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Consumer concern over artificial food additives has stimulated production of pigments from natural sources. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of process variables on the content of colour compounds (betaxanthin and betacyanin) in beetroot peel juice extracted by conventional method. In this research, the extraction processes were carried out according to the central composite design with different process variables. Quantitative measurements of the basic colour compounds in beetroot extract were performed using spectrophotometer. From our experiment, it was found that the most adequate extraction conditions, which gave the highest yield of colour compounds (952.5 mg l–1 of betaxanthin and 1361 mg l–1 of betacyanin), were extraction time 1 h, operating temperature 20 ºC, and solvent ratio 0.8 w/v. Being a conventional heating method, it is a simple and cost efficient process with relatively high yield.

Open access

Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.) are one of the most important and most widely consumed vegetables in the world. The fruit contains considerable amount of different phytonutrients such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin C. In the present work, effects of some abiotic factors on the concentration of phytonutrients were investigated in tomato cultivated in two different types of soil. It was found that the type of soil had slight effect on the most important vital nutrients, while the ecological factors, particularly precipitation and average temperature 3 weeks before harvest, were of significant influence on such nutrients. It was found that low temperature and high precipitation before harvest caused the levels of carotenoids, tocopherol, and vitamin C to significantly increase by 65%, 46%, and 28%, respectively.

Open access

Changes of edible oil quality factors and formation of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-FE) during deep-fat frying in four different experiments (control, salt, pork chop, and chicken liver) with high oleic sunflower oil were compared in this study. Based on the results of investigated oil quality parameters, which were free fatty acid (FFA), anisidine value (AV), UV extinction at 232 and 268 nm (E232 and E268, respectively), and total polar material (TPM), only a modest deterioration of the frying oil was observed. As we expected, the 3-MCPD-FE content in the control samples did not reach the limit of quantification (0.1 mg kg–1), while the table salt itself caused a slight increase. The results of pork chop and chicken liver experiments were not statistically different from each other, after the third frying circle 0.52 and 0.39 mg kg–1 3-MCPD-FE levels were reached, respectively. Based on these values, the human exposure estimation resulted in a low risk.

Open access
Authors: E. Horvath-Szanics, J. Perjéssy, A. Klupács, K. Takács, A. Nagy, E. Koppány-Szabó, F. Hegyi, E. Németh-Szerdahelyi, M.Y. Du, Z.R. Wang, J.Q. Kan and Zs. Zalán

The increasing consumer demand for less processed and more natural food products – while improving those products’ quality, safety, and shelf-life – has raised the necessity of chemical preservative replacement. Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Chitinolytic enzymes are of biotechnological interest, since their substrate, chitin, is a major structural component of the cell wall of fungi, which are the main cause of the spoilage of food and raw plant material. Among the several organisms, many bacteria produce chitinolytic enzymes, however, this behaviour is not general. The chitinase activity of the lactic acid bacteria is scarcely known and studied.

The aim of the present study was to select Lactobacillus strains that have genes encoding chitinase, furthermore, to detect expressed enzymes and to characterise their chitinase activity. Taking into consideration the importance of chitin-bindig proteins (CBPs) in the chitinase activity, CBPs were also examined. Five Lactobacillus strains out of 43 strains from 12 different species were selected by their chitinase coding gene. The presence of the chitinase and chitin-biding protein production were confirmed, however, no chitinolytic activity has been identified.

Open access

Immature rice grain is one of the under-valued by-products of rice milling industry. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of immature rice grain flour (IRGF) substitution to tarhana, which is a traditional cereal-based, fermented food product. IRGF was replaced by refined wheat flour at the levels of 0 (control), 30, 50, 70, and 100%, and the effect of this replacement on the contents of crude fat, ash, protein, dietary fibre, phytic acid, minerals, vitamins B1 and B2, tocopherols, γ-oryzanol contents and sensory properties were investigated. It was shown that stabilised IRGF remarkably improved nutritional properties of the end product without adversely affecting sensory quality up to 50%. In conclusion, it could be suggested that stabilised IRGF has a promising potential for many food applications due to being cheap, accessible, nutritious, and gluten-free.

Open access

Abstract

The sol gel method was used in preparing a series of A site partially substituted La1−xBaxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.1 ≤ 0.4) perovskite catalysts coded LBC1, 2, 3, and 4 and their potential as catalysts for soot oxidation were evaluated. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTG), X-ray analysis (XRD) were used in characterizing the prepared perovskite catalyst. The result shows that at (x≥ 0.2 ≤ 0.4), there was an increase in surface area when we compare it with that of x = 0. The increase in surface area helps in increasing the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Also, when evaluating the catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts, it was observed that doping the perovskite catalysts helped in the general improvement of the catalytic performance for soot oxidation. The best performance in this research study with a T50 of 484 °C was observed at x = 0.2 catalyst (LBC2). This shows that the non-noble perovskite catalysts prepared in this research study has the potential to replace the noble metal based catalysts used presently in the diesel automotive industry.

Open access

Abstract

The sol gel method was used in preparing a series of A site partially substituted La1−xBaxCoO3 (x ≥ 0.1 ≤ 0.4) perovskite catalysts coded LBC1, 2, 3, and 4 and their potential as catalysts for soot oxidation were evaluated. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTG), X-ray analysis (XRD) were used in characterizing the prepared perovskite catalyst. The result shows that at (x≥ 0.2 ≤ 0.4), there was an increase in surface area when we compare it with that of x = 0. The increase in surface area helps in increasing the catalytic performance of the catalyst. Also, when evaluating the catalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts, it was observed that doping the perovskite catalysts helped in the general improvement of the catalytic performance for soot oxidation. The best performance in this research study with a T50 of 484 °C was observed at x = 0.2 catalyst (LBC2). This shows that the non-noble perovskite catalysts prepared in this research study has the potential to replace the noble metal based catalysts used presently in the diesel automotive industry.

Open access
Authors: G. Lizia Thankam and Neelakantan Thurvas Renganathan

Abstract

Though being an ancient trend, usage of the homogeneous material cement in the construction industry is steadily getting eradicated with the springing up of supplementary cementing materials (SCM). Metakaolin is an imminent mineral admixture extracted from the mineral ore kaolinite, which enhances the interfacial zone by more efficient packing at the cement paste-aggregate particle interface, thus reducing the bleeding and producing a denser, more homogeneous transition zone microstructure. This paper depicts the various repercussions of the pozzolanic material metakaolin in the fresh and hardened properties of concrete when replaced with cement in finite amount. Also, it states the behavior of high-performance concrete and self-compacting concrete with metakaolin.

Open access
Authors: G. Lizia Thankam and Neelakantan Thurvas Renganathan

Abstract

Though being an ancient trend, usage of the homogeneous material cement in the construction industry is steadily getting eradicated with the springing up of supplementary cementing materials (SCM). Metakaolin is an imminent mineral admixture extracted from the mineral ore kaolinite, which enhances the interfacial zone by more efficient packing at the cement paste-aggregate particle interface, thus reducing the bleeding and producing a denser, more homogeneous transition zone microstructure. This paper depicts the various repercussions of the pozzolanic material metakaolin in the fresh and hardened properties of concrete when replaced with cement in finite amount. Also, it states the behavior of high-performance concrete and self-compacting concrete with metakaolin.

Open access

Abstract

The inelastic buckling behaviour of different rectangular thin isotropic plates having a free edge is studied. Various combinations of boundary conditions are subject to in-plane uniaxial compression and each rectangular plate is bounded by an unloaded free edge. The characteristic deflection function of each plate is formulated using a polynomial function in form of Taylor–Maclaurin series. A deformation plasticity approach is adopted and the buckling load equation is modified using a work principle technique. Buckling coefficients of the plates are calculated for various aspect ratios and moduli ratios. Findings obtained from the investigation are found to reasonably agree with data published in the literature.

Open access

Abstract

The inelastic buckling behaviour of different rectangular thin isotropic plates having a free edge is studied. Various combinations of boundary conditions are subject to in-plane uniaxial compression and each rectangular plate is bounded by an unloaded free edge. The characteristic deflection function of each plate is formulated using a polynomial function in form of Taylor–Maclaurin series. A deformation plasticity approach is adopted and the buckling load equation is modified using a work principle technique. Buckling coefficients of the plates are calculated for various aspect ratios and moduli ratios. Findings obtained from the investigation are found to reasonably agree with data published in the literature.

Open access

Abstract

Industry 4.0 is referred as the fourth industrial revolution that represents the information intensive transformation of industrial automation and manufacturing processes. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are building blocks in Industry 4.0 and part of the Industry 4.0 vision. This paper presents a cyber-physical platform development and implementation strategy for Industry 4.0 applications. It has been considered a cyber-physical platform model (CPP) built upon hardware reconfigurable technology based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor framework. The development strategy exploits the full benefits enabled by reconfigurable hardware, such as scalability of complex systems, platform-based design approach, adaptive processing, real-time constrains management, or high performance prototyping capabilities. The implemented experimental setup also combines major advantages of both the hardware and software platform-based design trends in Industry 4.0. In this endeavor, the used software toolkit comprises the entire system complexity as a high performance integration layer. The presented design method and implementation strategy can serve as rough orientation for future CPS research and development activities.

Open access

Abstract

Industry 4.0 is referred as the fourth industrial revolution that represents the information intensive transformation of industrial automation and manufacturing processes. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are building blocks in Industry 4.0 and part of the Industry 4.0 vision. This paper presents a cyber-physical platform development and implementation strategy for Industry 4.0 applications. It has been considered a cyber-physical platform model (CPP) built upon hardware reconfigurable technology based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor framework. The development strategy exploits the full benefits enabled by reconfigurable hardware, such as scalability of complex systems, platform-based design approach, adaptive processing, real-time constrains management, or high performance prototyping capabilities. The implemented experimental setup also combines major advantages of both the hardware and software platform-based design trends in Industry 4.0. In this endeavor, the used software toolkit comprises the entire system complexity as a high performance integration layer. The presented design method and implementation strategy can serve as rough orientation for future CPS research and development activities.

Open access

Abstract

Reliability is one of the most important criteria that characterize last generation digital systems. In a wide range of applications the required reliability level is achieved by using hardware redundant configurations. Perhaps their most common form is the triple modular redundancy (TMR) based on a majority voting structure. Researchers that use this strategy make a major assumption: in fault-free operation mode the outputs of these digital systems match in all. This paper proves that synchronization and matching in all the outputs of such systems is not such a trivial problem. In this endeavor FPGA-based (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) redundant topologies are considered for study and experiments. Upon these structures specially conceived redundant models have been developed and simulated. The results outline that synchronization of complex digital systems is a difficult engineering undertaking and any initial assumption should be managed with the adequate circumspection.

Open access

Abstract

Reliability is one of the most important criteria that characterize last generation digital systems. In a wide range of applications the required reliability level is achieved by using hardware redundant configurations. Perhaps their most common form is the triple modular redundancy (TMR) based on a majority voting structure. Researchers that use this strategy make a major assumption: in fault-free operation mode the outputs of these digital systems match in all. This paper proves that synchronization and matching in all the outputs of such systems is not such a trivial problem. In this endeavor FPGA-based (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) redundant topologies are considered for study and experiments. Upon these structures specially conceived redundant models have been developed and simulated. The results outline that synchronization of complex digital systems is a difficult engineering undertaking and any initial assumption should be managed with the adequate circumspection.

Open access

Abstract

Information management and sharing is an essential ingredient, but a difficult and challenging problem for disaster response management. This paper proposes an ontology as a model to organize and structure information in order to improve the information management and sharing in disaster response management. The ontology was designed and developed based on philosophically grounded foundational ontologies. It was also implemented in ontological languages and demonstrated and evaluated in a case study of the flood evacuation process. This paper also provides a systematic approach to develop a well-founded domain ontology that addresses both static and dynamic aspects of a given domain.

Open access

Abstract

Information management and sharing is an essential ingredient, but a difficult and challenging problem for disaster response management. This paper proposes an ontology as a model to organize and structure information in order to improve the information management and sharing in disaster response management. The ontology was designed and developed based on philosophically grounded foundational ontologies. It was also implemented in ontological languages and demonstrated and evaluated in a case study of the flood evacuation process. This paper also provides a systematic approach to develop a well-founded domain ontology that addresses both static and dynamic aspects of a given domain.

Open access

Abstract

The objective of this work is to investigate the rotary friction welding of AA1100 aluminum alloy with mild steel, and to optimize the welding parameters of these dissimilar materials, such as friction pressure/time, forging pressure/time and rotational speed. The optimization of the welding parameters was deduced by applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM). An empirical relationship was also applied to predict the welding parameters. Tensile test and micro-hardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties of the welded joints. Some joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in order to investigate the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the weld interface. Experimentally, the tensile strength of the weld increases with increasing the forging pressure/time, while the low level of forging pressure/time allows the formation of an IMC layer which reduces the tensile strength of the weld.

Open access

Abstract

The objective of this work is to investigate the rotary friction welding of AA1100 aluminum alloy with mild steel, and to optimize the welding parameters of these dissimilar materials, such as friction pressure/time, forging pressure/time and rotational speed. The optimization of the welding parameters was deduced by applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM). An empirical relationship was also applied to predict the welding parameters. Tensile test and micro-hardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties of the welded joints. Some joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in order to investigate the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the weld interface. Experimentally, the tensile strength of the weld increases with increasing the forging pressure/time, while the low level of forging pressure/time allows the formation of an IMC layer which reduces the tensile strength of the weld.

Open access

Abstract

The use of energy in the world today is increasing with increase in population. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies and the stability of our environment. The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to cater to the present day demands. In recent years there has been a significant global commitment to develop clean and alternative sources of energy such as solar and wind. Wind energy technology has been the fastest growing energy source because it is fairly distributed around the world and readily available for use. However, more penetration of wind energy into existing power networks has some impacts on the stability of the power system. Therefore, this paper studies and analyzes the stability of a power system with increasing wind penetration. The paper presents some analyses of a power system and the dynamic behavior which identify the issues that limit the large-scale integration of wind generators in a power system.

Open access

Abstract

The use of energy in the world today is increasing with increase in population. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies and the stability of our environment. The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to cater to the present day demands. In recent years there has been a significant global commitment to develop clean and alternative sources of energy such as solar and wind. Wind energy technology has been the fastest growing energy source because it is fairly distributed around the world and readily available for use. However, more penetration of wind energy into existing power networks has some impacts on the stability of the power system. Therefore, this paper studies and analyzes the stability of a power system with increasing wind penetration. The paper presents some analyses of a power system and the dynamic behavior which identify the issues that limit the large-scale integration of wind generators in a power system.

Open access

Abstract

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) communications utilizes a pseudo random code to spread the bandwidth of the data being transmitted over a much wider range than is required by the data. Due to the pseudo random nature of the carriers selected for transmission, the spreading and dispreading process must occur simultaneously to recover the transmitted data signal. This requires the receiver have knowledge about the instant the transmitter began transmitting and the propagation delay between the two. However, in real world systems, this information is unavailable to the receiver. The paper utilizes MATLAB Simulink to demonstrate a method of synchronizing the code clock at the receiver with the code clock at the transmitter. This fine alignment process is known as code tracking.

Open access

Abstract

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) communications utilizes a pseudo random code to spread the bandwidth of the data being transmitted over a much wider range than is required by the data. Due to the pseudo random nature of the carriers selected for transmission, the spreading and dispreading process must occur simultaneously to recover the transmitted data signal. This requires the receiver have knowledge about the instant the transmitter began transmitting and the propagation delay between the two. However, in real world systems, this information is unavailable to the receiver. The paper utilizes MATLAB Simulink to demonstrate a method of synchronizing the code clock at the receiver with the code clock at the transmitter. This fine alignment process is known as code tracking.

Open access

Abstract

Natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates were prepared from natural rubber and chitin using a two-roll mill. The chitin was extracted from crab shell waste obtained from a local market in Oron, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using the chemical extraction method. The effects of the chitin at different contents (0–40 phr) on the mechanical properties of the NR/Chitin vulcanizates with carbon black as reference filler have been investigated. The tensile strength of the chitin filled natural rubber (NCH), and the carbon black filled natural rubber (NCB) vulcanizates were found to increase with an increase in filler content to reach optimum at 30 phr after which it decreased. The hardness, impact and abrasion resistance properties of the NCH and NCB vulcanizates increased as filler content increases. The tensile strength and abrasion resistance of the vulcanizates containing blends of varying percentages of carbon black to chitin (CBCH) increased as more carbon black (CB) is introduced while the hardness and impact strength increased with increase in chitin content. However, carbon black filled vulcanizates showed better property enhancement than the chitin filler.

Open access

Abstract

Natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates were prepared from natural rubber and chitin using a two-roll mill. The chitin was extracted from crab shell waste obtained from a local market in Oron, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using the chemical extraction method. The effects of the chitin at different contents (0–40 phr) on the mechanical properties of the NR/Chitin vulcanizates with carbon black as reference filler have been investigated. The tensile strength of the chitin filled natural rubber (NCH), and the carbon black filled natural rubber (NCB) vulcanizates were found to increase with an increase in filler content to reach optimum at 30 phr after which it decreased. The hardness, impact and abrasion resistance properties of the NCH and NCB vulcanizates increased as filler content increases. The tensile strength and abrasion resistance of the vulcanizates containing blends of varying percentages of carbon black to chitin (CBCH) increased as more carbon black (CB) is introduced while the hardness and impact strength increased with increase in chitin content. However, carbon black filled vulcanizates showed better property enhancement than the chitin filler.

Open access

Abstract

The Szentgyörgyi-Horváth-house is one of the major historical buildings of Balatonfüred. The design of the reconstruction was preceded by detailed architectural historical study. The reconstruction of the building was realized by retaining the original structures. For the new function the building was equipped with an air-conditioning engine-room. The air conditioner is a significant source of noise for the apartments facing the courtyard of the building, due to its continuous operation. The acoustic examination of the enclosed yard was calculated with two different approaches. The distance-dependent approximation, which is usual for large halls, was approved. Building construction structures were determined based on the results to meet the acoustic requirements.

Open access

Abstract

This paper discusses the control of the electric energy consumption in a household equipped with smart devices. The household consumption pattern is the result of a two-level optimization framework. The scheduling of the electric appliances is determined by the first optimization, receiving Time of Use tariffs proposed by the utility company. The scheduler considers the consumer's preferences on the powering on for each appliance.

Secondly a model predictive controller is developed to control the electric heating system based on energy constraints resulting from the appliance scheduling.

Simulations show the energy efficiency and an optimized electricity cost of the strategy proposed.

Open access

Abstract

A welded steel protective cover used for the heat treatment of steel sheet coils is investigated. The protective cover is made of austenitic stainless steel and consists of three main segments, welded together, which have 1400 mm height each. The plate thicknesses at the lower, middle and upper segments are different. The investigation aimed to improve the lifetime and the number of heat cycles of the protective cover by changing the geometry, the effect of the thicknesses and the material. Damaged covers have been evaluated, made calculations of stress and deformations, and carried out a series of finite element simulations. Both horizontal and vertical corrugated sheets were simulated and compared. The non-corrugated plates were also investigated, but their performance was behind the corrugated ones. The original geometry and that of the horizontal corrugated plate are identical from the stress level point of view. The vertical position of the corrugated plate provided a better result than the horizontal one. The calculated and simulated results for the original geometry are close to the measured damage.

Open access

Abstract

The mechanical and physical properties of the crushed aggregate have been studied. The properties of crushed aggregate, which produced from recycled aggregate concrete is not discussed in the literature yet despite it could be a choice in some circumstances like in case of demolishing the structures that already constructed by recycled aggregate concrete. Twenty-two types of self-compacting high-performance concrete made by coarse natural aggregate and coarse recycle concrete aggregate have been crushed and their properties have been studied. The main findings of the present study that, the Los Angeles index and water absorption of crushed aggregate is affected by the coarse recycled concrete aggregate dosage in its parent concrete, as well as, incorporating cement replacing materials in parent concrete help to enhance the abrasion resistance of crushed aggregate.

Open access

Abstract

Stability is one of the most critical problems in the design of welded metal structures, since in many cases instability causes failure or collapse of the structures. The present study aims to show the minimum mass design procedure for welded steel box columns loaded by a compression force. The normal stresses and overall stability are calculated for pinned columns. The dimensions of the box columns are optimized by using constraints on global stability, local buckling of webs and flanges. Different design rules and standards are compared: Eurocode 3, Japan Railroad Association, American Petroleum Institute, and American Institute of Steel Construction. The calculations are made for different loadings, column length and steel grades. The yield stress varies between 235 and 690 MPa. Optimization is carried out using the generalized reduced gradient method in Excel solver. Cost calculations and comparisons show the most economical structure.

Open access

Abstract

The article is presenting a consideration of the photogrammetry technology in the field of architectural usage. The technology overview is describing a basic knowledge to support the professionals. The processes, rules and best practices are examined through case studies, which introduce a dwelling house, an old precast concrete hall and a landscape surveying to cover most of the architectural usage. The purpose of the research is to give guidance for technical possibilities and assists in the development of the methodologies. The main part of the article is focusing on unmanned aerial vehicles as these tools provide many useful features.

Open access

Abstract

Amongst different approaches, dynamic time warping has shown promising results during the online signature verification competitions of previous years. To improve the results of dynamic time warping, different preprocessing steps may be applied and different dimensions of the samples may be compared. The choice of preprocessing steps and comparing dimensions may significantly influence the results. Thus, to aid researchers with these decisions, a comparison made between the results of promising preprocessing algorithms as horizontal scaling, vertical scaling and alignment using dynamic time warping in different dimensions and their combinations on two datasets (SVC2004 and MCYT-100). The results showed that preprocessing methods made a very promising improvement in the verification accuracy.

Open access

Abstract

Decentralized wastewater systems treat, dispose and reuse the wastewater in the vicinity of source, reducing the sewage transportation cost to minimal. As an alternative to centralized systems it can function as a satellite system or an individual wastewater treatment unit. Design an onsite facility applies the same sizing procedure compared the conventional large scale systems, whereas the input flow data and its variability, the model parameters could differ. In this study a small size treatment unit was designed by biokinetic modeling, where the model parameters were estimated using analytical methods. As a result of the calculation the biomass build-up and the quality of the treated effluent was predicted and the operation parameters were determined in summer and winter operation.

Open access

Abstract

The paper discusses the theoretical background of the state space modeling of induction machines. The main goal is to present the necessary equations of the induction machine and the topic of the state space modeling. Although the induction machine is a highly non-linear system, LPV/qLPV model can be formulated from these equations.

Open access
Authors: Patrik Márk Máder, Dorottya Szilágyi and Olivér Rák

Abstract

Information-based modeling technology is supported by advanced information technology solutions in the building industry. The integration of its methodology into construction and design processes is already going on. However, many areas still have development possibilities; for instance, building surveys belong to these fields. Countless survey tools and methodologies endeavor to support and ease the work of professionals in design and construction, yet there is a need for comprehensive collaboration. This could be promoted by creating a direct link between survey tools and architectural design software.

This article demonstrates a tool under development that intends to provide a solution to this issue.

Open access

Four strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium including L. plantarum 01, L. fermentum D13, L. rhamnosus B01725, and B. bifidum B7.5 exhibiting naringinase production were applied in grapefruit juice fermentation. All investigated strains grew well in grapefruit juice without nutrition supplementation. In all cases, cell counts were 108–109 CFU ml−1 after 24 hours of fermentation. The highest lactic acid and acetic acid productions were observed in the case of strain L. plantarum 01. The L. plantarum 01 and L. fermentum D13 strains prefer glucose over fructose and sucrose, whereas fructose was the most favoured sugar for L. rhamnosus B01725 and B. bifidum B7.5. At the end of the fermentation process, antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of grapefruit juice decreased in all cases, but the changes were not significant. Significant decrease of naringin was observed in the case of L. plantarum 01, 28% naringin in grapefruit juice was removed after fermentation. This result is promising for development of technology for production of probiotic grapefruit juice.

Open access
Authors: Á. Vajda, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, L. Ózsvári and Gy. Kasza

Salmonellosis is a widely known infectious disease in Hungary that played dominant role between 1960 and 1996 and remained one of the top food-borne illnesses to these days with an estimated total number of 96 048 cases (2019). Beside direct costs of treatment, indirect costs are also significant on the level of population. Among indirect costs, consumer well-being losses are difficult to be estimated. For this purpose, the willingness to pay (WTP) method is used most frequently that measures the cost an individual would undertake to avoid a certain harm. For the well-being loss estimation, the data of National Food Chain Safety Authority's annual consumer survey was used, in which 323 respondents gave evaluable answer to the open-ended WTP question. Results indicate that an average respondent would pay 18.6 EUR to avoid salmonellosis. Main factors affecting WTP were size of family and number of children. The numbers indicate that the consumer well-being loss could be about 1 786 060 EUR annually, resulting from the multiplication of the estimated number of annual salmonellosis cases and the average WTP value. It can be concluded that consumer well-being losses alone would call for further interventions in Salmonella eradication, not to mention other – more direct – cost elements.

Open access

Increasing the protein and antioxidant content of food products is a constant challenge amongst researchers. Dried pasta products are popular amongst all groups of society. The most important factor in pasta processing is the quality of the flour. Millet (Panicum miliaceum) flour has high nutritional value, enriching it with cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) flour is good choice to increase the quality of protein composition and antioxidant properties of products. Flour mixtures of millet and insect flours (5% and 10%) were analysed after mixing and pasta processing. Addition of wheat gluten improved both texture and nutrition value of pasta products. Total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, total protein content, free and total amino acid composition were studied. Quality analysis of dried pasta products were carried out according to Hungarian standards. Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's pair-wise post hoc test was used with Bonferroni correction. The correlation was determined by Spearman's rank. Addition of cricket flour modified the pH, acid value, moisture content, and colour of the samples, these changes lasted during storage. Enrichment could increase the total phenol content significantly even at the low level of 10%. Heat treatment during pasta processing had negative effect on the antioxidant capacity except at higher cricket flour contents. Cricket flour's high protein content proportionately increased millet flour's, thus pasta products'. Dried pasta products passed all quality norms. Enrichment of millet flour with cricket flour is favourable from both nutritional and quality aspects.

Open access
Authors: É. Varga-Visi, B. Toxanbayeva, G. Andrássyné Baka and R. Romváari

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of refrigerated storage on the microbial properties and organoleptic quality of Bologna-type turkey sausage, in which fat was partially replaced with pea fibre or potato starch. Each manufactured sausage had lower counts of Esherichia coli and enterobacteria than 1 log CFU·g−1, counts were below 2 log CFU·g−1 for Staphylococcus aureus, moreover, no Salmonella spp. were found in any of the sausages. The counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria did not exceed 4 log CFU·g−1 for each sausage formulation during four-week storage at 4 °C. Spectrocolorimetric measurements revealed that there was no decline in luminosity (L*) and redness (a*) by time, namely colour fading did not occur. Saltiness and juiciness values of sausages were directly proportional. Low-fat sausages were perceived less salty than full-fat analogue with the same salt content at the early stage of storage. Nevertheless, this phenomenon was temporary as sausages had the same saltiness at the end of four-week storage period. Sausages, in which 25% of fat was substituted with pea fibre or potato starch, were assessed as having the same odour, consistency, taste, and overall impact like control during the four-week refrigerated storage.

Open access

Sustainable nutrition (SN) considers the environmental impact of food production. This study aims to analyse the relationship between nutrient density and water footprint (WF) of the most consumed food items in Hungary and to create a classification of nutrients. Based on a comprehensive analysis of literature and different data sources, the authors analysed the stochastic relationship between WF and nutrient density of different food items by Spearman's rank correlation. The analysis proved significant (P<0.05) relationship between nutrient density and WF of the most relevant food items in Hungary. Based on the classification, there are nutrients that are overconsumed among the Hungarian population and positively correlate with WF (e.g., cholesterol) and there are nutrients that are under-consumed among the Hungarian population and negatively correlate with WF (e.g., dietary fibres). In general, it can be concluded that the re-structuration of food consumption patterns in Hungary is an important and urgent task, which serves both the public health and ecologic goals. These efforts should be based on a complex evaluation of the problem. This study was one initial step to analyse SN focused on Hungary and further studies are definitely needed.

Open access

It is well known that the civil engineering constructions are subjected to cost risk and time overruns. The uncertainties of the cost of construction many times result in disputes among stakeholders. The recent cost fluctuation in sand price in Tamil Nadu is a good example of time and cost overruns. There are too many models developed to predict the cost of construction by using different parameters and tools. The objectives of this research are to analyse the importance of research in this field, the countries focusing on this issue, level of implementation by the practicing engineers, the tools often or successfully used, the difficulties in predicting the cost and the accuracy of prediction and bringing out a useful conclusion to provide the direction for future research. In this research, a sample of 324 research papers out of more than 2000 papers listed in Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2015 were considered and analyzed on five factors. The five factors are 1) authors affiliation – academics, industry or both; 2) country; 3) tools used – ANN, regression, time-series models, etc.; 4) complexity involved or ease of use; 5) accuracy of results. The results show interesting information.

Open access

Abstract

Diagnostics is an important and challenging task of the structural analysis and condition assessment of historic masonry structures. However the interpretation of the results of the measurements, especially for buildings made from brick and stone, is to be more subjective than that for concrete structures. Therefore improvement of the reliability of the used techniques and finding better correlations between the test results and the mechanical properties of masonry has proven to be of great importance.

While several diagnostic procedures are commonly used in practice to test mechanical properties of masonry, e.g. Schmidt hammer test, analysis of drilled samples, penetration tests, etc. the results of these methods are considered reliable under laboratory conditions, several additional factors have to be taken into account in case of an in-situ application of these methods, that may largely affect the obtained results and conclusions. The results of the diagnostic procedures therefore need to be interpreted with a view to these environmental factors.

The paper focuses on the practical use of several test methods for historic masonries via a real case study. The presented case study attempts to demonstrate benefits from the combined application of Pendulum Schmidt Hammer, moisture meter and scanning electron microscopy.

Open access
Authors: Taťána Fenclová, Zdeněk Jonšta, Miroslav Hnatko, Josef Kraxner and Pavol Šajgalík

This article describes a material prepared for biocements for medical use in human body. Biocements are used, for example, for bone implants or as a filling of bone cavities. The main method of preparation of Si3N4 microspheres in this article is based on flame synthesis. Different compositions of Si3N4 and Ca3(PO4)2 powder mixtures were prepared and synthesized in CH4 + O2 flame. The aim was to characterize the influence of the proportion of Si3N4 and Ca3(PO4)2 and the preparation of microspheres on their resulting chemical and crystalline phase composition and to determine the effect of these changes on the biological characteristics of the obtained microspheres.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to fulfill the parametric analysis on the heating performance of a compact automotive radiator using computational fluid dynamics. The analysis has been carried out at different air velocities with different fins modeling as real fins and as porous media. SC-Tetra computational fluid dynamics software was used for this study. The fluids are incompressible; the flow was three-dimensional and turbulent. The geometry of the fins has a high impact to the heat transfer coefficient and the heat performance, so the shape, the size and the thickness of the fins are compared to each other. The results show that the ratio of the fin pitch, the wall thickness of the fins, the number of the fins, the flow depth and the geometry of the tube are the main factors of the heat transfer. The main goal is to find a dependable Nu-number correlation for this type of heat exchanger. Furthermore with the usage of this function the goal is to find the optimal shape of the radiator, which can decrease the temperature of the cooling liquid to the necessary value and has the smallest weight.

Open access
Authors: Zs. Bodor, Cs. Benedek, T. Kaszab, J.-L. Zinia Zaukuu, I. Kertész and Z. Kovacs

Honey is produced by honeybees from nectar, sap of plant parts, or the juicy material secreted by sucking insects living on trees. It is rich in nutritionally useful components, the occurrence of which highly depends on the botanical and geographical origin of honey. Our goal is to develop a new, rapid, and accurate combination of analytical methods for identification of botanical and geographical origin.

Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, and ash content), colour (L*a*b*), and antioxidant properties were determined in addition to correlative techniques, such as electronic tongue and near infrared spectroscopy. For the statistical evaluation ANOVA, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis were applied.

Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in physicochemical properties, colour, and antioxidant capacity according to the botanical origin of honeys. Electronic tongue (ET) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques were useful in the identification of the botanical and geographical origin, showing generally good accuracy.

The physicochemical parameters are important and can serve as reference methods, completing NIR and ET as target techniques, which are promising, but need further improvement for the determination of honey origin.

Open access

The aim of this publication is to show the process of computer aided designing of the spur gear pairs having normal and modified straight teeth. For designing, the determination of the geometrical parameters is needed. Computer programs have been developed with which gear pairs having normal and modified teeth, with any arbitrary parameters can be analysed, designed and modelled. With these programs gear pairs having concrete geometry have been designed and CAD models have also been drawn to have further meshing, geometrical and TCA (Tooth Contact Analysis).

Open access
Authors: Sulaiman Riza, Djasmir Marlinawati and Mohamad Amran Mohd Fahmi

Segmentation is one of important methods in medical images processing, particularly as it allows images to be analysed. The method used for segmentation depends on the image problem to be resolved. In this research, knee cartilage needs to be segmented to determine the level of the Osteoarthritis (OA) and for further treatment. Knee cartilage is a soft hyline sponge that is located at the end of the femur, tibia and patella bone to release friction during movement. OA is a knee cartilage problem wherein there is a thinning of the cartilage that results in a shift especially happening between femur and tibia bone causing discomfort and pain. Thinning of the knee cartilage is due to many factors such as age, body weight, genetic, accident, sport injury and extreme use such as physical work. OA can occur to a male or female, child or adult. The effects experienced by patients with OA are such as difficulty to walk, limited movement, and pain in the thin cartilage areas. Monitoring of patients' condition needs to be done to help reduce the problem and thereby enable specialists to perform the appropriate treatment. Imaging is a method used today to monitor the condition of patients with OA. Previous studies showed that MRI is a suitable method for monitoring the condition of patients with OA because of its advantages in visualising knee cartilage more clearly than other imaging methods. Thus, for segmenting the knee cartilage which as mentioned before is an important process in medical images processing, the MR images were selected based on many factors. Segmentation in this study was aimed to obtain the cartilage region to diagnose patient OA level. Various segmentation techniques have been developed by researchers in segmenting the knee cartilage region but they have been unable to segment precisely due to the thin structure of the knee cartilage, especially for patients with intermediate and severe OA. COMSeg technique was developed to segment knee cartilage, especially for those experiencing a normal and intermediate OA and try to implement it to severe OA. The development of this new technique takes into account the imaging method used, the images feature obtained so it can be suitable to process knee image and then selection of an appropriate technique to be applied to the selected images as input.

Open access
Authors: Razilia Muftakhetdinova, Evgenia Brusnitsina, Grigoriy Yakovlev and Victor Grokhovsky

Cooling rates of meteoritic iron–nickel alloys were estimated using a processing of morphological features of their structure. All data have been acquired with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two types of cooling rates were obtained. Slow cooling during the formation of the meteoroid parent body determined the first type. The second type is a result of melt crystallization after a shock event.

Open access

Abstract

Human beings live in a complex and magical system of nature. The constitution of everything is like the structure science of architecture, which presents various forms and combinations. The development of structure science makes modern architecture show the high unity of internal structure and external contour. Through the study of branch networks formed by rivers, the mystery of branch growth can be found, for instance fractal self-similarity, preferential growth at the tops, avoidance of homogeneity, etc. Based on the understanding of branch ecosystem, everyone can try to build a sustainable surface structure by mimicking the laws of river network.

Open access
Authors: Monika Furko, Zsolt Fogarassy, Katalin Balázsi and Csaba Balázsi

A new method for preparing multi-layered graphene oxide powder was developed. In this method, the raw material was commercially available micro-sized graphite powder. The graphite powder was milled using a high speed attritor mill to reduce the particle size of the graphite to nanometer and to exfoliate the graphite into multi-layered graphene particles. The graphene particles were then oxidized into graphene oxide (GO) using the combination of strong oxidizing agents, thermal oxidizing, and sonication. Thorough morphological characterizations have been carried out to reveal the structure and the size of GO particles. The results confirmed that the oxidation process was successful.

Open access

Every year the library of IIUM subscribes to quite a number of online databases with huge expenses but the utilization of these databases is countable. 10 out of 53 subscriptions have been terminated by 2015 to save the cost go in vain. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model based on the ISB elements to identify the reason behind this low usage and to increase the usage of online databases in the future. It has undertaken a quantitative approach to identify the elements of ISB among undergraduate (UG) students. The primary data has been collected through questionnaires based on the variables identified in the objective. There are 118 samples participating in this research and the proposed model has been adapted from Savolainen and Wilson. Psychological perception, searching strategies and the information resources have been considered as the independent variable and measured the usage of the online database among UG students as the dependent variable. The results have shown that there are seven elements which have an influence on the usage of the online database among IIUM UG students. Despite the limited number of samples and a specific group of students, the proposed model can enhance the usage of online database system subscribed to by IIUM library and a search engine can be developed to get the usage increased. In that sense, it is recommended to involve more participants from the different levels of students and users to get diverse elements of ISB. However, the paper contributes to bridging the gap between the online database usage and the users, believed to have an effective outcome for online database subscription. It is hoped that the proposed model would significantly fill this gap and help the library to increase the number of users for their expensive databases.

Open access
Authors: K.N. Hussein, L. Friedrich, R. Pinter, Cs. Németh, G. Kiskó and I. Dalmadi

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bioactive compounds (BACs): linalool (LIN) and piperine (PIP) on chicken meat characteristics. The meat was treated with 500, 1000 ppm of BACs, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 8 days. Physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), microbiological status, and sensorial (electronic-nose based) properties were investigated. Both BACs significantly increased the redness (a*) and chroma (C*) values in meat compared to increased lightness (L*) and higher TBARS in control. Although both BACs showed overlapping aroma profile, the E-nose was able to distinguish between the different meat groups. LIN with various dilution ratios, particularly 1:10 (v:v), showed in vitro growth inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Bacillus cereus, concomitantly Listeria monocytogenes required 1:80 (v:v) to be inhibited, and no inhibition was detected for Pseudomonas lundensis. In contrast, PIP at different dilutions did not exhibit inhibitory activity. Regarding aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC), less than 7 log CFU g−1 were recorded except for control showing higher log. Both BACs have potential to improve quality characteristics and increase the shelf life of meat and meat products.

Open access

The technique of electrospinning has been researched for several decades. Almost all parameters have been investigated in the past years, e.g., solution parameters, process parameters, and environmental conditions. Among the solution parameters, the viscosity of the polymer solution is an extremely important factor for fiber formation and morphology. In general, however, viscosity of the polymer solution is mostly controlled by the solution concentration or by the molecular weight of the polymer in electrospinning field. Herein, we described the reason of a well-known but not completely explained conclusion that the needle diameter can have an influence on the fiber morphology. In this study, polyethylene-oxide (PEO) with a molecular weight of 400,000 g/mol was dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and water with a proportion of 1:3. The relationship between the viscosity of the polymer solution and shear rate was characterized by a plate–plate rheometer. A shear flow model was discussed, while polymer material was flowing through a needle, which presented that different deformation rates were imposed on materials due to variable needle diameters. Combining the rheological experiments and analysis of the shear flow model, the viscosity of polymer solution flowing out the needle was predicted by needle diameter. Through observing the obtained fibers' morphology by scanning electron microscopy and measuring their diameters by image processing software, it was found that the fiber diameter increased with the increase of needle diameter, as expected, which agreed with the relationship of fiber diameter and polymer viscosity.

Open access

The aim of this research is the analysis of the effect of the modification of the base profile angles of x-zero gear drives for the TCA parameters. We analyze the normal stress, the normal deformation and the normal elastic strain on the connecting zone of the gear pairs. Based on the received results we create diagrams which show the fluctuation of the analyzed TCA parameters in the function of the changing of the selected parameter of the x-zero gear drives. After the analysis we determine the consequences and select the appropriate variant.

Open access

Sustainability and scarcity in resources are the two major issues to be dealt within the present scenario by effective utilization of alternative materials. In this present study, an attempt has been taken to study the effect of supplementary materials such as fly ash and silica fume as a partial replacement to cement and steel slag and M-sand as a replacement to river sand on strength and durability of concrete. In this study, concrete specimens were prepared based on five different mixes by varying the percentages of these supplementary materials. Various mechanical properties like compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength were performed to ascertain the mix with optimum levels of replacement of supplementary materials for cement and fine aggregate. Durability property like water absorption test was performed on the mix with optimum values of strength. Results revealed that mix with higher percentages of steel slag, optimum level of silica fume and fly ash have shown higher strength and lesser permeability in concrete.

Open access

Some studies suggested a positive effect against cardiometabolic diseases of supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) rich foods in pathological subjects, even if the total literature is controversial. In order to clarify ALA-rich chia seed action in hypertensive model with the overt pathology and without drug interference, in the present study the biochemical markers of cardiometabolic diseases (endothelin-1, ET-1; nitric oxide, NO; and bradykinin, BK) in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) were analysed after 5% chia seed dietary supplementation for five weeks, and compared with the staple raw material wheat and corn. At the end of the experimental period, also plasma antioxidant capacity and inflammatory condition were evaluated. Our results showed that the chia seed group was more oxidized. On the other hand, ET-1 significantly decreased in chia seed group, and there was no difference between groups for NO, BK, and the inflammatory C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, some positive effects of chia seed consumption on cardiometabolic markers in SHRs were observed, despite this the association of chia seeds with antioxidants is suggested to avoid plasma oxidation increase.

Open access

Abstract

This study empirically investigates the effects of the special, face to face supplier performance measurement system. Using supplier performance measurement system the supplier will have the possibility to make a self-assessment method through questionnaires according to different aspects. The customers make the same queries. After ranking from both sides, the results will be compared and confronted with the supplier. The effects on different areas and the nexus with supplier in the aftercare period will be examined in this study. The relation between the communication and reaction modes at the procurement side is deeply discussed.

Open access
Authors: João Ostrowski and József Menyhárt

Constant stream of data has been generated and stored as more devices are being connected to the internet and supported with cloud technologies. The price drop of such applications along with industry 4.0 trending, triggered an explosive growth and demand for many IT modern solutions. From an industrial point of view, sensorization practices are spreading through factories and warehouses where software is constantly adapting to provide actionable insights in a data-driven configuration. The fourth industrial revolution is empowering the manufacturers with solutions for cost reduction, which translates in competitive advantage. The sector of maintenance operations is leading in engineering innovation, from reactive to planned preventive techniques the next step in history of proactive approaches is Predictive Analytics Maintenance.

Open access