Authors:H.M. Elhariry, G.M. Khiralla, Y. Gherbawy and H. Abd ElRahman
Alternaria species produce several mycotoxins that are of particular health concern. The natural occurrence of three Alternaria toxins; alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TA) in pomegranate fruit was considered. A. alternata and A. tenuissima were identified by analysis of partial sequence of ITS-region. All studied strains produced high quantities of AOH in vitro on rice. A. tenuissima produces high quantities of AME and TA compared with A. alternata. In rotten tissues AME was the highest determined toxin with frequency percentage of 95.6%, followed by AOH and TA. All toxins were detected in the healthy tissues surrounding the infected tissues but at low levels. No visible changes were noted in Alternaria toxins after pasteurization of pomegranate juice, but they appeared after clarification. In conclusion, pasteurization and/or clarification are not sufficient to reduce Alternaria toxins in juice. The removal of the rotten parts does not ensure excluding Alternaria toxins.
In this study, sucuk samples were obtained from 12 different manufacturers to evaluate some physical and biochemical properties of fermented beef sausages named as “bez sucuk”. It was seen that the titratable acidity values were between 1.02% and 2.25% lactic acid, and pH values of the samples ranged from 5.08 to 5.63 (P<0.05). L*a*b* values of the samples were in the ranges of 38.99–47.15, 10.77–20.94, and 13.88–32.41, respectively (P<0.05). Residual nitrite was detected from group 1, 2, and 4 (P<0.05). The free fatty acid, peroxide, and thiobarbituric acid values of the fermented sausages were in the ranges of 3.01–14.34% oleic acid, 7.40–13.63 meqO2/kg fat, and 0.75–1.17 mg malonaldehyde/kg sample, respectively (P<0.05).
The importance of short food supply chains is increasing in the food sector, and direct selling is a promising alternative to commercial chains in dairy trade. Several channels and practices of direct raw milk sales exist in Hungary. Because short food supply chains in the Hungarian dairy sector have not yet been investigated in detail, we have little or no knowledge on the composition of directly sold raw milk. For this reason, a 9-month study was undertaken from June 2013 through February 2014, wherein directly sold raw bovine milk samples were tested for fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat contents and for freezing point. A total of 21 direct sellers located in Budapest, Hungary were sampled twice a month. The results were compared to the official Hungarian raw milk quality data referring to the same period. The direct milk vendors involved in this study were found to sell raw milk with reduced levels of lactose and solids-not-fat and elevated freezing points, compared to the national raw milk data. The findings of this research underline the need for stricter regulations and control with respect to direct raw milk sales in the country.
Authors:Z. Szakály, M. Soós, S. Szabó and V. Szente
Within a survey made of Hungarian awareness of, attitudes towards, and preferences for food labels and pricing, this study focused on consumers’ reactions to quality and country of origin labels. Data were collected with a standard questionnaire, face-to-face interviews (1000 participants) in the respondents’ home. It became obvious that consumers were looking for information about quality (rating its importance at 4.04) on packages, but information about origin (3.94) and production (3.89) was also important to them. The capability of respondents to spontaneously recall country of origin and quality labels was very limited: 35.5% of all respondents could not name any such labels. The best known label was “Hungarian Product” (30.5%), which was recognized by up to 90% of the respondents after they were shown it. Many consumers were ready to pay premium for products bearing this label (31.7%). According to our results, information about quality is important to consumers, but they do not look for it deliberately, and only a few consumers ascribe a higher value to products with labels bearing this information. There is a pressing need to increase consumers’ confidence for trademarks through dissemination of reliable information.
Authors:András Vilimi, László Tóth and Tamás János Katona
In the paper a study is presented for the case if a 10−4/a annual probability design basis earthquake would hit area surrounding the Nuclear Power Plant Paks. Although the plant can be brought to safe shutdown condition and there is no need for off-site protective measures, the plant personnel will need a minimum of logistical support from and communication with the outside area. Therefore, the knowledge of the post-earthquake situation is required for planning of the logistical support of the plant accident management and for the understanding the working conditions for disaster management services. Parameters of the case-study earthquake are selected in accordance with the design basis of the plant. Distribution of population and housing data used in this study has been obtained by population census held in 2011. The study can also help to communicate the seismic safety of the plant showing the disastrous consequences of design basis earthquake while the plant remains safe.
The main effect of lightning is the induced surge voltage within power networks. The paper deals with the assessment of electric potential generated during lightning. A time domain simulation using Finite Element Method was done, considering that the lightning current flows within a discharge channel with variable lengths (15–91 m) and impedances, having various peaks (2.5–40 kA). Both 8/20 μs and 5/320 μs lightning current wave shapes have been considered. The surge voltage waveforms were determined for each lightning current. The assessment of electric potential generated during lightning through phase wire, in soil and near underground power cable was done.
This research aims at demonstrating techniques in complex dynamic building energy simulation methods that greatly reduce the otherwise very time-consuming - in particular cases even week-long - computation time of simulation models, however marginal difference arises in the energy results of the simulations. Different test simulations were created to examine how to simplify the models without altering the energy and comfort results, which lead to reduce also the working hours spent on building the model. The building physics behavior of the zones, heating and cooling equipment in the complex model were studied and tested to understand how those can be used, merged or simplified in order to speed up both computation time and model building phase. The IDA ICE complex dynamic building energy simulation program offers two methods - periodic and dynamic - for calculation, which were compared in this program. Test simulations provide information about possible differences between the results of these calculation methods, in order to define the appropriate use of these methods.
In the framework of the first revision of toll rates calculated before the launch of the HU-GO truck toll collection system in Hungary, in July 2013, the re-determination of the infrastructure costs related to the tolled road network became necessary. Replacement costs of the main road components (considered as being a substitute of asset values) were to be calculated using the so called Synthetic Method, since the net asset values of the tolled road networks weren’t recorded separately in the books of the national road administration. Basic assumptions as well as main steps and results of the calculation of replacement cost (asset value), as well as of the average depreciation key are presented and some relevant conclusions are formulated.
Mortise and tenon structure is the essence of traditional Chinese creations, as the main structure of traditional Chinese furniture has its historical origins, fitting in with the background and aesthetic standards of the time. This paper explores the possibility for a new understanding and re-discovery of its use and artistic value in the context of modern times.
Nowadays heuristic methods are one of the most used tools for the optimization of problems. The proof of that is the fact that they are widely used in chemistry, economics and energy. Among the most popular of heuristic methods belong the genetic algorithms. They can handle difficult, large-scale problems with many parameters, like the optimization of the hydrothermal coordination of hydro and thermal power plants. As with any other method, genetic algorithms also have certain parameters. These parameters, among others, are the size of the population, the maximum number of generations, and the probability of crossovers and mutations. The effect of these parameters on the results of an optimization using genetic algorithms is the focus of this paper. The hydro-thermal coordination of one hydro and one thermal power plant was used as an example to explain this issue.
Different approaches of product life-cycle management will be demonstrated to show that unlike several engineering paradigms it is easy to understand, however difficult to implement and to follow. This can be accepted as a common philosophy of product development and production. At the same time product life-cycle management is a software framework, or a kind of guideline to approach digital manufacturing, which is the highest level of recently known and applied ways of manufacturing automation. The paper will show some components of manufacturing automation and their relation to the life-cycle view.
The technical specifications of D.12/H of Hungarian State Railways specifies that a continuously welded rail track can be constructed through a bridge without being interrupted if the expansion length of the bridge is no longer than 40 m. If the expansion length is greater than 40 m, rail expansion joints have to be constructed.
The aim of the research is to create finite-element models with which the interaction of continuously welded rail track and steel railway bridges can be calculated and to provide technical solutions of track structures on bridges with ballasted track so rail expansion joints can be omitted.
Authors:Alban Kuriqi, Mehmet Ardiçlioglu and Ylber Muceku
World experiences reveal that catastrophic floods are posing a serious threat that comes not only from them as extreme events but also as the result of adaptation measures uncertainty, (i.e. dikes). In particularly old dikes constructed earliest at the north part of Albania, during the last floods demonstrated the high uncertainty and weak spots. In this paper, the significance of the seepage investigation and stability analysis are discussed. As a case study, parts of new dikes constructed last years along the Buna River located in north part of Albania are investigated. Filling materials for these dikes are represented mostly from silt and clay. Finite element method is used to perform seepage analysis while general limit equilibrium method is used to perform slope stability analysis. Both, seepage and slope stability analyses are done for three different scenarios: steady state, rapid filling, and rapid drawdown. Finally, it is concluded that silt-clay material used in these dike structure is posing serious uncertainty during seepage phenomenon by threatening the stability of entire dike structure especially during the transient condition (rapid filling and drawdown).
Family tradition and a desire to explore are intertwined in the history of Margit Ház, this award-winning office building designed by Bence Vadász. On the one hand, there is the almost transcendental link between the designer and his grandfather, Mihály Vadász, sending a powerful message through space and time. On the other hand, we can see how the designer succeeded in incorporating both BAUHAUS and DE STIJL elements in his design. He also succeeded in creating a building that fits into the fabric of the town with ease and grace, revitalizing the environment.
The residual waste has a high concentration of recoverable elements, which can be either recycled or recovered into energy in accordance with the waste hierarchy. One option is the implementation of mechanical biological treatment of waste, which has showed a steady progress in the recent two years in Hungary.
This paper analysis the relevant factors, which should be considered during the technology planning. The multi criteria analysis involves the economical environmental and external considerations into the technology assessment. Based on the results, the technology plan should be revised and adjusted.
Authors:Adina Vătăman, Adrian Ciutina and Daniel Grecea
Eccentrically braced frames are well known for their capacity of dissipating seismic energy by plastic hinge formation in the so called ‘link elements’, which represent the dissipative devices of the eccentrically braced frame. The link element can be short, which means it will be mainly subjected to shear forces; long being mainly subjected to bending moment or intermediate in length subjected to a combined action of shear force-bending moment. The current study is focused on the calibration of existing experimental results with numerical finite element models of steel eccentrically braced frames with short link elements and a subsequent parametrical study considering different link lengths and multiple stiffeners along the link web panel.
Authors:Dušan Rusnák, Štefan Stanko and Ivona Škultetyová
Appraisals results of divided and combined rain sewers highly depend on the appropriate choice of model rain. The goal of this research is to verify the impact of different rain models on results of rainfall totals, calculated flow in the network and in their overall effect on the assessment. This research focuses on three main rain models - block rain (reduced), a synthetic rain and actual historical rain with data collected from meteorological stations allocated in the area of Vráble. Historical rain event for the area has been chosen as the one with highest overall intensity with duration of at least 1 hour. Modeling process has been conducted in interface of MIKE URBAN software.
Authors:Vasyl Zhelykh, Christina Kozak and Olena Savchenko
In this article the using of thermosiphon solar collectors for system air heating of premises of passive houses was examined. The research determination the air velocity and air temperature in the space of experimental module were conducted. According to the research the field of temperature and air velocity in the space of the experimental module for different output of thermal solar radiation were built. The main factors that affect the value of speed and temperature of the internal air were identified. It was established that the presence of spiral turbo baffles increases the thermal output of thermosiphon collector to 15%, and the rate of heated flow to 17%
This paper presents a new detector named adaptive near maximum likelihood detector which combines pseudobinary and pseudoquaternary near maximum likelihood detection processes. Simulation results show that the performance of adaptive near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of pseudobinary near maximum likelihood detector but little bit worse than the performance of the pseudoquaternary near maximum likelihood detector.
In this paper a partially loaded paraboloid of revolution is investigated by the theory of bent shallow shells. After establishing the sixth order linear system of equations it is concluded that the unknown coefficients cannot be expressed, cannot be given as practical formulas, thus useful approximate solutions are constructed for practical usage. The applicability limit of the column reaction approximated by concentrated load is investigated and the generated error of membrane action for this approximation is determined.
The article deals with the importance of low-emissivity glazing layers to improve energy balance and their significance in maintaining interior visual comfort. It describes the physical nature of radiation and the associated surface emissivity and the effects of changes in surface emissivity of glass, depending on the position of the low-emissivity layer. The paper also discusses principles, advantages and disadvantages of the most common combinations of glass and a low-emissivity layer the so-called “high performance” glass and the so-called “low-e” glass.
The study involves structures applicable in building structures. Present part I includes structures applicable in building structures. Building structures for this are classified according to functions. Two main groups can be distinguished: frameworks and building structures ensuring serviceability. Further subgroups can be distinguished within both main groups.
Upon examining the structural frame it is clear that buildings can be well classified according to frameworks. The four-element-classification of vertical load-bearing structural elements, walls and pillars — wall frame, pillar frame, mixed frame and frames without walls and pillars — provide a rather simple classification. Considering the different construction technologies of walls and pillars, and frameworks differing from these provides a multi-element classification. Various subgroups can be distinguished based on the relationship between walls and pillars as well as ceilings within the individual groups.
The total concentrations of the Ʃ16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in some samples of baked ready-to-eat foods (cake, sausage roll, meat pie, burger, and bread) with a view to provide information on the hazards associated with the consumption of these hawked street foods. The measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) after hexane/dichloromethane extraction and clean-up. The total concentrations of the PAHs in these samples of ready-to-eat baked foods ranged from 427.4 to 1224 μg kg–1, 289.9 to 853.7 μg kg–1, 574.4 to 2333 μg kg–1, 364.6 to 2906 μg kg–1, and 15.7 to 213.1 μg kg–1 for cake, sausage roll, meat pie, burger, and bread, respectively. The results indicated that these baked ready-to-eat foods were mainly contaminated with 2-, 3-, and 4-ring PAHs. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene were less than 0.1 μg kg–1 in nineteen out of the twenty samples examined.
Authors:J.C. Spada, L.D.F. Marczak, I.C. Tessaro and N.S.M. Cardozo
Power ultrasound has vast potential in the food industry; however, there are no works on its effects on desserts. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of ultrasound as a mixing or homogenization step or as a tool to modify the texture of the soy-based desserts without reformulating the product. Different properties of soybased desserts were evaluated and the behaviour of the samples during storage under refrigeration (60 days) was monitored. The samples were treated with an ultrasound probe for 1, 3, and 5 min. The treated samples showed lower mean particle size, lower consistency index, higher flow index, and clear difference in their microstructure. However, water holding capacity and particle size dispersion index values did not differ among untreated and treated soy based desserts for 1 and 3 minutes, and none of the treatments caused visible colour differences among the samples. Periodically, rheological properties, pH, soluble solids content, colour, particle size, and water holding capacity were determined. After 60 days, all evaluated properties differed significantly, except for the pH.
Authors:E. Šárka, P. Smrčková, J. Koláček, M. Sağlamtaş, D.A. Chena Aldao and V. Pour
The aim of the paper was to seek suitable conditions of extrusion cooking using a laboratory single-screw extruder to increase slowly digestible (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content in extrudates saving sensory characteristics of the final product prepared from corn grits with added native wheat starch, distarch phosphates, or soluble fibre Nutriose (Roquette, France).
In addition to the composition of input mixtures, process parameters of a single-screw extruder, such as speed of screw and barrel temperatures, were changed. The highest expansion ratio (4.14) was found for temperatures 44 °C, 90 °C, 120 °C, and 140 °C, die diameter 3 mm, compression ratio 3:1, rotation speed 140 r.p.m., and dosing 15 r.p.m. The addition of native wheat starch to corn grits resulted in values of the expansion ratio ranging from 1.17–2.38.
A high concentration of RS — 2.4% per starch — was observed for a 20% ratio of Nutriose with a 10% addition of water. The addition of 20–50% of native wheat starch resulted in values ranging from 0.2–0.4% per starch. The highest SDS content (72.5% per starch) in extrudates was obtained for the mixture of corn grits, 20% cross-linked starch, and water (10% addition).
Lycopene content (LC) and soluble solid content (SSC) are important quality indicators for cherry tomatoes. This study attempted simultaneous analysis of inner quality of cherry tomato by Electronic nose (E-nose) using multivariate analysis. E-nose was used for data acquisition, the response signals were regressed by multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least square regression (PLS) to build predictive models. The performances of the predictive models were tested according to root mean square and correlation coefficient (R2) in the training set and prediction set. The results showed that MLR models were superior to PLS model, with higher value of R2 and lower values of for RMSE firmness, pH, SSC, and LC. Together with MLR, E-nose could be used to obtain firmness, pH, soluble solid and lycopene contents in cherry tomatoes.
The objectives of this publication are to present a production technology which is a finishing production of conical worm using changing of centre distance between the worm and the grinding wheel and banking angle correction at the same time. We will determine the necessary optimum grinding wheel profiles for the manufacturing in light of the production tolerances. We will determine the function connections between the main production parameters.
Authors:K. Régaiszné Vajda, A.A. Halbritter, P. Szűcs, J. Szigeti and B. Ásványi
Sous-vide (French for ʽunder vacuum’) is a professional cooking method, by which, under oxygen-free conditions and precise temperature control, not only cooking but preservation is achieved. During the process the food matrix is vacuum-packed and undergoes a mild heat treatment, thus achieving an enhanced nutrition value and a better organoleptic character. Due to the mild heat treatment (55 to 90 °C), the high water activity, and the slight acidity of raw materials, the microbial quality assurance is a great challenge even for professionals. The heat treatment does not assure the inactivation of pathogen spores. In our experiments we used Clostridium perfringens representing the spore-forming pathogens, and Salmonella Enteritidis as a the food-borne infection bacterium. Effects of various temperatures were measured in normal and sous-vide type vacuum packaging. Higher thermal death rate in vacuum packaging was demonstrated for Salmonella Enteritidis and Clostridium perfringens.
Authors:A. Harasztos, G. Balázs, P.N. Csőke, S. D’Amico, R. Schönlechner and S. Tömösközi
The positive nutritional impact of dietary fibres (DF) gives growing interest to their role in the formation of wheat product quality. Although we are getting closer to characterize the effect of DF on the end use quality, the roles of individual components are not well described yet. Arabinoxylans (AX) are the main compounds of wheat DF, therefore getting more knowledge about its behaviour in wheat based food systems, like dough or end products, could be useful from both theoretical and practical points of view. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the AX content on wheat flour quality using a dough model system provided by blends of flour and AX isolate. Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) and recently developed micro Zeleny test were used for characterization of mixtures.
We found that although Zeleny values are basically related to protein-dependent quality, the addition of AX isolate has major impact on the sedimentation volume of flour. In the RVA studies we demonstrated that AX has influence not only on the viscosity values but also on the rate of viscosity change. The effect of AX addition was compared to that of starch addition and was corrected by the rate of dilution. The model system and the experimental method applied here can be suitable to separate the individual effects of non-starchy carbohydrates.
Authors:O. Cetin, E.B. Bingol, E. Civan, S.I. Turgay and O. Ergun
The demand for ready-to-eat meat products has recently increased, and routine controls are inevitable to provide food safety. Therefore, a total of 250 fresh processed beef meat products collected from local markets and restaurants in the districts of Istanbul mostly with low purchasing power were investigated by histological and biomolecular methods. Chicken tissue was found in 62 (24.8%) of the analysed samples and horse tissue was found in 2 (0.8%) samples, while pork tissue was not detected. Additionally, foreign tissues were detected in 70 (28%) of 250 samples. PCR assays combined with histological examinations can be used as an important method in establishing food safety by determining the deliberate or accidental adulterations of meat products.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of hanging position of hunted pheasant carcasses (secured by the head as compared to hanging position secured by the legs) on the biogenic amine concentration in the thigh and breast muscles. The carcasses of feathered game (Phasianus colchicus), left entirely untreated after hunting and placed in a storage space at a pre-set temperature of 7 °C for 21 days were used in the study. Samples of breast and thigh muscles were taken at regular weekly intervals. Measurement of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, histamine, phenylethylamine) was based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Higher biogenic amine concentrations were detected in the muscles (both breast and thigh) of pheasants hanging by their legs compared to pheasants hanging by their heads (no statistically significant difference in biogenic amine concentration between monitored groups was, however, established). Higher concentrations of biogenic amines were found in the thigh muscles compared to breast muscles in both monitored groups. The obtained results show, that hanging the carcasses of pheasants during storage by the head is more suitable method in term of biogenic amine concentration than storing carcasses hanging by the legs.
Non-linear finite element calculations are indispensable when important information of the material response under load of a rubber component is desired. Although the material characterization of a rubber component is a demanding engineering task, the changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility behaviour of the rubber further increase the complexity of the investigations. In this paper the effects of the choice of the numerical material parameters (e.g. bulk modulus) are examined with regard to numerical stability, mesh density and calculation accuracy. As an example, a rubber spring is chosen where contact problem is also handled.
Authors:J. Belovai, R. Romvári, H. Fébel, M. Mézes, D. Bánáti and A. Szabó
Replacement of animal fat with plant oils is a very popular research field, due to the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in association with saturated fatty acid consumption. The aim of this study was to reduce amount of pig backfat in a meat product (Párizsi) and to partially replace it with soybean- (SBL) or sunflower lecithin (SFL). Between the samples difference was realized in fatty acid (FA) profile, mostly in total n6 FA content. The replacement also altered the colour compared to the control. The oxidative stability (MDA) analysis showed that SBL was more prone towards preparation technology (10 nmol MDA/g) than the Sfl(9 nmol MDA/g). The lecithin appeared as foreign taste based on the sensory test. The aromatic difference, as assessed with electronic nose, was clearly detectable between Sfland SBL. The increasing supplementation levels were also properly distinguished with discriminant analysis within the SBL and Sflseries. Summarized, Sflwas found to be a better antioxidant, but SBL improved the FA profile into a more favourable state. The lecithin-replacement made unlikeness in the taste compared to the control.
Authors:Sz. Bánvölgyi, T. Vatai, Zs. Molnár, I. Kiss, Ž. Knez, Gy. Vatai and M. Škerget
Two novel technologies were applied in order to investigate concentration and formulation of anthocyanins for potential use in food industry. Integrated membrane process technology was applied for concentrating elderberry juice. In the first step, the juice was clarified by microfiltration, followed by a pre-concentration step with reverse osmosis. Finally, the juice was concentrated to the end concentration of 56 °Brix by osmotic distillation. The elderberry juice concentrate was formulated in a powderous form by a high-pressure process — Particles from Gas Saturated Solution (PGSS™) — using supercritical CO2. The applied carrier material was palm fat. The products with different anthocyanin-carrier ratios were measured for their colour properties (lightness, hue angle, and saturation). Colour stability was monitored for prolonged storage at different conditions (light/dark and ambient temperature/ refrigerator). The obtained powderous anthocyanin-palm fat products showed good colour stability, which gives good bases for potential applications in the future.
Nowadays large transparent surfaces are widely used in office and public buildings. The positive effect of great views and natural light on people’s comfort is well known, but the high glazed ratio of building facades can lead to excessively high cooling energy demands. The heat load can be reduced by using glazing with high reflexion coating outwards and low emission coating inwards, triple panes and inert gas between the panes. Choosing proper thermal mass can further help in reducing the amplitude of the indoor operative temperature. In this paper the effects of solar factor of glazing, heat transfer coefficient of windows, windows area and thermal mass were analysed in an imaginary room with 3.0×4.0×2.8 m dimensions. As the results show the effect of the overall heat transfer coefficient is negligible. The effect of solar factor depends on the orientation. The expected differences between the amplitudes of the operative temperature are between 0.5 to 6 K for the analyzed room, depending on the thermal mass, orientation, solar factor and window area.
Authors:V. Kapcsándi, A.J. Kovács, M. Neményi and E. Lakatos
The aim of our experiments was to demonstrate the non-thermal effect of microwave treatment on Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation activity. A method was developed for studying the effects of various treatments in the course of must fermentation. The raw material (must) was treated in different ways: (i) heat transfer; (ii) microwave treatment; (iii) inoculation with yeast, and (iv) their combinations. The results of the treatments were compared with respect to alcohol concentration, sugar content, and acidity. The results proved that sugar content of the treated samples rapidly decreased compared to the control sample, and fermentation time was 40% shorter in the fastest case. These results can be explained by the yeast inoculation and microwave treatment. Due to non-thermal effects, fermentation capacity increased by about 30%, while the energy consumption decreased.
Authors:M. Gąsecka, M. Mleczek, M. Siwulski, P. Niedzielski and L. Kozak
The phenolic and flavonoid contents and composition and the antioxidant ability in Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Agrocybe aegerita under selenium (Se) addition to growth medium were studied. The contents of total Se in fruiting bodies of controls (0 mM of Se) were 4.58 (A. aegerita), 8.53 (G. lucidum), and 14.29 (H. erinaceus) mg kg–1 dry weight (DW), and was significantly increased by Se enrichment of substrate. The total phenolics in fruiting bodies of controls of H. erinaceus, G. lucidum, and A. aegerita were significantly lower (17.10, 28.11, and 16.05 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of extract, respectively) than for Se-rich mushrooms (26.29, 40.29, and 20.07 mg GAE/g of extract, respectively). Total flavonoid content for H. erinaceus, G. lucidum, and A. aegerita increased after Se supplementation from 368.6 to 445.6, 469.9 to 627.7, and 318.1 to 393.9 μg g–1 of extract, respectively. The results show that the mushrooms have superior antioxidant properties after Se addition, because the scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was improved.
Authors:V. Tomović, B. Žlender, M. Jokanović, M. Tomović, B. Šojić, S. Škaljac, Ž. Kevrešan, T. Tasić, P. Ikonić and Đ. Okanović
Physical (pH and L*a*b* values) and chemical (moisture, protein, total fat, total ash, K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) characteristics of offal consisting of the tongue, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, and spinal cord of free-range reared Swallow-Belly Mangalica pigs were determined. Many significant differences were found among mean values of quality traits. However, except for a few cases, the determined offal quality traits were in the characteristic ranges reported in the literature. Lungs were high in pH24h (P<0.01) and L*a*b* values (P<0.01), as well as in moisture and Na concentration, and the lowest in K, Cu, and Mn. Tongue was high in total fat, and the lowest in pH24h, moisture (P<0.01), and total ash concentration. The highest levels of protein (P<0.01), Mg, Fe (P<0.05), Zn (P<0.01), and Mn (P<0.01) and the lowest of Na were found in liver. The darkest colour (lowest L* value), highest concentration of K, the lowest concentration of total fat and Ca were found in spleen. Finally, spinal cord was the highest in total ash (P<0.01), P (P<0.01), and Ca (P<0.05) and the lowest in protein, Mg (P<0.05), Fe, and Zn (P<0.01) concentration.
Authors:S. Muzaffar, K. Maqbool, I.A. Wani, F.A. Masoodi and M.M. Bhat
Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut starch for physico-chemical properties. Chemical composition of chestnut starch showed low levels of protein and ash indicating purity of starch. The results revealed low water and oil absorption capacity of chestnut starch. Starch showed high swelling power and low solubility index. Swelling power and solubility index of chestnut starch increased with increase in temperature (50–90 °C). The results revealed high initial, peak, setback, breakdown, and final viscosity but low paste development temperature. Transmittance (%) of the starch gel was low and decreased with increasing storage period. The chestnut starch gel showed increase in % water release (syneresis) with increase in time of storage but was less susceptible to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. Starch was also characterized for granule morphology. Starch granules were of round and oval shapes, some granules showed irregular shape.
Authors:E. Polonkai, E. Gyimesi, I. Kovács, A. Csillag, Gy. Balla, É. Rajnavölgyi, A. Bácsi and S. Sipka
In this study, we examined the relationship between levels of lactoferrin (LF) and IL-17 in human serum and breast milk and the development of allergy in children. LF and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA in healthy (n=19) and allergic mothers (n=21) on the 5th day after delivery. Two years later, information on breastfeeding and allergic outcomes was collected by questionnaires from parents of both groups and district child care nurses. Significantly higher concentrations of LF were found in the breast milk of allergic mothers compared to the healthy controls. At 2 years of age, only those three infants became allergic from the atopic group in whose starting breast milk samples a very high LF level (306 μg mg–1 protein) or simultaneously elevated concentrations of LF and IL-17 were measured. These findings indicate that the very early measurement of LF and IL-17 levels in the breast milk of allergic mothers may help to predict the allergy development in their infants.
Authors:W. Wiczkowski, D. Szawara-Nowak, T. Sawicki, J. Mitrus, Z. Kasprzykowski and M. Horbowicz
The aim of the study was to analyse the content of phenolic acids, total phenolic compounds, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity in cotyledons and hypocotyl of five cultivars of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprout. This study presents the first broad profile of phenolic acids occurring in buckwheat microgreen seedlings. In the hypocotyl and cotyledons trans-cinnamic acid and its derivatives: o-, m-, and p-coumaric acids (2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxycinnamic), synapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic), caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic), and two isomers of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic) have been identified. Among the benzoic acid derivatives hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic), gallic (3,4,5-dihydroxybenzoic) and syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic) were found in the organs. In addition to those mentioned, the organs of buckwheat sprouts contain chlorogenic acid as well. The contents of all analysed phenolics were substantially higher in the cotyledons than in the hypocotyl of buckwheat sprouts, except for chlorogenic and caffeic acids. Trans-cinnamic acid was the major phenolic acid in both organs. In the cotyledons, a significant, positive linear correlation between the TEAC, ORAC, PLC-ACW values and content of total phenolic compounds, and also between DPPH and total phenolic acids were found. In the hypocotyl correlations between the DPPH, TEAC, and ORAC and proanthocyanidins content, between TEAC and total phenolic compounds, and between total phenolic acids and PCL-ACW were found.
Authors:R. Tabaraki, E. Heidarizadi, N. Sadeghinezhad, S. Salimpour and Z. Yosefi
Fruit processing industries produce by-products that are good sources of natural antioxidants. These residuals are non-toxic and available in large quantities. A central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize experimental conditions. The processing variables were solvent type, solvent to solid ratio, ethanol concentration, temperature, and time. The responses were total phenolic content (TPC), scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and yield. The optimal conditions were 70% ethanol— water mixture as a food grade solvent, temperature of 35 °C and extraction time 60 min for obtaining extracts with maximum of total phenolic content. Predicted values for total phenolic content in pear, apricot, and peach were 24.7, 19.3, and 10.4 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g fruit residual, respectively.
Authors:L. Varga, R. Engel, K. Szabó, L. Abrankó, B. Gosztola, É. Zámboriné Németh and S. Sárosi
Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.) is one of the prosperous plants for the food-industry as natural antioxidant. This fact led us to examine the chemical diversity of six ground ivy populations situated in different natural habitats and to analyse the effect of the harvesting time. Total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, and rutin content, as well as the antioxidant capacity showed significant differences due to the harvest time. The highest total phenol content (115 mg g–1 GAE) and the strongest antioxidant activity (53.3 mg g–1 AAE) were measured in the population originated from Budapest (GLE 6), harvested in July. The highest chlorogenic acid (357 mg/100 g) and rutin (950 mg/100 g) contents were detected in the July harvested samples from the Soroksár Botanical Garden population (GLE 1). According to our results, the collection time has significant effect on the total phenolic content – first of all on the chlorogenic acid and rutin accumulation levels of ground ivy, while the influence of the habitat seems to be less important.
The society is changing faster and faster. The technical development times are constantly growing shorter, whereas the rate of development is increasing exponentially. Hence, the treatment of the environment is also changing. The society responds to these changes by becoming more and more flexible and adapts itself to new situations.
In contrast to this, the construction is static and the construction industry is conservative. The further development of construction methods and materials is also slow. For centuries, the same materials have been used.
The requirements to living space become more and more multiple. Dwellings are usually made for one use, one setting of requirements. The result is a growing vacancy of dwellings. The shown project, which is under realization at the moment is coming up with one possible solution for a dwelling to use it with multiple requirements.
Authors:Stanislav Kelčík, Tatiana Pindjaková and Andrej Šoltész
The Slovak lowlands have been threatened by floods recently. The Levice district is one of the regions endangered by floods from extreme hydrological situations. The investigated river, which passes through this district is the River Podluzianka with the Cajkovsky brook and the Rybnicky brook as right-bank tributaries. The present conditions of the flood protection in the Levice district area are not sufficient. For this reason, it was necessary to analyze the river flow regime and propose appropriate flood protection measures in the mentioned region. This evaluation based on hydrological, geological and meteorological information and was performed by numerical modeling using computer code HEC-RAS. The main results of this research are presented in the paper.
Authors:Sorin Abagiu, Ionel Lepadat, Elena Helerea and Cătălin Mihai
This paper deals with the development of a model for assessment of the indicators, which characterize the unbalanced and harmonic distorted operation regime in the three-phase low voltage networks. The symmetrical components transformation and the Fourier method are applied, in which each harmonic is decomposed into zero, positive and negative sequence components. The quality indicators in voltage distorted and unbalanced regime are obtained using MathCAD software. The proposed model and procedure is applied for specific case studies. This approach allows the identification and analysis of distorted and unbalanced regime indicators of three-phase low voltage supply system in common coupling point of the consumer, and the procedure can be integrated into a power quality monitoring system.
The city of Almere, which is one of the four main cities in the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area, has been among the fastest growing cities in Europe ever since it establishment in 1976. The economic and demographic expansion puts significant pressure on valuable green areas around Amsterdam, and Almere has both space and potential for growth. Already at the time of its creation, the plans of a multiple-core structure city attracted mixed reviews, leading urban designers calling it ‘an anti-city’. However, with time it has developed into a mature, healthy and sustainable urban environment. With the new expansion that would add 60.000 new dwellings and 100.000 new jobs by 2030, the city faces new challenges, which require visionary strategic planning once again.
The intended growth of Almere is planned to take place in an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable fashion. To achieve this and to inspire contribution to future developments, the city has defined seven principles in concurrence with international sustainability experts.
Community participation is one of the strongest principals in this innovative place-making experiment. Creators of the new strategic vision imagine large-scale citizen involvement, bottomup community and private initiative through empowerment and ownership, from the design phase to the implementation. They aim far beyond the design character of the buildings, including among others the design of the urban fabric and the supporting infrastructure as well. This paper intends to describe and examine the potential growth and the urban development of Almere from a complex perspective, with a special focus on community design.
Authors:Zoltán Bán, Tamás János Katona and András Mahler
Numerous methods exist to determine the liquefaction potential of a site due to earthquake, from which the stress-based empirical methods are the most commonly used in practice. Despite of their widespread use, their shortcomings have given way to the evolution of strain and energy-based methods. Their benefits make them a very promising alternative candidate for liquefaction potential evaluation. To reveal differences and uncertainties involved in the different methods, a comparative analysis was performed for the site of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant with the aim of contributing to the safety assessment of the plant with respect to liquefaction effects.
Authors:Ouadia Mouhat, Abdellatif Khamlichi and Ali Limam
Dynamic buckling of stiffened panels under axial compression loading having the form of finite duration pulse was analyzed by finite element modeling. Welding induced defects modifying the skin plate curvature were incorporated. Material degradation in the heat-affected zone was also taken into account. The Budiansky and Roth criterion was employed to predict the collapse load. Various pulse shapes were investigated. The obtained results have shown that the pulse period and profile have severe effects on the buckling strength. For the considered boundary conditions and load pulses up to 56% reduction of the strength was observed in comparison with static buckling.
The paper presents an approximation method for the assessment of the load carrying capacity of masonry arch railway bridges. The method is a simple semi-empirical tool for the initial level assessment that is considered to serve as a first sieve and provides conservative values for the load-carrying capacity and permissible axle load of single-span arches.
The proposed method is based on results obtained by the RING 2.0 masonry arch bridge analysis software. The method uses a closed mathematical formula to calculate the carrying capacity and its input parameters can easily be determined by simple site inspections or using data from bridge files.
When a flood wave passes along the River Danube, the groundwater level rises, hence property is directly threatened and, in particular, the groundwater resources for the water supply located near the affected rivers increase. As the water is polluted during the flood, a solution to this problem is more than necessary. The specific area for this problem - Sihoť Island, was chosen as one of the most significant areas for groundwater supply in Bratislava. This island is flooded repeatedly every year with several floods. Therefore, it is more than necessary to analyze how the groundwater level reacts to the increased water level in the Danube.
The significance of vegetable shading is, that it can minimize the risk of overheating and also the negative effects of urban heat island. The aim of the paper is to analyze more precisely the shading effect of alley trees, and their impact on indoor comfort.
The shading efficiency of trees is a species-specific attribute, because of the varying crown structure and leaf density. The analyses aimed the quantification of the transmissivity of characteristic individuals of three frequently planted species. On the base of measured data the cooling load of the buildings and the risk of summer overheating are calculated.
Authors:Tatiana Pindjaková, Stanislav Kelčík and Andrej Šoltész
In Slovakia, the year 2011 can be characterized as dry with an irregular distribution of rainfall during the whole year. However, there were also some important hydrological events in form of flash floods. One of them a flash flood on the River Gidra, which passes the village of Píla situated below the Small Carpathians. A numerical simulation of this type of flood event was the main goal of the research in order to avoid the future devastating consequences of these kinds of floods. It was necessary to setup a mathematical model of the river using the HEC-RAS modeling tool to develop a correct evaluation of the flood course and to design appropriate flood protection measures, which will enable the interception of flood waves and to protect people and their property.
Authors:Bálint Baranyai, Bálint Bachmann and István Kistelegdi
Getting the possibility to participate in an actual design process of a Hungarian national sports center is a unique chance to demonstrate and investigate the potential of the dynamic simulation supported building design research program. The research is based on synchronous energy simulations and architectural planning. Energetic and climatic simulations are made during the whole design process. All possible simulated building climate- and energy parameters of the planned versions are compared to each other. In this way it is possible continuously develop the energy and climate characteristic of the designed building. The goal is to reach an accurate design method to be able to predict and minimize the total energy needs of the building as early as the design stage. In the first phase of this process the simulation models of the plan variations are compared, which helps to locate the possible weaknesses of the proposed building geometry and structures or its setting method to develop he building structures and proposed building services systems. In the second phase the chosen building plan is optimized and quantified by final simulations.
Visegrád, with its 1800 inhabitants, is considered to be the smallest town of Hungary. The development of the town center is a fine example for how the original exaggerating ideas were altered due to the economic crisis - besides its negative effects - and facilitated the birth of a sustainable development, satisfying the continuous needs of the local community and the temporary demands of tourism.
The paper represents the rapidly developing cities in China, namely Shanghai. The metropolis has become a show-case city of the Chinese economy in the last couple of decades. By means of vast investments Shanghai is constantly being renewed and re-edified. The goal of the paper is to present the transformation of the existing conditions, related to public spaces through scientific and empirical elements.
Two new periodical space-filling mosaics will be constructed. These are based on a 3D model of the 10D cube. The initial edges have the same lengths and are placed rotation symmetrically around an axis, thus the model is a specifically arranged zonotope. Each mosaic consists of this model and some derived ones of lower-dimensional parts of the 10D cube. These two tessellations complete the construction series based on similar models of 3-12D cubes except the 11D one.
Retrofit of the old building stock presents a good possibility to reduce the energy consumption. However, as the envelopes of old buildings become tighter, a risk increases that the fresh outside air supplied to the indoor environment by natural infiltration can decrease below the amounts required for a comfortable indoor environment, especially in buildings where mechanical ventilation has not been installed. This study presents an efficient method to measure the ventilation intensity, demonstrated on a 40-years old high-rise office building after a complete envelope retrofit. The well-established tracer gas decay and tracer gas step-up method were employed to obtain the ventilation intensity, using the natural CO2 produced by the occupants as the tracer gas. The measured values of the air change rate were between 0.1 and 0.7 1/h for the simple façade, whereas it ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 1/h for the double skin façade, with the windows closed. The level of compliance with ventilation requirements varied, depending on the standard and the philosophy adopted.