, hogy a modern háborúk a világ népességének kis részét, míg a járvány az emberiség tekintélyes részét érintette. A COVID–19 járvány lecsengése után tehát számolnunk kell azokkal a pszichiátriai jellegű károkkal is, amelyeket maga mögött hagy, köztük a PTSD áldozataival.

Summary. Almost 20 years ago McNally (2003) wrote a paper on the Vietnam War with the title “Psychiatric Casualties of War”, outlining that people may suffer psychological injuries in war beyond those that harm them physically. Like wars, epidemics also have “psychiatric casualties” e.g., people who avoid the dangers of the epidemic per se but do not survive the situation without harm. One possible form of impairment is psychiatric in nature; this category includes among others post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study addresses the question of how how much concern the COVID-19 epidemic raises in the long run for an increased incidence of PTSD. PTSD is a severe and difficult-to-treat mental disorder caused by traumatic stress i.e., an event that threatens life and/or physical integrity. It is usually attributed to disasters, war, and interpersonal violence, but it can also be caused by serious illness such as AIDS and cancer. The COVID-19 epidemic conforms to the concept of trauma in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, as the disease it causes is potentially life threatening. Thus, even a purely logical approach suggests that the epidemic may increase the incidence of PTSD, an assumption that is confirmed by numerous targeted studies. The pre-epidemic PTSD morbidity rate of 1-3% has risen to around 20% globally over the past year due to the COVID-19 epidemic. PTSD affected not only those who fell victim to the disease, but also those who have “merely” witnessed the development and spread of the disease, those who have been placed in preventive quarantine, and healthcare workers who have had the burden of treating the epidemic. Behind the global 20%, an uneven picture emerges. In certain populations and at certain times, the frequency was reported to be much lower (e.g., 8%) or much higher (e.g., 96%), depending on the specifics of the study participants, as well as the place and time of the investigation. Overall, however, the post-epidemic prevalence of PTSD appears to rival that observed in war situations, such as the Vietnam War. The difference is that modern wars mostly affect a small portion of the world’s population, while the COVID-19 epidemic affects almost the entire humanity. Recent events suggest that the epidemic will soon recede. However, the epidemic leaves behind a large number of people who have sustained long-lasting and severe mental injuries - including those who have developed PTSD. Tackling this problem is the task for the future, but it must be prepared in advance. To this end, the study also briefly maps the factors of inborn and acquired resilience in a new network science approach.

Open access

Demencia prevenció: A korai diagnózistól a személyre szabott intervencióig

Dementia Prevention: From Early Diagnosis to Personalised Intervention

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Annamária Manga, Menta Havadi-Nagy, Orsolya Székely, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky

Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt évtizedekben a várható élettartam emelkedésével drámai mértékben nőtt a demencia előfordulásának gyakorisága, melynek hátterében leggyakrabban az Alzheimer-kór áll. A rendkívül ígéretes, biomarkereken, agyi képalkotáson és mesterséges intelligencián alapuló megközelítéseknek köszönhetően egyre szélesebb körű információink vannak a betegség kialakulásáról és lefolyásáról, új kapukat nyitva ezzel a demencia korai diagnózisa és a személyre szabott terápia felé. Míg az új kutatási irányzatok előnye vitathatatlan, a nagy mennyiségű kutatási adat kezelése, illetve a betegség korai szakaszban történő azonosítása több biztonsági kérdést felvet. A korai diagnózis mellett egyre nagyobb hangsúly helyeződik az intervencióra, a demenciára hajlamosító tényezőkbe történő beavatkozás által.

Summary. As a consequence of increasing life expectancy, the number of those living with dementia is rising. While Alzheimer’s disease (AD) constitutes the most common cause of dementia, the origin of AD is unknown. Furthermore, in the absence of effective treatment, therapy focuses on the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of the disease, and the wellbeing of the patient. AD is characterised by a pronounced impairment experienced in one or more cognitive domains, and the criterion of the diagnosis is the presence of aggregated proteins in the brain leading to neuron death, and eventually to the loss of cognitive abilities.

As a result of the latest technological advances, several biological markers (biomarkers) of AD pathology were identified. The biomarkers can be obtained using positron emission tomography or measured from cerebrospinal fluid, and lately from blood serum and plasma as well. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an important measure of brain atrophy, a biomarker of neurodegeneration and neuronal injury. The structure of the brain shows significant alterations as a function of neuronal loss, with cortical thinning and tissue density changes, mainly starting from the medial temporal lobes (also including the hippocampus playing a prominent role in memory functions), and extending to the temporoparietal regions, with observed changes in the activity of the different functional brain networks as well.

A major challenge in defeating AD is that in most cases, the disease is recognised subsequent to the appearance of the decline in cognitive abilities, hampering everyday life. Previous studies identified a preclinical stage of AD, where the biomarkers indicative of the disease are present in the absence of detectable cognitive symptoms. This early, preclinical stage – with the use of artificial intelligence-based techniques – has been suggested to be a promising window for the early detection of the disease, and also for the prediction of individual disease trajectories, allowing for the thorough planning of patient management. While the benefit of the early diagnosis is unequivocal, it raises a number of important ethical and safety issues.

Besides the tremendous effort of developing effective medical treatments, the importance of intervention stands in the centre of scientific interest. The proposed prevention and intervention methods target the potentially modifiable risk factors of dementia, encouraging engagement in stimulating everyday activities and healthy lifestyle, to preserve longevity.

Open access

Előszó

Foreword

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Valéria Csépe
Open access

Erőművek életciklus-elemzése a fajlagos anyagfelhasználás tükrében

Life-cycle analysis of power plants in the light of specific material use

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Zoltán Korényi

Összefoglaló. A dolgozat témája a különböző erőműfajták életciklusra vonatkozó fajlagos anyagigényének a vizsgálata. Az elemzések a nemzetközi szakirodalmi források felhasználásával történtek. Módszere, a bázisadatok elemzése, majd az anyagigényeknek az erőmű beépített teljesítményére és az életciklus alatt megtermelt villamosenergiára vonatkoztatott fajlagos értékek meghatározása. Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a nap- és szélerőművek elterjedésével a hagyományos erőművek által felhasznált fosszilis energiaforrások (pl. a szén) bent maradnak ugyan a földben, de cserébe az új technológia legyártásához a hagyományos anyagokból (beton, acél, alumínium, réz stb.) fajlagosan jóval nagyobb mennyiségekre lesz szükség. Emellett megnő a ritkán előforduló fémek (gallium, indium stb.) felhasználása, ami Európában, a lelőhelyek hiányában, új kockázatokkal jár.

Summary. The topic of the study is to determine the material use of different power plant types. This is a part of the known life cycle analysis (LCA). The aim of LCA is to determine the impact of human activity on nature. The procedure is described in the standards (ISO 14040/41/42/42). Under environmental impact we mean changes in our natural environment, air, water, soil pollution, noise and impacts on human health. In the LCA, the environmental impact begins with the opening of the mine, continues with the extraction and processing of raw materials, and then with the production of equipment, construction and installation of the power plant. This is followed by the commissioning and then operation of the power plants for 20-60 years, including maintenance. The cycle ends with demolition, which is followed by recycling of materials. The remaining waste is disposed of. This is the complex content of life cycle analysis. Its purpose is to determine the ecological footprint of man.

The method of the present study is to isolate a limited area from the complex LCA process. This means determining the amount of material needed to build different power plants, excluding mining and processing of raw materials. Commercially available basic materials are built into the power plant’s components.

The research is based on the literature available in the international area. The author studied these sources, analysed the data, and checked the authenticity. It was not easy because the sources from different times, for different power plants showed a lot of uncertainty. In overcoming the uncertainties, it was a help that the author has decades of experience in the realisation of power plants. It was considered the material consumption related to the installed electricity capacity of the power plant (tons/MW) as basic data.

The author then determined the specific material consumptions, allocated to the electric energy generated during the lifetime, in different power plants.

The calculation is carried out with the help of the usual annual peak load duration hours and the usual lifetime of the power plants.

The results show that with the spread of solar and wind energy, the fossil energy sources previously needed for conventional power plants will remain inside the Earth, but in exchange for the production of new technological equipment from traditional structural materials (concrete, steel, aluminium, copper and plastic), the special need multiplies. If we compare the power plants using renewable energy with the electric energy produced during the life cycle of a nuclear power plant, the specific installed material requirement of a river hydropower plant is 37 times, that of an onshore wind farm it is 9.6 times, and that of an outdoor solar power park is 6.6 times higher.

Another important difference is that wind turbines, solar panels and batteries also require rare materials that do not occur in Europe (e.g. gallium, indium, yttrium, neodymium, cobalt, etc.). This can lead to security risks in Europe in the long run.

Open access
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Mónika Lakatos, Zita Bihari, Beatrix Izsák, and Olivér Szentes

Összefoglaló. A WMO 2021 elején kiadott állapotértékelője szerint a COVID–19 miatti korlátozások ellenére az üvegházhatású gázok légköri koncentrációja tovább emelkedett. A tengerszint emelkedés a közelmúltban gyorsult, rekordmagas volt a jégvesztés Grönlandon, az Antarktisz olvadása is gyorsulni látszik. Szélsőséges időjárás pusztított, élelmiszer-ellátási gondok léptek fel, és 2020-ban a COVID–19 hatásával együtt nőtt a biztonsági kockázat több régióban is. Az éghajlatváltozás felerősíti a meglévő kockázatokat, és újabb kockázatok is fellépnek majd a természeti és az ember által alkotott rendszerekben.

Az éghajlatváltozás hatása a hazai mérési sorokban is megjelenik. Az Országos Meteorológiai Szolgálat (OMSZ) homogenizált, ellenőrzött mérései szerint 1901 óta 1,2 °C-ot nőtt az évi középhőmérséklet. Két normál időszakot vizsgálva egyértelmű a magasabb hőmérsékletek felé tolódás, a csapadék éven belüli eloszlása megváltozott, az őszi másodmaximum eltűnőben van. Nőtt az aszályhajlam, gyakoribbá váltak a hőhullámok, intenzívebb a csapadékhullás, emiatt az éghajlatvédelemi intézkedések mellett a jól megalapozott alkalmazkodás is indokolt. A biztonsági kockázatok csökkenthetők az OMSZ és Országos Katasztrófavédelmi Főigazgatóság közötti együttműködés által.

Summary. The first part of the article gives an overview of the state of the global climate in 2020 based on the report compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 2021) and network of partners from UN. According to this report, the 2020 was one of the three warmest years on record, despite a cooling La Niña event. The global mean temperature for 2020 (January to October) was 1.2 ± 0.1 °C above the 1850–1900 baseline, used as an approximation of pre-industrial levels. The latest six years have been the warmest on record. 2011-2020 was the warmest decade on record. The report on the “State of the Global Climate 2020” illustrates the state of the key indicators of the climate system, including greenhouse gas concentrations, increasing land and ocean temperatures, sea level rise, melting ice and glacier and extreme weather. It also highlights impacts on socio-economic development, migration and displacement and food security. All key climate indicators and associated impact information published in this report highlight continuing climate change, an increasing occurrence and intensification of extreme events, and severe losses and damage, affecting people, societies and economies. Extreme weather events triggered an estimated 10 000 000 displacements in 2020. Because of COVID-19 lockdowns, response and recovery operations were leading to delays in providing assistance. After decades of decline, the increase in food insecurity since 2014 is being driven by conflict and economic slowdown as well as climate variability and extreme weather events. Climate change will amplify existing risks and create new risks for natural and human systems. Risks are unevenly distributed and are generally greater for disadvantaged people and communities in countries at all levels of development.

The global changes have local effects in Hungary as it is shown in the second part of the article. The climate monitoring at the Hungarian Meteorological Service is based on measurements stored in the Climate data archive. We apply data management tools to produce high quality and representative datasets to prepare climate studies. The data homogenization makes possible to eliminate inhomogeneities due to change in the measuring practice and station movements. Applying spatial interpolation procedure for meteorological data provide the spatial representativeness of the climate data used for monitoring. The surface temperature increase is slightly higher in Hungary than the global change from 1901. The annual precipitation decreased by 3% from 1901, although this change is not significant statistically. The monthly temperatures shifted to warmer monthly averages in the most recent normal period between 1991 and 2020 comparing to the 1961–1990 in each months. The annual course of the monthly precipitations changed, especially autumn. The monthly sum in September and in October increased substantially. The frequency of heatwave days increased by more than two weeks in the Little Plain and in the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain from 1981, which is the most intense warming period globally. The intensification of the precipitation in the recent years is obvious in our region. The cooperation of the Disaster Risk Management and the Hungarian Meteorological Service could expand the adaptive capacity of the society to climate change.

Open access

A gyógyszerkutatás új irányzatai: hatékonyság és biztonságosság

New directions in drug discovery: safety and efficiency

Scientia et Securitas
Author: András Kotschy

Összefoglaló. A betegségek mögött meghúzódó biokémiai, sejtbiológiai változások molekuláris szintű megértése a korszerű gyógyszerkutatás alapját képezi. A kiválasztott biológiai célpont, leggyakrabban egy fehérje, működésének gátlásától vagy fokozásától azt reméljük, hogy elősegíti a gyógyulást. A hagyományos gyógyszerkutatási megközelítések molekuláris alapját a kiválasztott fehérjével való közvetlen kölcsönhatás jelentette. Ugyanakkor a sejten belüli molekuláris biológiai folyamatok részletesebb megértése több új megközelítést nyitott a gyógyszerkutatás számára. A közlemény ezeket a gyógyszerkutatási irányzatokat mutatja be, külön kitérve biztonságosságukra.

Summary. Human diseases originate from and are accompanied by changes in the biochemistry of cells. The molecular level understanding of these deviations from normal functioning is key to the curing of the diseases, therefore a principal objective of drug discovery. The key-lock principle postulated by Emil Fischer serves well the understanding of most enzymatic processes and has been helping researchers both in academia and industry to discover new drugs. The binding of a small molecule to the target protein and inhibiting or activating its function is the basis for the efficient functioning of a long list of current drugs. Sometimes the desired biological effect comes from the selective action on a single protein, in other instances it is the combined effect on the working of several proteins. The appropriate selectivity profile is key to the safety and efficiency of the drug in both cases.

The completion of the Human Genome Project, in parallel with a significant improvement in the performance of the analytical instrumentation, increased our molecular and systemic level understanding of diseases immensely. Analysis of the differences between healthy and diseased cells and tissues led to the identification of new targets, a lot of which are not classical enzymes but proteins exerting their effect through molecular interactions with other proteins or nucleic acids. Although these proteins were considered undruggable some decades ago, their disease modifying potential led to the discovery of new approaches and modalities to target them. The inhibition of protein-protein interactions, for example, requires the selective targeting of hydrophobic surfaces, sometimes with very high affinity. Drug candidates acting through this molecular mechanism are typically beyond the size of classical drugs that might complicate their development.

Besides interacting directly with the protein of interest we might also impact its working through manipulating its quantity within the cell. Interference with the proteasomal degradation of cellular proteins, blocking its working, or hijacking it to selectively increase the degradation of our protein of choice are promising new modalities that are transitioning from research into clinical practice. Alternatively, one might also interfere with the transcriptional machinery. Selective blocking of the messenger RNA responsible for carrying the sequence information of the targeted protein by using so called antisense oligonucleotides, small interfering RNAs, or micro RNAs can result in a decreased synthesis of the protein. Appropriately designed oligonucleotides can also enhance protein synthesis or lead to an alteration of the sequence to synthesize for a given protein. Finally, we might also target the epigenetic regulatory machinery, which is in charge of unpacking the DNA double helix from its storage form and making it available for transcription. This interference typically leads to a more complex change, the parallel modulation of the level of several proteins at the same time.

Open access

Gyorsreagálás a pandémiára, ellátásbiztonság

Rapid response to pandemia, supply security

Scientia et Securitas
Author: István Greiner

Összefoglaló. A tavalyi évben kitört COVID–19 pandémia jelentős kihívások elé állította a világot. Nem pusztán a kormányok és az egészségügyi rendszerek szembesültek új, békeidőben eddig még nem gyakorolt feladatokkal, de a tudományos világnak is át kellett tekinteni mind a régi, mind a legmodernebb eszközöket ahhoz, hogy a vírus terjedésének, a betegek szenvedéseinek, a tömeges halálozásoknak végre véget lehessen vetni. Habár a járványnak még messze nincsen vége, és egyre újabb és újabb mutánsok ütik fel a fejüket a világ legkülönbözőbb részein, mégis azokat a tanulságokat, melyek már összegyűltek a gyógyszeripar területén, érdemes összefoglalni. Talán még ennél is fontosabb azonban, hogy azokat a hiányokat, amelyeket még be kell pótolni, szintén megemlítsük, hogy ezzel is segítsük az újabb hullámok vagy járványok leküzdését.

Summary. During the last 12 months the most serious issue was the SARS-CoV-2 virus generated pandemia around the world. There is no country which could be more or less intact and a huge amount of resources was sacrificed to rescue people from the fatal outcome of this disease. When it started a year ago or more, there were doubts about its future but later it was realised that this is an epidemic occurring worldwide, crossing international boundaries, and affecting a large number of people. According to the WHO, today the number of confirmed cases is about 157.8 million, confirmed deaths are 3.3 million and 1.2 billion vaccine doses have been administered. These numbers clearly show how important it is to elaborate the reaction of the pharma industry and investigate how to ensure safe drug supply for patients in every country. The topics discussed below are the basic and unique features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the pandemia generated by it, and the role of the Hungarian pharma industry, especially Gedeon Richter plc, during this critical period. On one hand the author explains how the spread of virus can be decreased in general and at a production facility like Richter, and on the other hand R&D activity of the Company aiming to cure patients suffering from COVID-19 infection. Consortia including universities, academia and industrial entities made a substantial impact on handling this terrible epidemic. Gedeon Richter plc, the biggest and only independent Hungarian pharma company, in keeping with its roots started small molecule R&D to make favipiravir and remdesivir available to clinics. The latter production is a very difficult one but using its background in chemistry Richter was able to manage all R&D and industrial scale up activities in six months. Moreover, it has filed two patent applications about its new, more feasible and economical process steps justifying its innovative attitude. As a final conclusion it is stated that for the safe supply of necessary medication one critical step is missing from the capabilities of the Hungarian pharma industry, the vaccine R&D and production.

Open access