Sustainability and scarcity in resources are the two major issues to be dealt within the present scenario by effective utilization of alternative materials. In this present study, an attempt has been taken to study the effect of supplementary materials such as fly ash and silica fume as a partial replacement to cement and steel slag and M-sand as a replacement to river sand on strength and durability of concrete. In this study, concrete specimens were prepared based on five different mixes by varying the percentages of these supplementary materials. Various mechanical properties like compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength were performed to ascertain the mix with optimum levels of replacement of supplementary materials for cement and fine aggregate. Durability property like water absorption test was performed on the mix with optimum values of strength. Results revealed that mix with higher percentages of steel slag, optimum level of silica fume and fly ash have shown higher strength and lesser permeability in concrete.
Some studies suggested a positive effect against cardiometabolic diseases of supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n-3) rich foods in pathological subjects, even if the total literature is controversial. In order to clarify ALA-rich chia seed action in hypertensive model with the overt pathology and without drug interference, in the present study the biochemical markers of cardiometabolic diseases (endothelin-1, ET-1; nitric oxide, NO; and bradykinin, BK) in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) were analysed after 5% chia seed dietary supplementation for five weeks, and compared with the staple raw material wheat and corn. At the end of the experimental period, also plasma antioxidant capacity and inflammatory condition were evaluated. Our results showed that the chia seed group was more oxidized. On the other hand, ET-1 significantly decreased in chia seed group, and there was no difference between groups for NO, BK, and the inflammatory C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, some positive effects of chia seed consumption on cardiometabolic markers in SHRs were observed, despite this the association of chia seeds with antioxidants is suggested to avoid plasma oxidation increase.
In this study, the effects of onion skin powder (OSP) (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 6%) on some chemical and physical properties of cooked chicken meat patties during refrigerated storage (30 days, 4±1 °C) were investigated. For this purpose, moisture, fat, pH, free fatty acid (FFA), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) analyses in the raw meat patties were also carried out. In addition, the chemical (moisture, fat), technological (diameter reduction, cooking yield), and sensory properties of cooked chicken patties were examined on the first day of storage. During storage, pH, colour, FFA, and TBA analyses were performed.
There were significant changes in the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory properties of chicken patties with OSP addition. The moisture, pH, and TBA values of samples decreased by incorporated OSP. Moreover, the use of OSP improved technological parameters of patties. However, the addition of OSP resulted in a darker colour in patties. In conclusion, OSP could be used in chicken meat patties to improve their quality properties.
This study empirically investigates the effects of the special, face to face supplier performance measurement system. Using supplier performance measurement system the supplier will have the possibility to make a self-assessment method through questionnaires according to different aspects. The customers make the same queries. After ranking from both sides, the results will be compared and confronted with the supplier. The effects on different areas and the nexus with supplier in the aftercare period will be examined in this study. The relation between the communication and reaction modes at the procurement side is deeply discussed.
Constant stream of data has been generated and stored as more devices are being connected to the internet and supported with cloud technologies. The price drop of such applications along with industry 4.0 trending, triggered an explosive growth and demand for many IT modern solutions. From an industrial point of view, sensorization practices are spreading through factories and warehouses where software is constantly adapting to provide actionable insights in a data-driven configuration. The fourth industrial revolution is empowering the manufacturers with solutions for cost reduction, which translates in competitive advantage. The sector of maintenance operations is leading in engineering innovation, from reactive to planned preventive techniques the next step in history of proactive approaches is Predictive Analytics Maintenance.
In recent decades many forests in Slovakia, especially those in mountain basins, have been devastated by wind or snow calamities. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to analyze land use and estimate the changes in runoff from the Boca and Ipoltica river basins in Slovakia for historical (1990 and 2006) and present land use (2012). The changes in runoff are presented as changes in design floods. For estimating the design floods, the curve number method was used. The values of the design floods on both of these river basins have increased due to deforestation.
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is a type of vitamin K. MK-7 is produced via bacterial fermentation, and in order to reach the desired product purity, several downstream processing steps, including extraction, drying, ultrasonication, must be carried out. These processes, however, need to be carried out in such fashion to ensure the least amount of vitamin K lost and maximum recovery into the end-product. Therefore, in this study, drying, storage at 4 and −20 °C, and ultrasonication steps were evaluated under different conditions. Static liquid fermentations were conducted in McCartney bottles to explore the maximum MK-7 secretion potentials in different glycerol and glucose-based media compositions that were optimized in our previous studies. Maximum 32.5±0.4 mg l−1 and 14.6±0.4 mg l−1 concentrations were achieved in glycerol and glucose-based media, respectively. Concentrations of MK-7 produced under same fermentation conditions in 30 ml McCartney amber bottles with 3 ml of media in them and in 75 ml culture tubes with 20 ml media were compared. Also, ultrasonication, drying, and storage conditions were investigated to ensure the least amount of vitamin K is lost. Results showed that drying under forced air flow was the fastest, thus, demonstrated a better preservation of the vitamin, and should replace vacuum drying. Ultrasonication for 15 min seems to be safe and sufficient for phase transition for analysis. Also, storage at refrigerated temperatures seems to preserve MK-7 at least for one week. Furthermore, fermentations in McCartney bottles indicated how MK-7 concentrations are distributed in different zones of the static liquid broth. Culture tube results provided the conclusion as of how the metabolism of MK-7 changes in static fermentation when the scale-up process begins from McCartney bottle to culture tubes. Results in general showed a clearer road map to ensuring better quality and preservation of the valuable end-product, and illuminated more the path to further scaling up of the fermentation process for commercial production of MK-7.
In this paper, the effect of soldering technique and thermal shock test were investigated on SAC 305 solder joints, produced by 2 different solder methods, which are the most common solder materials used for through-hole reflow soldering (THRS) and multiwave soldering techniques. The solder joints were subjected to different cycle numbers up to 5000 thermal shock tests with 2 different thermal profiles of −30/+110 °C and −40/+125 °C. Microstructural properties of the tested joints were examined with the focus on intermetallic layer thickness and crack formation/propagation. The thickness of the scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was increased with increasing cycle number for both THRS and multiwave joints, but the thickening was more effective for the THRS joints. Cracks typically formed at the solder alloy–plated-through-hole (PTH) barrel and the solder alloy–pin interfaces and propagated along grain boundaries and precipitations of an intermetallic compound.
Phenolic extract from banana peel was extracted with 95% ethanol and characterized by LC-TOF-MS/MS. Epicatechin, rutin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myricetin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were detected in the extract. Cholate test was performed for the initial examination of the hypolipidemic effect of the dietary fibres. The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with sulphuric acid then sodium hydroxide (SST) and sodium hydroxide treatment (SHT) had high water-holding capacities (7.48 and 6.91 g g−1) and swelling capacities (4.8 and 4.3 ml g−1). The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with trypsin then sulphuric acid (TST) and sulphuric acid treatment (SAT) had high oil-holding capacities (5.52 and 5.10 g g−1) and enhanced capacities for sodium cholate adsorption. Results indicated the potentials of banana peel as functional ingredient in food applications.