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Browse Our Latest Applied Sciences Journals
In applied sciences, researchers use particular scientific methods to achieve practical goals. You can think of applied sciences as a broad, integrated area of various scientific fields that involve agronomy, agriculture, food science, medicine, engineering, computer science, and many other natural and social science disciplines. The main goal of applied science is to provide more knowledge and practical applications
The main difference between applied sciences and fundamental sciences lies in their use. While fundamental science aims to explain and understand different world phenomena, applied science puts those findings into practical endeavors. Applied science uses knowledge obtained from the fundamental sciences, and it wouldn’t be possible without them. Engineering and medical sciences are good examples of applied sciences, but many other disciplines can involve practical use and be considered applied sciences.
Some of the most common areas of applied science include applied psychology, biotechnology, biomechanical engineering, business and economics, civil engineering, computer science, environmental science, genetics, food science, forensics, electrical engineering, geology engineering, industrial engineering, information systems, medicine, materials science, and acoustic engineering, nanotechnology engineering, physiology, artificial intelligence.
The main aim of applied science journals is to provide an educational platform with recent activities in all applied sciences fields mentioned above. A typical journal of applied sciences is a peer-reviewed international journal focused on publishing original research and review articles.
The primary target audience for applied science journals are professionals, researchers, developers, graduate and undergraduate students, and all academic individuals interested in the latest applied science research and findings.
The most accepted article types in journals of applied sciences include research articles, review articles, short communication, case study, commentary, and similar publications.
AKJournals is proud to present a collection of six applied science journals from various applied science fields:
The soaking step of dry pulse products' – e.g. chickpeas' – food processing is a time consuming process. Soaking time can be significantly reduced by ultrasonic treatment or using higher processing temperatures. The effect of ultrasonic treatment can be investigated by examining the soaking water characteristics. Ultrasound-assisted soaking of chickpeas was performed at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. Additionally, control samples were also prepared without ultrasonic treatment at the same temperatures. The dynamics of the fitted curve clearly shows the relationship namely the higher the treatment temperature, the faster the hydration of the raw material for both untreated and treated groups. In contrast to control group, swelling rate of 2.00 – except the group 45 °C – is not achieved during ultrasound-assisted soaking. In case of treated group, the swelling rate was about 1.90 for all temperatures applied. The ANOVA test shows that the color of the ultrasonically treated samples was significantly different compared to the control (F (5;12) = 207.86; P < 0.001). Average dry matter content and °Brix value were significantly higher in the ultrasound treated group compared to the control in case of all temperatures. This may indicate the destructive effect of ultrasound, which may cause more components to dissolve out of the raw material by the end of the soaking process.
The objective of our work was to analyze the differences between four nut pastes, which were the following: walnut, peanut, pistachio, and tahini (sesame). The process technology of them is unknown, however, all the products contain 100% nut without any additives or flavoring.
The paste samples were measured at 25 ± 0.2 °C. The apparent viscosity at a 10 1/s shear rate during flow curve recording, and the dynamic viscosity at a constant 20 1/s shear rate was determined by viscosity measurement with the use of the MCR302 modular compact rheometer. The L*a*b* color components were determined by ColorLite sph850 spectrometer, finally, the particle sizes and shapes of the samples were analyzed by the high-speed image analysis instrument QICPIC.
The apparent viscosity and the average dynamic viscosity values of the four nut pastes were significantly different from each other. Differences were found between each paste according to the L*a*b* parameters. The complex structures of the particles are detailed and measurable, whereby the lengths and diameters of the particles can reliably be determined and fine deviations between the samples are detected. The sphericity decreases slightly with increasing particle size which means that bigger particles are more irregularly shaped.
With growing attention to health and lifestyle changes, functional foods have become crucial and in demand. These foods are a rich source of probiotics and prebiotics, but most probiotic products are dairy-based, making them inappropriate for people with lactose intolerance or milk protein allergies. Nevertheless, egg white offers a viable substitute and is considered one of the best sources of functional proteins. As an alternative food matrix, they come highly recommended for those who are hypersensitive to dairy products or who follow a high-protein diet, such as athletes. In this context, egg-white drink with different carbohydrate sources, including monosaccharide (fructose) and oligosaccharide (fructooligosaccharide), was fermented by Lacticaseibacillus casei 01. After 24 h of fermentation, the total cell count was higher than 8 log10 CFU mL−1 thus, the egg white drink was suitable for L. casei 01 to grow. Additionally, the survival of L.casei 01, the pH value, and the rheological properties of fermented beverages within three weeks of refrigerated storage were also investigated. Throughout the storage period, the control samples exhibited considerably lower cell count and higher pH values compared to the samples with carbohydrate sources, also, samples containing the same carbohydrate source showed no noticeable changes. Viscosity measurements of the studied samples showed a shear thickening behaviour during the time.
In recent years response surface analysis has been increasingly used to optimise membrane separation. It has many advantages, such as reducing the number of experiments to be performed, which requires lower energy consumption and significantly less laboratory work. For more accurate data analysis and forecasting, mathematical models are used that analyse the relevance of the factors examined and the interaction effects between the factors. In this research, two experimental designs that use response surface methodology are presented, namely, the central composite design and the Box–Behnken design. After the general characterisation of the experimental designs, their application in membrane technology is presented.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is grown worldwide in open fields and greenhouses in a range of climate conditions. Hedgerows are a type of agroforestry systems that monitors ecological and influence microclimate conditions. An experiment was conducted at the Soroksár experimental field of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences in 2022 to investigate the influence of hedgerow technology on tomato plant leaves, N, P, K, chlorophyll, and carotene mineral levels from different distances, Exposed sides W1-3m, W2-9m and W3-15m and Protected sides NP1-3m, NP2-9m and NP3-15m, meters from the hedgerow trees.
The results investigate potassium and carotene, as well as chlorophyll b levels, are less differed among the protected and exposed side of the hedgerows trees, while the others were impacted to a certain extent; nitrogen and chlorophyll content was generally higher on the exposed side regardless of variety, while in the case of phosphorus adverse effects were observed. Distance from the hedge showed similar patterns for all traits. The results will help to better understand the impact of alternate technologies on tomato production in open-field conditions.
Polyphenols from agro-industrial waste particularly of fruit origin are a reliable source of antioxidants and antimicrobials that can be used as natural food additives. Organic solvents play an important role in extracting the polyphenols, however, inefficiency in exerting bioactivity and interference with the organoleptic properties are among the reasons that hinder their use as food additives. These problems can be alleviated by purification. In this study, the effect of resin types and elution solvent for purification of the apple pomace extracts on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidants were investigated. Crude ethanolic extracts were purified using amberlite resins (XAD7HP and FPX66) in a glass column (25 × 310 mm). The sorption flow rate was 2 Bed volume (BV) per hour, rinse 2 BV per hour, and desorption was 2 BV per hour. Final wash and regeneration were each done by 2 BV per hour. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were quantified spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays respectively. Polyphenol recovery was 50% in XAD7HP (Lowest) using ethanol and 69% in FPX66 (Highest) using acetone. For the case of FRAP recovery, 76% (Lowest) was observed in FPX66 using ethanol while 93% (Highest) was observed in XAD7HP using acetone. Conclusively, FPX66 is the ideal resin for the purification of apple pomace extracts for enhancing antioxidant activity compared to XAD7HP. Further, acetone seems to be a good desorption solvent compared to ethanol.
This study investigates the effect of 2% lactic acid and 2% ascorbic acid mixture on the quality parameters of red deer meat and beef. After treatment samples were stored at 4 ± 1 °C. The following meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, color, and microbiological count on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The results showed that at the end of the experiment, the pH of the treated samples was slightly higher than the non-treated samples, indicating that the lactic acid and ascorbic acid mixture had a mild acidifying effect on the meat. The color of the treated and non-treated samples did not show any significant difference. However, the microbiological count in the treated samples was lower than the non-treated samples. These findings suggest that an acid mixture could be used as a natural preservative to enhance the microbial safety of red deer meat and beef.
This study focuses on the contribution of maturity stages and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to the quality of ‘Zebra’ apricot. Samples were harvested at mature-green, yellow and orange maturity stages. Fruit were treated with gaseous 1-MCP (24 h at 1 °C), followed by cold storage at 1 °C for 6 weeks. Non-destructive measurements were used to evaluate the quality changes of apricot during storage. The results showed that the maturity stages significantly affected the weight loss. The loss of weight increased rapidly for orange ripeness stage fruit, more than others during storage. Both maturity and 1-MCP affected the stiffness of apricot. The 1-MCP could delay the softening of fruit. The green and yellow maturity stages retained higher values in stiffness compared to orange. No significant difference in hue angle values was observed between 1-MCP treated and control fruit, however hue angle value decreased strongly in mature-green harvested fruit. The maturity stages and 1-MCP treatment had the effect on quality changes of apricot over storage. The maturity stage was an important factor contributing to the effectiveness of 1-MCP application as it was observed in slower softening after harvest.
Besides their unique taste and texture, mushrooms are a promising source of important nutrients, including dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Fresh mushrooms, however, can only endure for a brief time, typically up to three days at ambient conditions. Different methods have been used to preserve mushrooms for a prolonged period, such as drying, cooking, frying, irradiation and fermentation. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of different pre-treatments and fermentation on physicochemical, textural, and microbial properties of oyster mushrooms. The fresh oyster mushroom was considered as control and 6 alternative pre-treatment methods were used as; blanching in water, steaming, oven cooking, microwave, High Hydrostatic Pressure and UV Light treatment. Moisture, pH, yield, color, texture, and microbiological analyses were performed on each pre-treatment group before and after fermentation. Our results showed that the quality attributes of oyster mushrooms were significantly affected by the usage of different pre-treatments.
The presented study investigated the effects of edible coatings with concentration of 2%, 3% and 4% of starch (w/v) on the weight loss and firmness loss of green asparagus during 4 days of storage at room temperature (26 ± 2 °C, 65–70% RH). According to the results, the coated asparagus exhibited significantly slower deterioration rate than the uncoated control samples. This was indicated by the decrease in weight loss and increase in firmness (P < 0.05). After the storage period, the samples treated with 4% starch formula retained the highest quality. Furthermore, the assessment of asparagus quality throughout the storage period involved the use of the line laser scattering technique. Extracted parameters of laser scattering signal discriminated samples with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), in which the correct recognition rate of the treated groups was 75.26% and the storage time was 70.54%. This study showed the potential of laser scattering as a rapid, non-invasive, and practical optical method for assessing the quality of asparagus during storage.
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of two reverse osmosis membranes (RO99 and X20) plus one nanofiltration membrane (NF270) at concentrating hawthorn fruit and anise seed extracts. Extracting the anise was done using water at a temperature of 37 °C over a period of 100 min. For hawthorn, ethanol-water (56%) was used as the solvent and extraction occurred at 55 °C for 80 min. The transmembrane pressure (TMP), temperature, and recirculation flow rate of the membrane separation process were monitored and set at 35 bar, 30 °C, and 400 l/h respectively. Using a spectrophotometer, the quantification of valuable compounds was examined. After studying the flow levels, it was discovered that the X20 membrane had the tiniest alterations in permeability, followed by RO99 and NF270. Moreover, in terms of efficiency, the X-20 outperformed RO-99 and NF-270 membranes, where TPC was increased (20 and 18-fold) for anise seed and hawthorn fruit extracts respectively, and TFC was increased 8-fold for both of the extracts. While using NF-270, TPC was increased only (11 and 6-fold), and TFC (4 and 2-fold) for anise seed and hawthorn fruit extracts respectively. For the antioxidant activity, the process using X-20 showed an improvement of around 12-fold for anise extracts and 15-fold for hawthorn extracts for antioxidant activity. In terms of brix, the anise extracts saw a 3-fold increase and the hawthorn extracts saw a 4-fold boost after going through the X-20 membrane concentration process. Additionally, the X-20 membrane exhibits the highest retention rates for both anise and hawthorn extracts and is least affected by fouling during the concentration process.
The food robotics revolution is driving a shift in the vending machine sector from conventional pre-packaged sales to on-site food manufacture. As these machines develop into small-scale food processing points, it is critical to guarantee food safety. The implementation of automated Clean-in-Place (CIP) techniques, in addition to manual cleaning, is modelled after food production practices, where hygiene is maintained without direct human intervention. These days, running these modern, multifunctional vending machines requires giving the highest priority to food safety and putting rigorous control measures in practice.
This case study aimed to implement a CIP procedure in a vending machine and assess microbial contamination. Water, blender, and smoothies were microbiologically analyzed to evaluate the microbial safety of ingredients, equipment, and the final product.
Microbiological analysis showed that none of the samples was contaminated with three major pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli. This study showed the importance of the Clean-in-Place (CIP) process in automated vending machines.
The aim of the present study was to find the best extraction parameters to obtain the highest amounts of polyphenols and antioxidants from the walnut. Walnut kernels from ‘Alsószentiváni 117’ cultivar were used for extraction. The extraction methods were as the follows:
Method 1: shaking water-bath at 50 °C for 30 min.
Method 2: shaking water-bath at 50 °C for 30 min, then storing at 5 °C for 20 h.
Method 3: shaking water-bath at 40 °C for 30 min.
Method 4: shaking water-bath at 40 °C for 30 min, then storing at 5 °C for 20 h.
According to our results Method 1 showed the highest FRAP value (34.43 mg AAE g−1), the DPPH value (52,94%) and the highest HPLC peaks for chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and rutin were also seen in extracts obtained using Method 1. TPC values of Method 3 were 26.06 mg GAE g−1 for Method 1 it was 25.65 mg GAE g−1. The results of color values, L* and ΔE* were similar in all extracts as well. In our experiments extraction Method 1 proved to be better than others.
Ethylene has key roles in triggering and speeding up ripening processes, which in tomatoes take the form of various qualitative changes. Tomatoes, just like all climacteric fruits, need a continuous ethylene exposure to accelerate ripening. Therefore, it is possible to use ripening regulators preventing ethylene binding. According to some studies, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be used at least as efficiently as tristimulus colorimetry classifying tomatoes based on maturity. Measurements were carried out by treating fresh tomatoes with 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) at six different stages of ripening and studying the changes in chlorophyll content related quality characteristics (e.g. surface colour, chlorophyll fluorescence) during postharvest storage (two-week refrigerated storage at 15 °C followed by a two-week shelf life). According to our results, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the treated samples decreased much less than those of untreated ones. Additionally, anti-ripening treatment proved to be more effective on tomatoes at an earlier stage of ripening.
In this work, the simulated adulteration of coconut drink by dilution with water was investigated using laser-light backscattering (LLB) imaging. The laser vision system consisted of six low power laser modules, emitting 1 mm diameter beams at wavelengths of 532, 635, 780, 808, 850 and 1,064 nm. The backscattering images were acquired by a grey scale camera with 12 bit resolution. Eight parameters were extracted to describe the backscattering profile. The methods of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were performed on LLB parameters for classifying and predicting dilution level of adulterated coconut drink samples. Based on the results, LLB signals responded sensitively to adulteration. LDA results showed that adulterated samples were correctly recognized with accuracies between 60 and 100%. PLS models were able to estimate the adulteration level of samples with coefficients of determination of 0.57–0.97 in validation. This result demonstrated the potential of laser-light backscattering imaging as a rapid and non-destructive optical technique for evaluation of coconut drink adulteration.
Measurement of soil water content is complicated due to the soil heterogeneity and environmental variability. No single efficient method has been developed to map the different soil moisture zones at great depth at the field scale without disturbing the soil structure and paths of the waterflow.
Partially or completely non-destructive measurement of soil moisture is provided by ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which offers high resolution and significant penetration depth for medium-scale soil moisture measurements, bridging the methodological gap between small-scale point-based and large-scale remote sensing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used with better time efficiency compared to other destructive or non-destructive procedures.
GPR has been used for soil water content estimation including measuring soil water content profile, identifying specific soil water depths or soil water variation under irrigation conditions.
Despite the high potential of GPR for hydrological investigations, it is important to realize that no single geophysical method is able to perform optimally under all conditions. For example, GPR is mostly restricted to areas with relatively low electrical conductivity (low attenuation of the electromagnetic wave). In addition, some of the GPR interpretation methods require the presence of well identifiable and continuous GPR reflections, which requires sufficient and spatially continuous subsurface contrast in dielectric permittivity.
Soil moisture (considering its flow) is a key variable in the fields of agriculture. It is the essential requirement for plants to grow. Consequently, soil moisture is important for irrigation management particularly in semiarid and arid regions.
In this paper, the literature of the principles of GPR measurements and utilization possibilities is summarized with the emphasis on the agricultural sector. GPR can be a beneficial measuring device that can help in mapping soil moisture distribution, taking into account infiltration, but also water loss caused by evaporation and plant water absorption. Consequently, it can be used in agriculture, due to its precision at high central frequency values, even (fine)root characteristics of the plants, essentially the xylem-water relationship can also be determined (xylem transports water and water-soluble minerals and supply water used during photosynthesis). In addition, GPR can provide valuable information regarding natural stratification and soil compaction. The data interpretation of GPR measurements, in addition to soil compaction causing a decrease in the moisture of soils (as three-phase systems), can in principle be extended to other aspects of agrotechnology, such as soil contamination studying. However, it has not been sufficiently explored, as no recent literature can be found on this subject.
Soil radar can be a useful part of “Smart farming”, which can help in the selection of soil moisture measuring sensors placed in the soil as part of it. Especially when associated with the recently released new simultaneous multi-offset and multi-channel (SiMoc) GPR system, which enables fast soil profile mapping with seven receivers, but at the speed of a traditional single-channel GPR.
If complete non-destruction is the goal, air-coupled GPRs mounted on a drone can provide an opportunity. It should be noted, however, that due to the significant signal attenuation (wave scattering) occurring at the soil-air interface, only a small penetration depth can be achieved.
This study has developed adaptive synergetic control (ASC) algorithm to control the angular position of moving plate in the electronic throttle valve (ETV) system. This control approach is inspired by synergetic control theory. The adaptive controller has addressed the problem of variation in systems parameters. The control design includes two elements: the control law and adaptive law. The adaptive law is developed based on Lyupunov stability analysis of the controlled system, and it is responsible for estimating the potential uncertainties in the system. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive synergetic control has been verified by numerical simulation using MATLAB/Simulink. The results showed that the ASC algorithm could give good tracking performance in the presence of uncertainty perturbations. In addition, a comparison study has been made to compare the tracking performance of ASC and that based on conventional synergetic control (CSC) for the ETV system. The simulated results showed that the performance of ASC outperforms that based on CSC. Moreover, the results showed that the estimation errors between the actual and estimated uncertainties are bounded and there is no drift in the developed adaptive law of ASC.
The Cyber-Physical and Vehicle Manufacturing Laboratory, a model Industry 4.0 laboratory, is applying new innovative solutions to improve the quality of education. As part of this, a digital twin of the lab was designed and built, where users can practice. In the virtual space, it is possible to apply the known robot motion types, and the tool centre and wrist speed have been measured virtually. Robot control tasks can be performed “offline” using parameters. This information can then be transferred to the actual physical robot unit. The stable diffusion 1.5 deep learning model generates 2D geometric shapes for trajectory, allowing users to perform unique tasks during education. The Google Colab cloud-based service was used to teach our rendered-type dataset. For the 3D simulation frame, we used V-REP, which was developed on a desktop PC equipped with an Intel Core i5 7600K processor, Nvidia GTX1070 VGA with 8 GB of DDR5 VRAM, and 64 GB of DDR4 memory modules. The following material describes an existing industrial six-axis robot arm and its implementation, which can be controlled and programmed while performing virtual measurements after integrating into a Cyber-Physical system and using deep learning techniques.
In order to improve the thermal performance of heat exchangers and air collectors, we insert various forms of artificial roughness, known as ribs, into the useful duct. These ribs promote the creation of turbulent flows and enhance heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.
However, the introduction of these ribs leads to an increase in pressure drop, requiring higher mechanical power to pump the heat transfer fluid. This experimental study focuses on estimating, using empirical approaches, the pressure losses induced by rectangular ribs with an inclined top. The ribs are made from 0.4 mm galvanized sheet steel.
An experimental set-up was designed to measure the head losses generated by the ribs, from the point of entry to the point of exit from the useful duct. Using the dimensional analysis method, correlations were established to evaluate head losses as a function of flow regime and rib geometry and configuration (including different geometries for rib arrangement over the configuration area).
With the escalating density of vehicles converging at road intersections, the surge in road accidents, traffic conflicts, and traffic congestion has emerged as a pressing concern. This research paper addresses these challenges by employing MC (manual control) techniques to mitigate encroachment issues at three selected intersections. These intersections were identified through a comprehensive analysis of the Ranking-based Instance Selection (RIS), enabling the design of suitable measures to facilitate smooth traffic flow and minimize the occurrence of crashes. In order to gather pertinent data, the study incorporates various parameters such as traffic volume, peak flow rate (PFR), traffic conflicts, accidents, and intersection inventory. Through the implementation of our proposed approaches, which involve both MC techniques and signalized operation, a supreme level of service (LOS) is attainable. Notably, our findings demonstrate a remarkable reduction in the volume-to-capacity ratio (v/c ratio) of up to 0.62. This paper thus serves as a significant contribution to the field of traffic management, offering practical insights for optimizing intersection design and effectively addressing the challenges posed by increased traffic density.
Worldwide, precast and hybrid construction methods are becoming increasingly popular in the construction industry. But many problems occur during the fabrication, such as segregation, bleeding, scaling, plastic shrinkage, dust formation, honeycombing, sintering, high sorptivity, and high permeability and transportation. This problem may be caused by an ineffective curing process that affects the quality of concrete and construction. In addition, it provides inadequate and incomplete cement hydration that has a 20% negative effect on the desired properties of the concrete. Various researchers have demonstrated the components of self-curing lightweight concrete that can enhance strength and physicochemical properties, and address the above-mentioned issues. In this review, the role of the self-curing mechanism in lightweight concrete based on the various self-curing chemical admixtures such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), superabsorbent polymer (SAP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium lignosulfonate and calcium lignosulfonate as self-curing agents are discussed in detail. Also, this paper briefly reports on the scope, significance, mechanisms, and tests for self-curing lightweight concrete. Overall, this review analyzes the possibilities of future research perspectives on self-curing lightweight concrete with sustainable materials and fibres with comparative technical information.
Sensors are the main components in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), which transmit large amounts of physical values and big data to computing platforms for processing. On the other hand, the embedded processors (as edge devices in fog computing) spend most of their time reading the sensor signals as compared with computing time. The impact of sensors on the performance of fog computing is very great, thus, the enhancement of the reading time of sensors will positively affect the performance of fog computing, and solves the CPS challenges such as delay, timed precision, temporal behavior, energy, and cost. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the 1st derivative of the sensor signal to generate an adaptive sampling frequency. The proposed algorithm uses an adaptive frequency to capture the sudden and rapid change in sensor signal in the steady state. Finally, we realize and tested it using the Ptolemy II Modeling Environment.
Food industrial bacterial cells eliminate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at different ratios. The study aimed to investigate the effect of AFM1 on probiotic industrial bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis R703, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12, and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 431) and evaluating their AFM1 binding ability in naturally contaminated milk. The growth of the R703 strain was affected by AFM1 at 1.47 μg L−1 concentration. Peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall fractions of R703 and BB12 bound a significant amount of AFM1 from naturally contaminated milk under one-hour treatment, while L. paracasei 431 was not effective. PG was better absorbent for AFM1 than viable cells of BB12, while the difference was insignificant for the R703 strain. Increasing the time did not significantly change the mycotoxin binding of BB12, while for R703 PG the absorption seemed reversible. BB12 PG needs further analysis for biotechnological application in dairy products.
This study examines the economic optimisation of existing district heating systems. A new approach has been taken to solving a long-standing problem. The authors describe the input-output model of the system, the balance equations for the thermal equilibrium of the system, and the heat transfer system. From the balance equations of the series-connected system elements, the resultant heat transfer balance equation and the resultant power transmission equation are derived. In an example, the authors detailed how perturbations in some input variables can be corrected with other variables. The equations presented and the concepts introduced form absolutely new scientific results.
Selecting the construction delivery method during the contracting period is one of the most important decisions determining the quality of large-scale infrastructure projects. Infrastructure projects have the most complex production processes in civil engineering. Infrastructure projects are among the most complex and resource-intensive endeavours in civil engineering due to their size, scope, multidisciplinary nature, regulatory requirements, financing challenges, environmental considerations, and the need for long-term planning and maintenance. Effective project management, collaboration, and a deep understanding of these challenges are crucial for the successful execution of infrastructure projects. Implementing such projects inevitably demands proper quality management throughout the project lifecycle. Two primary types of construction contracts are under implementation worldwide: Design-Bid-Build (DBB) and Design–and–Build (DB) contracts. In the Western Balkans region, both types of contracts are utilized for infrastructure projects, A noticeable trend is emerging toward transitioning from DBB to DB contracts. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of quality management within the context of construction contracts with a focus on the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders and how these factors affect the achievement of quality objectives while managing constraints related to cost and time. This research aims to improve construction practices by selecting an adequate type of contract for construction practices and ensuring successful project outcomes.
In this study, nonlinear control design is presented for trajectory tracking of Tricopter system. A Fractional Order Proportional Derivative (FOPD) controller has been developed. The performance of controlled Tri-copter system can be enhanced by suggesting modern optimization technique to optimally tune the design parameters of FOPD controller. The Spotted Hyena Optimizer (SHO) is proposed as an optimization method for optimal tuning of FOPD's parameters. To verify the performance of controlled Tricopter system based on optimal SHO-based FOPD controller, computer simulation is implemented via MATLAB codes. Moreover, a comparison study between SHO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been made in terms of robustness and transient behavior characteristics of FOPD controller.
This work used a carrageenan-based thrombosis model to determine the preventative effects of Lactobacillus plantarum YS1 (LPYS1) on thrombus. In thrombotic mice, LPYS1 improved the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), while decreasing the thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. In thrombotic mouse serum, LPYS1 decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), while also increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Moreover, LPYS1 upregulated the mRNA expression levels of copper/zinc-SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD), and CAT in the colon tissues of thrombotic mice, while downregulating those of NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA. In tail vein vascular tissues, LPYS1 suppressed the mRNA expression levels of NF-κB p65, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. The abundances of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria were altered by LPYS1. These findings show that LPYS1 has the capacity to protect mice from thrombosis, while also revealing some of the underlying mechanisms of this effect.
As part of the energy design synthesis method, complex dynamic building simulation database was created with IDA ICE code for all family house building configurations for a considered problem. In this paper, the annual heat energy demand output parameter is considered to serve as basis of a building energy design investigation. The sensitivity analysis performed by Morris' elementary effect method was used. As the result of the sensitivity analysis of the output parameter, the most important input parameters can be identified, that influence the buildings' energy efficiency, that can support further building designs.
The aim of the research was to carry out the One-at-a-Time sensitivity analysis of a tree burning experiment simulation with a novel fuzzy logic-based method. It was observed that the precent of the remaining tree is sensitive to the moisture content, the crown-base diameter and the tree height. The other variables, which are maximum mass loss rate, maximum heat release rate, and maximum temperature at the top of the tree are moderately sensitive or not sensitive to the selected parameters. The presented results can be used in sensitivity studies and wildfire simulations.
This study uses a three-layer backpropagation neural network combined with particle swarm optimization to control the foamed bitumen in cold recycling technology. The foaming process of bitumen is non-linear and depends on dynamic temperature. By developing a neural network model, this study effectively captures the complex relationships between temperature, water content, air pressure, and the expansion ratio and half-life of foamed bitumen. The integration of particle swarm optimization enhances the accuracy and convergence of the neural network model by optimizing the initial weights. This optimization process improves the model's ability to predict and control the quality of foamed bitumen accurately. It serves as a valuable tool for the rapid development of high-quality cold asphalt design.
The paper deals with the capacitance of cylindrical two-dimensional capacitor which consists of Cartesian orthotropic dielectric material. The determination of the capacitance of capacitor with orthotropic dielectric material by a suitable coordinate transformation is reduced to the computation of capacitance of an isotropic capacitor. It is proven that the capacitance of a Cartesian orthotropic capacitor can be obtained in terms of an isotropic capacitor whose dielectric constant is the geometric mean of the dielectric constant of the orthotropic capacitor.
Fair treatment of individuals in a scheduling task is essential. Unfairness can cause dissatisfaction among workers, faster obsolescence of work tools and underutilization of others. The literature's definitions vary, and there is no clear definition of general scheduling tasks.
This article explores fair scheduling through the lens of final exams, aiming to extend decision support system methodologies. It proposes a method based on Lipschitz mapping to measure fairness and presents a pseudo-algorithm for estimating optimal trend lines.
The model and the algorithm are demonstrated using the example of final exam schedules. In this way, two feasible solutions can be measured and compared in terms of fairness.
The Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV) is the core part of automotive engines which are recently used in control-by-wire cars. The estimation of its states and uncertainty is instructive for control applications. This study presents the design of Extended State Observer (ESO) for estimating the states and uncertainties of Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV). Two versions of ESOs have been proposed for estimation: Linear ESO (LESO) and Nonlinear ESO (NESO). The model of ETV is firstly developed and extended in state variable form such that the extended state stands for the uncertainty in system parameters. The design of both structures of ESOs are developed and a comparison study has been conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed observers. Numerical simulation has been conducted to assess the performance of observers in estimating the states and uncertainties of ETV. The simulated results showed that both full order and reduced order models of ETV have the same transient characteristics. Moreover, the effectiveness of two versions of observers has been examined based on Root Mean Square of Error (RMSE) indicator. The results showed that the NESO has less estimation errors for both states and uncertainties than LESO.
In this study, suitable fly ash (FA) was selected for agricultural purposes according to combined characteristic soils and water. The two FAs from the Tuticorin Thermal Power Plant (FA-TTPP) and Sripathy Thermal Power Station (FA-STPS) and physio-chemical analysis of soil and water samples from the five different sites (1–5) in Viruthunagar district, Tamilnadu is made. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) of FAs showed that quartz (SiO2), mullite (Al6Si2O), and hematite (Fe2O3) are available that enhance plant growth. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed that Si–O–Si, Al–O–Si, HO–OH, and OH bonding present in the FAs support to meet the required plant nutrients in the soil. Scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) of FA-TTPP revealed compact microspheres with regular, smooth, and irregular textures while FA-STPS showed glassy, unshaped fragments that may help to improve the texture of field sites. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis found that FAs have essential macro- and micronutrients to minimize the soil nutrient and thus help to improve plant productivity. Sites 1 and 2 have acidic soil conditions and are recommended to use both FAs since they are alkaline in nature. FA can improve the water-holding capacity of sandy loam soils of sites 2, 3, and 4 due to the presence of fineness content in FA. Site- 1 has iron deficiency which can be remediated with rich iron FA-STPS. It is recommended to use optimum FA based on soil and water to improve agricultural efficiency.
This article aims at illustrating the major factors of construction firms' failure from the perspective of constructors. Thirty-seven (37) factors are illustrated in this article. The factors are divided under 3 groups: financial, managerial and external. The study used the field survey technique (questionnaire) to collect the necessary data that serves its purpose. Results illustrate that the top 5 contributors are: delay in collecting payments from owner (financial group), poor work experience (managerial group), bidding strategy (managerial group), local political conditions, low profit due to high competition (financial group). Results indicate that the top factors are internal factors which could be handled and controlled by the company itself. The results of this study are the first step towards identifying the problems of contracting companies in order to understand them and try to find solutions that will raise the level of companies and ensure their continuity and success.
In this study, we compile the findings to date on using several cellulose-based materials as adsorbents of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from wastewater. Furthermore, this review discussed the destiny of PTEs-loaded cellulose-based adsorbents and some sustainable methods for their management, hoping to close the pollution loop.
Expansive unsaturated soils present challenges in construction due to their moisture-induced behavior. This study proposes empirical equations to estimate the maximum wetting depth over time. Laboratory experiments and numerical analyses using SEEP/W software investigate wetting depth considering time and sand content in coastal and inland regions. Results reveal the significant influence of sand content on maximum soil moisture depth, emphasizing a recommended content above 30% to mitigate heave. The equations offer practical tools for assessing wetting depth, accounting for temporal and spatial variations. This research highlights the importance of wetting depth in addressing soil-related concerns and provides a foundation for further exploration of related factors.
The influence of utilizing waste concrete aggregates on the flexural behavior of external reinforced concrete beams has been studied. Seven mixtures were prepared for this investigation where the concrete mixtures had different waste concrete percentages and admixtures. Also, seven beams were modeled by Ansys program and the properties of the seven mixtures have been used in the models to study their effects. It was found that using waste concrete aggregates has decreased the load bearing capacity and concrete ductility. It was found that the beam bearing capacity was decreased by 10.7% when using only waste concrete. Using admixtures have enhanced the concrete properties where the load capacity of beams has been increased by 39% when using silica fume and superplasticizer and the load capacity has increased by 44.6% when multi-admixtures have been used. Besides, it was found that using additives has enhanced the beam ductility significantly.
This article aims at investigating rework cost, factors and effects in residential building projects in the West Bank – Palestine. Questionnaire survey is used to collect and rank the main factors and effects of rework from consultants' and constructors' point of view. Respondents show that more than 80% of the projects completed with rework cost of value greater than 5% of the total project cost. Overall, respondents' view concludes that the top rework factors include: mistakes in design, unskilled labors, unqualified subcontractors, non-conformance with required specifications, and bid awarding policy. Respondents indicate that the main effects of rework are cost overrun, project time extension, material waste excess and profit reduction. Spearman correlation test concludes a good correlation between contractors and consultants in ranking of rework factors and effects. Data collected from 47 residential projects reveal a high rework impact on cost overrun in construction projects. The results of this study would be helpful for researchers and professionals to guide their efforts to minimize rework in construction projects and to improve projects outcomes in term of cost, time and quality.
The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the physical attributes and chemical characteristics of dried apple cubes. The apple cubes were dried in vacuum and infrared dryers at 40 °C and freeze dryer individually and in combination. The physical properties – texture and rehydration – of vacuum drying-assisted freeze-dried apple dices were close to the freeze-dried products. The hardness of vacuum drying-assisted freeze-dried apples was better, by at least 15.8%, than those dried by infrared-freeze, but rehydration capacities were similar. The freeze-dried control samples achieved a lower water activity (0.145) in comparison with infrared, vacuum, and combined dried ones. The infrared-freeze-dried samples retained 3.6 and 11.6% more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than samples prepared by the other methods. The ascorbic acid content of the freeze-dried samples was significantly higher by about 59% than that of the hybrid dried samples.
The popularity of sweet potatoes in Central Europe has been increasing recently, mainly the high-quality, perfect, fresh tubers are in demand. However, out of class grade tubers could be marketed in dried, grounded form as sweet potato flour.
The aim of this study was to characterise some important nutritional properties of flours of three sweet potato genotypes with different tuber colours (white, purple, and orange) and to investigate how this raw material affects the rheological properties of sweet potato-wheat flour blends.
Dietary fibres are present in sweet potatoes in a significant proportion, orange coloured flour showed the highest values. The main free sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, but sucrose was the dominant one. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content also varied considerably, the purple flour had the highest values. Mineral composition showed significant variability, the purple flour contained the highest level of minerals. It was confirmed that adding sweet potato flour to wheat flour affected its rheological properties, however in a varied manner. For the orange flour these properties have lightly decreased, though it had no significant effect on dough quality, while the white and purple flours with a dosage of 5, 10 and 15% could improve the dough behaviour. Thus, sweet potato in this form is a valuable raw material.
The aim of our research was to study the water and ethanol extractable polyphenols of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) harvested in different seasons and to determine their antimicrobial activity against certain human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria and yeasts.
Our results indicate that the spring leaf extracts had higher polyphenol contents than the root one; however, close to the end of the vegetation period these values decreased considerably in both leaves and roots. Detection and quantification of the most abundant phenolic compounds in the spring extracts by HPLC revealed the occurrence of 12 different phenol carboxylic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoid compounds were more abundant than phenol carboxylic acids in the leaves; however, their proportion was equal in the case of the roots. Nettle leaf extracts had remarkable antimicrobial activity, the spring extracts were more efficient than the autumn ones. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to every leaf extract, while Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had reduced but remarkable sensitivity patterns. Among the yeasts, Candida glabrata was strongly inhibited by the aqueous leaf extracts. Most of the strains were insensitive to the root extracts, although Enterococcus faecalis was inhibited by the root and not the leaf extracts.
The present study aims to determine the effects of blending cementitious materials on the mechanical and durability properties of high-performance concrete (HPC). Densified silica fume and fine-grounded metakaolin are used as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). A total of 16 mixes containing both binary and ternary blending of SCMs were chosen for w/b ratios of 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. The hardened properties tested for the HPC mixes were compressive strength at 7, 28, and 90 days, flexural strength at 28 days, and modulus of elasticity at 28 days. Maximum strength gains up to 15%, 38%, and 23% for compression, flexure, and elastic modulus were observed in ternary mixes compared to binary mixes. Stress-strain behaviour of ternary mixes indicates increased tolerance of stress for the least amount of strain in the specimens. Based on the experimental results, empirical relations were developed and checked with the existing codes and by earlier researchers. The durability properties tested for HPC were water absorption at 28 days, acid attack, and sulphate attack at 28, 56, and 90 days. Ternary mixes improved the pore structure of HPC, resulting in a 56% reduction in water absorption and a 34% reduction in compressive strength loss due to immersion in 5% H2SO4 at 90 days. The findings of the study endorse that ternary blending of SF and MK can improve the engineering properties of HPC, and a mix containing SF 10% and MK 10% is recommended for the best results.
In our study, using a combination of eye-tracking parameter analysis and the van Westendorp method, we investigate whether participants pay more attention to products that they perceive as more expensive or to those that they prefer in the ranking process. The experiment involved 50 participants, a questionnaire with ranking and pricing tasks, and an eye-tracking measurement. Three wine varieties (Irsai Olivér, Rosé and Merlot-Shiraz) and three different label alternatives were tested. When comparing the results of the ranking and the pricing tasks, the product that is considered more expensive is not always the one that is most appealing to the participants. If we compare the results from the analysis of the eye-tracking parameters and the pricing, we can say that in all cases the labels that received the most visual attention were those that were priced more expensively by the participants.
Thermobifida alba is the mesophilic member of the Thermobifida genus, the genome and enzyme sets of which have not been described and published yet. Thermobifida strains are thermotolerant actinomycete, which possess wide sets of cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysing enzymes. Previously, three endomannanases (Man5ATh, Man5ATc, and Man5AThf) of thermobifidas were cloned and investigated, and hereby the endomannanase of T. alba DSM 43795 is described. All four endomannanases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 5, their sizes are around 50–55 kDa. Their structure consists of a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module, while there is an interdomain linker region in-between consisting repetitive tetrapeptide motifs (eg.: PPTEPTD-Ta, PTDP-Tc, TEEP-Tf, DPGT-Th). The pH optima of Man5A enzymes from T. alba, Thermobifida halotolerans, Thermobifida cellulosilytica, and Thermobifida fusca are slightly different (6.5, 7.0, 7.5, and 8.0, respectively), however, the temperature optima of the enzymes were detected within a wider range of 65–75 °C. In this research, Man5ATa exhibited the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) (0.13 mM) on LBG-mannan substrate, while others shared similar kinetic parameters: 0.9–1.7 mM of KM. Despite the high sequence similarity of the investigated mannanases, they exhibit different temperature stability parameters. These different functional characteristics can be advantageous for industrial applications producing biologically active, oligomannan prebiotics under different conditions.
This article provides an overview of research on terrorism using the Global
Terrorism Database (GTD). It is an open-source database containing over 200,000
terrorist events, both domestic and transnational. After identifying seven
prominent journals of terrorism, data were gathered on 442 articles citing the
GTD. All were published between 2008 and the beginning of 2023. An increasing
trend was found in the number of articles over the examined period, supporting
the growing popularity of the GTD. Popular databases containing control
variables were identified in the second part of the analysis. Finally, the most
common research topics were introduced through examples. These included
spatiotemporal trends, case studies, suicide bombers, and lone-wolf
Jelen kutatás áttekintést nyújt a nyílt forrású, Global Terrorism
Database (GTD) nevű adatbázis terrorizmus kutatásában történő
felhasználásáról. Az adatbázist 2007-ben tették közzé, ingyenesen elérhető bárki
számára. Összesen több, mint 200.000 nemzetközi és belföldi terrorcselekményről
tartalmaz adatokat. Az elmúlt 15 évben világszinten az egyik legjelentősebb
terrorizmussal kapcsolatos nyilvános adatbázissá vált. A kutatás során először
azonosítottam a terület 7 vezető folyóiratát, majd ezekből kigyűjtöttem az
összes olyan, 2008 és 2023 eleje között megjelent publikációt, melyek
hivatkoznak a GTD-re (n = 442). A megjelenési dátumukat elemezve
megállapítottam, hogy az évente megjelent, erre az adatbázisra hivatkozó
publikációk száma növekvő tendenciát követ. Ez azonban nem volt egyenletes. 2016
előtt lassú növekedés volt megfigyelhető, 2017-re viszont egy hirtelen ugrással
elkezdett meredeken emelkedni a cikkek száma.
A 442 publikáció közül 50 nem volt elérhető, az absztrakt alapján pedig nem volt
egyértelműen megállapítható a felhasznált adatbázis, vizsgált változók, így ezek
nem kerültek bele az elemzésbe. Szintén kivontam az elemzésből a recenziókat,
bibliográfiákat, szerkesztői ajánlásokat, konferenciaelőadások összefoglalóit,
illetve azokat a cikkeket, ahol a GTD csak a szerző által idézett tanulmányban
szerepel. Hatvanhat esetben a szerző (1) illusztrációként használt fel adatot,
(2) a GTD terrorcselekmény definícióját idézte, vagy (3) a nyilvánosan elérhető
adatbázisok bemutatása során említette meg ezt.
Végezetül 207 olyan publikáció maradt, ahol a szerző a GTD-ből nyert adatokat
elemzett. Ezek vizsgálata során először megállapításra került, hogy a
megjelenésük a teljes mintával azonos módon mutat növekvő tendenciát. A legtöbb
kutatásban több adatbázist használtak a szerzők a GTD mellett, ezek jellemzően
szintén nyilvánosan elérhetők. Innen származnak általában a kontrollváltozók,
melyek politikai, kulturális, demográfiai, földrajzi, biztonsági és
szociökonómiai területeket fednek le. Néhányan azonban saját adatbázist
építettek különböző forrásokból. Következő lépésként példákon keresztül
bemutatásra kerültek gyakori vizsgált témakörök. Ezek közé tartoznak tér- és
időbeli tendenciák, terrorista csoportok és azok környezetükkel és egymással
való kapcsolatainak elemzései. Szintén megjelentek öngyilkos merénylők, magányos
elkövetők, illetve az állam és terrorista csoportok kapcsolatának vizsgálatai.
Összességében az elemzés során bizonyosságot nyert, hogy a GTD jelentős hatással
van a terrorizmus kutatására.
Jelen tanulmány célja áttekintést adni arról, hogy a pszichológiai szempontok
milyen módon használhatók fel az erőszakos magatartás kockázatának felmérése
során a terrorizmus elleni küzdelemben. Ezzel az elméleti vizsgálódással azt
kívánom bemutatni, hogy a pszichológiának milyen szemlélete van az erőszakos
cselekmények, a szélsőséges, radikális gondolkodásmód hátterének megismerésében.
Számos felfogás létezik a terrorista magatartás okainak és
személyiségjellemzőinek leírására, amelyek alapján megállapítható, hogy nem
létezik az ún. terrorista személyiség. Nincsenek olyan tulajdonságok, amelyek
alapján egyértelműen meg lehet állapítani a különbséget a terroristák és az
átlagnépesség között, nem létezik egyetlen közös terrorista profil. Az erőszakos
magatartás kockázati tényező megismeréséhez az előzetes felmérésnek éppen ezért
kiemelt jelentősége van a terrorcselekmények megelőzése szempontjából.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the ways in which
psychological aspects can be used to assess the risk of violent behaviour in the
fight against terrorism. Through this theoretical exploration, I aim to show how
psychology can be used to understand the background of violent acts against the
background of extremist, radical mindsets. There are several conceptions of the
causes and personality traits of terrorist behaviour, which suggest that there
is no such thing as a terrorist personality. There are no characteristics that
can be used to clearly distinguish between terrorists and the general
population, there is no single common terrorist profile. Understanding the risk
factors for violent behaviour in advance is therefore of particular importance
for the prevention of terrorist acts.
The different theoretical approaches to specific cases, at the individual level,
do not always provide an explanation. However, without knowledge of the research
on the subject it is more difficult to understand the motives that lead people
to act cruelly towards others. There are many theories about the psychology of
terrorism, but relatively few controlled ones, empirical studies. Terrorism was
previously considered a pathological manifestation of psychological and
behavioural deviance. Based on psychoanalytic concepts, the psychopathology of
terrorism was thought to be rooted in unconscious motives from childhood.
However, the psychological analysis is relevant to risk assessment because the
terrorist can be very diverse in temperament, ideologies, thinking
characteristics and cognitive abilities. Psychological aspects are an important
part of the various risk analysis methods. In developing the use of specific
methods, I believe it is important to ensure that they are effective in helping
to prevent terrorist acts in practice. The ideas expressed in this study perhaps
demonstrate that it is a very versatile method.
It is essential that, with the spread of the Internet and globalisation, more and
more potential terrorists and radicalisers are coming to the attention of the
intelligence and counter-intelligence services. Psychological aspects will
continue to play an essential role in the development of risk analysis methods,
given that the commission of a terrorist act is always the result of extreme
A cikk arra keresi a választ, hogy a terrorizmus és az extrémizmus kapcsán milyen
indikátorokat tudunk azonosítani, és ezek mögött milyen okok és magyarázatok
Áttekintjük a terrortámadások alakulását az utóbbi években, valamint azt, hogy
az extrémizmusnak milyen társadalmi és egyéni aspektusai vannak. A tanulmányban
elméleti forrásmunkák szintetizálása, valamint egy hazai és nemzetközi adatbázis
leíró jellegű elemzése olvasható. Napjainkban a társadalmi és gazdasági válságok
a biztonság és identitás újradefiniálására késztetnek, és ezek az egyének
sajátos választását is befolyásolják: a meggyengült közösségek és értékek
radikalizálódáshoz, extrémizmushoz és terrorizmushoz vezethetnek. Fontos, hogy a
tárgyalt témakörben minél szélesebb körűen, multidiszciplináris szemlélettel és
innovatívan álljunk a felderítéshez, elhárításhoz és tudományos kutatáshoz,
annak érdekében, hogy csökkentsük a társadalmat veszélyeztető egyének és
The article examines what indicators we can identify in relation to terrorism and
extremism and what reasons and explanations are behind them.
We review the development of terrorist attacks in recent years, as well as the
social and individual aspects of extremism. The study includes a synthesis of
theoretical source works and a descriptive analysis of a domestic and
international database. Today’s social and economic crises, security and
identity lead to redefining and this affects the specific response of
individuals and weakened communities and values can lead to radicalization,
extremism and terrorism. It is important to take a multidisciplinary and
innovative approach to detection, prevention and research in the discussed
topic, in order to reduce the activities of individuals and groups that threaten
According to the Hungarian model, since 2012–2013 the DEREX index, which is a
percentage measure, shows the proportion of respondents who may be susceptible
to extreme right-wing ideas and the political actions that can be derived from
them, based on the pattern of their attitudes and values in a given society.
From this point of view, based on the survey, this “threat” of extremism does
not threaten Hungarian society. The definition of terrorism is still not
unanimous acceptance, so the term extremism is increasingly being used (Berger
2018), which means extremism that can manifest itself in violence. All of this
can be important because it is a complex phenomenon that is not limited to
racial, religious, political categories and views, but leaves a mark on society
and can cause damage.
Extremism is a phenomenon close to radicalism, which can be linked to terrorism
in many cases, and this deserves attention in all countries of the world,
whether directly or indirectly affected in terms of the risk of terrorism in the
given society. If we want to take action against them, the goal can be to divide
the political and military leaders, as well as to capture the leaders. It is
worth lowering the profile of terrorists in the media, making the goals more
expensive, and presenting the act in a different narrative instead of the role
of a martyr. Amnesty programs may appear if this fits into society’s values.
Furthermore, there are great opportunities in education through the
implementation of integration and assimilation programs.