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Browse Our Latest Applied Sciences Journals
In applied sciences, researchers use particular scientific methods to achieve practical goals. You can think of applied sciences as a broad, integrated area of various scientific fields that involve agronomy, agriculture, food science, medicine, engineering, computer science, and many other natural and social science disciplines. The main goal of applied science is to provide more knowledge and practical applications
The main difference between applied sciences and fundamental sciences lies in their use. While fundamental science aims to explain and understand different world phenomena, applied science puts those findings into practical endeavors. Applied science uses knowledge obtained from the fundamental sciences, and it wouldn’t be possible without them. Engineering and medical sciences are good examples of applied sciences, but many other disciplines can involve practical use and be considered applied sciences.
Some of the most common areas of applied science include applied psychology, biotechnology, biomechanical engineering, business and economics, civil engineering, computer science, environmental science, genetics, food science, forensics, electrical engineering, geology engineering, industrial engineering, information systems, medicine, materials science, and acoustic engineering, nanotechnology engineering, physiology, artificial intelligence.
The main aim of applied science journals is to provide an educational platform with recent activities in all applied sciences fields mentioned above. A typical journal of applied sciences is a peer-reviewed international journal focused on publishing original research and review articles.
The primary target audience for applied science journals are professionals, researchers, developers, graduate and undergraduate students, and all academic individuals interested in the latest applied science research and findings.
The most accepted article types in journals of applied sciences include research articles, review articles, short communication, case study, commentary, and similar publications.
AKJournals is proud to present a collection of six applied science journals from various applied science fields:
The ball and Plate (BaP) system is the typical example of the nonlinear dynamic system that is used in a wide range of engineering applications. So, many researchers in the control field are using the Bap system to check robust controllers under several points that challenge it, such as internal and external disturbances. Our manuscript proposed a position control intelligent technique with two directions (2D) for the BaP system by optimized multi Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC’s) with Chicken Swarm Optimization (CSO) for each one. The gains and rules of the FLC’s can tune based on the CSO. This proposal utilizes the ability of the FLC’s to observe the position of the ball. At our work, the BaP system that belonged to Control Laboratory/Systems and Control Engineering department is used for real-time proposal implementation. The results have been showing a very good percentage enhancement in settling time, rise time, and overshoot, of the X-axis and Y-axis, respectively.
Authors:Midya Alqaradaghi, Gregory Morse, and Tamás Kozsik
Many security vulnerabilities can be detected by static analysis. This paper is a case study and a performance comparison of four open-source static analysis tools and plugins (PMD, SpotBugs, Find Security Bugs, and SonarQube) on Java source code. Experiments have been conducted on the widely used Juliet Test Suite with respect to six selected weaknesses from the official Top 25 list of Common Weakness Enumeration. In this study, analysis metrics have been calculated for helping Java developers decide which tools can be used when checking their programs for security vulnerabilities. It turned out that particular weaknesses are best detected with particular tools.
Authors:Fahad Mohanad Kadhim, Muhammad Safa Al-Din Tahir, and Athmar Thamer Naiyf
This study aims to increase the mechanical properties of the composite material manufactured by the lamination process. In this study, the lamination process will be implemented in two ways, and mechanical properties are compared between the two methods. The first method covers the lamination process under the influence of vacuum pressure only, while in the second method lamination process is achieved by the influence of vacuum pressure and vibrate by shaker device. The results showed that the endurance stress of fatigue increased by 18.18% for the material manufactured by the lamination process under the influence of vibration, while the yield stress and ultimate stress values remained roughly constant for both methods.
The article is devoted to decision of actual task of air distribution efficiency increase due to swirled air jets application. The aim of the paper is investigation of swirled air jets, analytical dependencies obtaining for determination of the air velocity attenuation coefficient, aerodynamic local resistance coefficient and noise level from the twisting plates inclination angle; optimization of the twisting plates inclination angle of the air distributor. It has been established that increase of the angle results in the air velocity attenuation coefficient increase and results in decrease of the noise level and resistance coefficient of air distributor. The optimum angle of the plates is determined considering aerodynamic, noise and energy aspects and equals 36°.
This paper robotic process automation is highlighted in modern business environments to understand about the progression of robotic process automation and how robotic process automation has brought changes to the world of business. Adoption of robotic process automation tools has raised lots of questions, but their deployment in a business has changed the outcome of the return on investment in a business by reducing cost and time taken on repetitive tasks. The paper is differentiating robotic process automation bot from artificial intelligence and robotics for the better understanding of lay audience. The paper also gives an insight about futuristic aspects of robotic process automation and robotic process automation 2.0.
Authors:Patrik Márk Máder, Olivér Rák, Nándor Bakai, József Etlinger, Márk Zagorácz, and István Ervin Háber
Building information modeling is a complex and structure-based methodology. It applies predefined steps and frameworks; however, an audit procedure can be complicated and time-consuming. The steps of the evaluations are based on logical connections that also form algorithms in a manual workflow. Algorithms can be interpreted by computers with the help of software languages. A higher level of automation, more efficient workflows, and more economical and accurate results can be developed by using algorithms.
Authors:Csongor Bajnóczki, Zoltán Illés, and Péter Szendrő
As the world is facing numerous global ecological issues at once, the question arises of what will help mitigate and solve contemporary matters related to resource management or climate change without devastating the economies. Fortunately, the widespread application of the circular economy would help countries worldwide simultaneously ensure economic growth without significant environmental deterioration, essentially decoupling the two factors. While Hungary’s contribution to environmental problems is not significant in absolute terms, the economic sector’s circular transition could help the country decrease its impact in relative terms and pave the path for a green economy. Nevertheless, companies, especially SMEs, tend to struggle the most with the initial phases of the shift thus it is crucial to assess the factors that prevent and support their transition.
Authors:Souphavanh Senesavath, Ali Salem, Saied Kashkash, Bintul Zehra, and Zoltan Orban
Steel fibers recovered from recycled tires were considered for use as reinforcement in concrete to improve the tensile properties of concrete as well as being an economically viable and environmentally friendly alternative. This paper investigates the effect of purified and non-purified recycled tire steel fiber in concrete with a constant fiber proportion of 30 kg m−3 to determine properties in fresh and hardened concrete. The results indicate that concrete with purified tire fibers have better tensile properties than those with non-purified tire fibers. Density, strength, and toughness significantly increase but workability tends to decrease when using recycled tire steel fiber as reinforcement in concrete.
Authors:Csaba Csutoras, Levente Giran, Orsolya Hudak, and Laszlo Racz
Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.
Authors:Mukul Chankaya, Aijaz Ahmad, and Ikhlaq Hussain
This paper presents a tree growth optimization based control of a grid-tied dual-stage photovoltaic system. The tree growth optimization has been employed for optimizing the proportional and integral controller gains for direct current bus voltage (Vdc) regulation to have minimum variation during dynamic conditions and to generate an accurate loss component of current (iLoss). The accurate , further enhance the control's performance by generating the accurate reference currents. The presented system is simulated and analyzed in a MATLAB simulation environment under various dynamic conditions, i.e., irradiation variation, unbalanced and abnormal grid voltage. The overall performance is satisfactory as per IEEE 519 standards.
Authors:Hadid Sukmana, Naoufal Bellahsen, Fernanda Pantoja, and Cecilia Hodur
Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.
Authors:Albert Fekete, Máté Sárospataki, and Szabolcs Vajda
Built elements and structures are a prominent component of our historic gardens, both in terms of function and artistic composition and garden scenery. The surveys of historic garden structures are important research tasks, which also underpins and validates restoration work.
In most cases, the neglected state of historic gardens and sites and the unavailable archival materials do not allow an authentic restoration of historic gardens to their original state. Nevertheless, there is a real need to reconstruct our historic gardens, based not only on historical authenticity but also on a systematic reinterpretation of the relationship between society and landscape.
The objective of this article is to present a general methodology for renewal of historic gardens through examples of specific garden reconstructions. The case studies are the authors' own design works, which demonstrate the application of different design approaches, highlighting details of the reconstruction of specific built garden elements.
Authors:Farid Boushaba, Salah Daoudi, Ahmed Yachouti, and Youssef Regad
This paper presents numerical solvers, based on the finite volume method. This scheme solves dam break problems on the dry bottom in 2D configuration. The difficulty of the simulation of this type of problem lies in the propagation of shocks on the dry bottom. The equation model used is the shallow water equations written in conservative form. The scheme used is second order in space and time. The method is modified to treat dry bottoms. The validity of the method is demonstrated over the dam break example. A comparison with finite elements shows the weakness and robustness of each method.
Authors:Lucia Bytčanková, Ján Rumann, and Peter Dušička
Recently, the construction of shaft intake structures in Slovakia has increased. The shaft intake structures overcome significant vertical depth over short horizontal distance. The flow of water in these shaft intake structures is therefore very complicated. The velocity field at a shaft intake of a small hydropower plant was investigated on a physical model in a hydraulic laboratory using the particle image velocimetry method. The particle image velocimetry measurements were realized for different shaft depths and the results of this study can increase negative effects of not suitable the design of construction on the flow homogeneity in the turbine intake.
In this paper a complete methodology of modeling and control of quad-rotor aircraft is exposed. In fact, a PD on-line optimized Neural Networks Approach (PD-NN) is developed and applied to control the attitude of a quad-rotor that is evolving in hostile environment with wind gust disturbances and should maintain its position despite of these troubles. Whereas PD classical controllers are dedicated for the positions, altitude and speed control. The main objective of this work is to develop a smart Self-Tuning PD controller for attitude angles control, based on neural networks capable of controlling the quad-rotor for an optimized performance thus following a desired trajectory. Many problems could arise if the quad-rotor is evolving in hostile environments presenting irregular troubles such as wind gusts modeled and applied to the overall system. The quad-rotor has to rapidly achieve tasks while guaranteeing stability and precision and must behave quickly with regards to decision making fronting turbulences. This technique offers some advantages over conventional control methods such as PD controllers. Simulation results are achieved with the use of Matlab/Simulink environment and are established on a comparative study between PD and PD-NN controllers founded on wind disturbances application. These obstacles are applied with numerous degrees of strength to test the quad-rotor comportment. Experimental results are reached with the use of the V-REP environment with which some trajectories are tracked and then applied on a BLADE Inductrix FPV+. These simulations and experimental results are acceptable and have confirmed the efficiency of the proposed PD-NN approach. In fact, this controller has fairly smaller errors than the PD controller and has an improved ability to reject troubles. Moreover, it has confirmed to be extremely vigorous and efficient fronting disturbances in the form of wind disturbances.
Authors:Lea Čubanová, Andrej Šoltész, and Jakub Mydla
The paper deals with an analysis of a drought in the small basin of the Gidra River in Slovakia due to problems with the abstraction of water from small reservoirs and ponds. A detailed hydrological assessment of the M-daily discharges for a long-term period was based on a dataset from the only gauging station on the upper part of the river. Because of the existing water structures with prescribed operations during the year, hydrometric and geodetic measurements were taken by the authors. The solution to this problem represents the conditions for the minimum required Q355 discharge in the river anytime and anywhere. This can only be solved with a master operational manual for the whole river to be able to flexibly react to the current hydrological situation.
In the sorting plant examined during the research, the sorting of the selectively collected mixed packaging waste is done by hand. Studies were performed on the quantitative changes of the waste stream entering and leaving the sorting plant, the composition properties according to the particle size, and lastly the number of pickings. The amount of incoming waste has increased linearly over the years. The sizes preferred by the optical separators were the guideline during the measurements. Sixty percentage of all incoming waste falls in the ideal range of 70–350 mm, 20% in the range of <70 mm and 20% in the range of >350 mm. Because there are significant differences in composition and quantities as the seasons and months alternate, these results provide important information for engineers designing a mechanized technology.
The deteriorative processes occurring in the environment, the growth of population, the water demand of industry and agriculture, point out day after day the increasing role of water management. The economical use of drinking-water consumption as well as the cost reduction is becoming more and more important. In this research, the measure of a water supplier of Győr was examined in terms of implementing the purposes above.
Authors:El Kabira El Mjabber, Abdellatif Khamlichi, and Abdellah El Hajjaji
Advanced control of variable speed horizontal wind turbine was considered in the high wind speed range. The aims of control in this region are to limit and stabilize the rotor speed and electrical power to their nominal values, while reducing the fatigue loads acting on the structure. A new nonlinear technique based on combination between sliding mode control and radial basis function neural network control was investigated. The proposed hybrid controller was implemented via MATLAB on a simplified two masses numerical model of wind turbine. By applying the Lyapunov approach, this controller was shown to ensure stability. It was found also to be robust and able to reject the uncertainties associated to system nonlinearities. The obtained results were compared with those provided by an existing controller.
Zygosaccharomyces species are among the most problematic food spoilage yeasts. The two most infamous species are Zygosaccharomyces balii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, although they may also take a positive role during the production of some fermented foods. DNA sequence based yeast identification aided by freely available reference databases of barcoding DNA sequences has boosted the description rate of novel yeast species in the last two decades. The genus Zygosaccharomyces has been considerably expanded as well. Especially the number of the extremely osmotolerant Zygosaccharomyces species, related to Z. rouxii and regularly found in high-sugar foods, has enlarged. A brief account of recent developments in the taxonomy and biodiversity of this important food associated genus is given in this review.
Authors:Maysam Shmlls, Dávid Bozsaky, and Tamás Horváth
Cement replacement materials are commonly used in concrete technology. Several researchers have examined high-performance concrete after adding mineral admixtures to it, but further studies are still needed to provide the optimum dosage of these materials for instance fly ash and silica fume. This study compares three types of concrete and the mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile) of these types at the age of 28 and 90 days. The test results designate that adding the mineral admixtures commonly affects the mechanical properties of all the tested types. However, silica fume is more operative than fly ash. Furthermore, adding the fly ash and silica fume in the same concrete type slightly improves the mechanical properties.
Contact with groundwater in the disposal geological site will induce the creation of an amorphous corrosion layer on the high-level radioactive glass. This is connected to silicate saturation conditions in the surrounding medium, and it is influenced significantly by geochemical processes in the near-field minerals at that depth. The international simple glass is a six-oxide borosilicate glass that is commonly used in nuclear interest. It is a simple glass generated from its composition to be an international benchmark glass. The results of the standard materials characterization center leaching tests in double deionized water at 90 °C and an initial pH value of 6.3 showed that it reacts with Ankerite for a short period of time. The effect of Ankerite on borosilicate glass durability through magnesium-silicate precipitation has been investigated and confirmed in this study.
Visual identification of objects is an important challenge today. Main target of frequently applied methods is to identify or classify complex objects. These methods are far less effective when objects are small and less complex, and thus less descriptor features are on hand. The main reason for this is that these features can significantly change on object occlusion or appearance of noise.
The presented solution performs identification of simple, small (size is 17 × 13 pixels) objects with elliptical shape. High pass filtered normalized cross correlation is used for region of interest detection and a simple deep neural network is used for classification of selected regions. The proposed method detected objects on a noisy image with accuracy of 96.2%.
Authors:Tawfek Sheer Ali, Nassr Salman, and Mohammed K. Fakhraldin
The displacement of a loaded pile could be vertical (axial) or horizontal (lateral); these displacements are sensitive to groundwater presence within the soil mass. This paper presents a theoretical study to investigate vertical and horizontal displacement of piles embedded in a clayey soil for different levels of groundwater under the ground surface. The study was performed using the commercial finite element package PLAXIS-3D. Three diameters of the concrete piles were considered: 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m, and were subjected to 1,000 kN axial load. The effect of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 m groundwater along the 20 m pile in length from the ground surface on the vertical and horizontal displacements was investigated. The results indicated that the vertical and horizontal displacements increase when the ground water level increases towards the base of pile. Also, there is a significant increase in the horizontal displacement up to 15 m of groundwater level from ground surface and decreased at levels from 15 to 20 m.
Authors:Basma Naili, István Háber, and István Kistelegdi
The reduction of energy consumption is a major issue nowadays that should be considered during the design process. High-rise buildings represent a building type with significantly high energy consumption. They serve typically as offices with fully glazed façades, generating considerable energy demand. This study aims to optimize the envelope and the shading systems of a high-rise office building (Middle Europe). For this purpose, multiple façade variants were tested by assessing the thermal and visual comfort, as well as energy demand. The IDA ICE 4.8 building energy simulation program was used for thermal and lighting modeling and to carry out building physics calculations. Results revealed the best performing, optimized façade configuration in terms of comfort and energy efficiency.
The emerging popularity of telemedicine solutions brought an alarming problem due to the lack of proper access control solutions. With the inclusion of multi-tiered, heterogeneous infrastructures containing Internet of things and edge computing elements, the severity and complexity of the problem became even more alarming, calling for an established access control framework and methodology. The goal of the research is to define a possible solution with a focus on native cloud integration, possible deployment at multiple points along the path of the healthcare data, and adaptation of the fast healthcare interoperability resources standard. In this paper, the importance of this issue in offline use cases is presented and the effectiveness of the proposed solution is evaluated.
Authors:Hazim Nasir Ghafil, Shaymaa Alsamia, and Károly Jármai
This work, presents a novel optimizer called fertilization optimization algorithm, which is based on levy flight and random search within a search space. It is a biologically inspired algorithm by the fertilization of the egg in reproduction of mammals. The performance of the algorithm was compared with other optimization algorithms on CEC2015 time expensive benchmarks and large scale optimization problems. Remarkably, the fertilization optimization algorithm has overcome other optimizers in many cases and the examination and comparison results are encouraging to use the fertilization optimization algorithm in other possible applications.
Telemedicine is one of the most rapidly developing areas of healthcare and it plays an increasing role in modern medicine. As the amount of data and demand for features increase, the data paths are becoming ever-more complex. Owing to this, it is vital in telemedicine to find a proper balance between consistency and availability under any given circumstances. However, making a trade-off can significantly influence the quality of the data. This study seeks to get an in-depth view of the problem by considering a real-world telemedicine use-case and elaborating the formal system specification of the scenario. After evaluating the specification, the constructed state graph is examined using graph coloring and other graph algorithms.
Distinct technological trends seriously influence the modern software architectures. In this paper, four different software architectures and framework combinations were generally compared. The basis for the analysis is the developer's productivity.
In a 3 year-long research and development project, a real-world telemedicine application was efficiently implemented four times with various software architectures and architectural patterns. More than 5,000 person-hours were spent on carrying out them.
At present, a unique dataset is available, which provides the opportunity to compare the cost of spent person-hours in different approaches.
The goal of this research is to describe the measurement approach, the dataset and the applied architectures considering the software developer's productivity.
Authors:Martin Pavúček, Ján Rumann, and Peter Dušička
Scours creation in riverbed at the Hričov weir is a permanent problem since its construction. It is caused by the shortened stilling basin of the weir. In almost all cases of flow control at the weir the energy is not dissipated sufficiently. A 3D physical model was built in the hydraulic laboratory to investigate the measures for reduction of the scour creation. To simulate uneven loads on the downstream riverbed, a flood discharge controlled by the weir in symmetric and asymmetric operations was used for simulations. The scours were evaluated using short-range photogrammetry for contactless measurements. Based on this method digital models of the riverbed for each simulation were created and the scours were assessed to determine the effect of the investigated measures on scour reduction.
With the rise of the urban renewal motion in recent years in China, more and more cities have shifted the focus of construction to the renovation and renewal of old areas. The renewal of the old community plays an essential role in the urban upgrading of China, which is related to the quality of a city, as well as a crucial criterion for evaluating the comfort of the living environment. The old community to retain their vibrancy and culture is needed to renew by a way of modernization. The paper will discuss how to use micro-renewal design to improve the quality of the old community, awaking the historical memories of the community simultaneously, thereby balance the relationship between history and use-value.
Imageability is the quality of a place that makes it distinct, recognizable, and memorable. It defines the character and identity for cities. However, the fast expansion of urban development affects the image of city and its fabric toward the mega scale and transforms cities local cultural life as loosing most of their historic fabrics. These make cities loose there images gradually. Hence, the aim of this paper is to explore the main physical elements that contribute toward attractiveness as one of imageability character in Salt City in Jordan. Historical review and site analysis were the main methodology used in this study. This paper show some of the physical elements that contribute to attractiveness connected with image of the Salt City in Jordan, these elements are: building appearance (material, façade design) and landscape (topography).
Authors:Y.H. Xu, T. Li, W.L. Yang, M.Y. Sun, R.Z. An, and W.M. Du
There have been contradicting observations regarding the prebiotic efficacy of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) extracted from different varieties of cereals with varying oligosaccharides and ferulic acid (FA) levels. The present study was performed to determine whether the mass ratio of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) to FA influences their combined effects on faecal FA content, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) output, and gut stress of d-galactose-treated aging rats. The results show that there was no significant difference in the faecal FA levels of rats fed with 5:1 and 10:1 XOS:FA diet, although the FA level in the 5:1-supplemented diet was twice as much as in the 10:1 diet. More utilisation of FA decreased butyric acid and SCFA output in the faeces for diet 5:1 compared with diets 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone. Furthermore, compared with 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone treatments, the 5:1 XOS:FA diet resulted in increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity and higher ratios of Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli (P < 0.05), while not increasing the number of probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. These findings suggest that under the specific stress level set for this study, the sufficient amount of FA added to XOS (5:1) can stimulate FA utilisation to modify gut redox balance, while reducing faecal SCFA output.
Authors:Saja Jamil Alamoush, Nor Haslina Ja'afar, and András Kertész
Rapid development has affected the elements of urban spaces adversely, particularly streets. These changes produce faceless cities with high dependency on vehicles for transportation to key ‘consumers’ aside from buildings that are not designed for the local environment and local needs. In urban design, concerns on character affect the sense of place. Thus, this paper assesses the crucial element of streets with respect to design and character in the urban setting, the subsequent issues, and the recommended solution. This study focuses on the scenarios that threaten today's street design. This work will discuss the advantages of traditional streets, which could be a potential solution to the issues mentioned earlier. Finally, a street design based on the traditional street model is proposed to fulfill the criteria necessitated by the local community.
Despite the clear benefits of maintaining a human relationship with nature, people increasingly live in urban settings. As a result of urbanization, numerous urban communities are confronting social and natural problems, which have genuinely compromised residents’ wellbeing and health. Thus, holistic planning and designing are needed to tackle these problems, integrating nature-based thinking into urban environmental development. The aim of this paper is to explore components of a sustainable city and biophilic design patterns and analyze the relationship between them. Finally, the conceptual model of a sustainable city has been proposed based on biophilic design approaches.
Authors:Gabriella László, Flóra Hajdu, and Rajmund Kuti
In Hungary a lot of people live in condominiums or in block of flats where fire often occurs despite of precise design and effective fire protection arrangements. This means a hazard for the people living there, for the building constructions and also for the environment. A deeper knowledge of the burning process and examining the negative effects of fire load on building constructions with scientific methods are actual questions nowadays. In order to get to know the phenomena more accurately, fire spread in a bedroom was modeled and numerical simulation was carried out, which is presented in this paper in detail. These experiences may help increasing the fire safety and preventing fires in apartments. The simulations were carried out considering the characteristics of the Hungarian architecture.
In order to develop the quality of urban spaces, street furniture seems to be the significant element that defines the city’s social attraction points. It stimulates outdoor spaces because of its location, buildings and sidewalk meet. This study explores the issues of design criteria that introduce sustainability into street furniture design in urban public space in Tunisia. This research is based on the role of street furniture and its importance in urban public spaces, and the possibility of supplementing a recycling design. This paper aims to explore the necessary criteria to design sustainable street furniture in order to present its importance in a way that helps to ameliorate the quality of living in urban areas and cities.
Authors:Muhammad Saad Waheed, Muhammad Jamal, and Manzoor Elahi
Bitumen is a critical component in asphaltic pavements and is often the cause of many road failures. The commercial modifiers that are being used to enhance the properties of bitumen are quite expensive; therefore, this article is dedicated to explore the potential of local crumb rubber as bitumen modifier. Two grades of bitumen pen grade (60/70 and 80/100) were modified with local crumb rubber. Rheological properties of modified and unmodified bitumen were evaluated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The results indicated an increase in the rutting resistance of bitumen. This indicates that Local crumb rubber can be used to enhance the properties of bitumen.
In watershed modeling research, it is practical to subdivide a watershed into smaller units or sub-watersheds for modeling purposes. The ability of a model to simulate the watershed system depends on how well watershed processes are represented by the model and how well the watershed system is described by model input. This study is conducted to evaluate the impact of watershed subdivision and different weather input datasets on streamflow simulations using the soil and water assessment tool model. For this purpose, Cuhai-Bakonyér watershed was chosen as a study area. Two climate databases and four subdivision variations levels were evaluated. The model streamflow predictions slightly effected by subdivision impact. The climate datasets showed significant differences in streamflow predictions.
Present paper focuses on the modeling of size effect on the compressive strength of normal strength concrete with the application of discrete element method, considering specimen of different concrete mixes and shapes. An equation was derived to estimate the parallel bond strength from the compressive strength. The results showed a good agreement with the literature and the derived estimation models showed strong correlation with the measurements. The results indicated that size effect is stronger on concretes with lower strength class and that it is more significant on cube specimens than on cylinders. The relationship of model size and computational time was analyzed and a method to decrease the computational time (iterations) was proposed.
Authors:Xue Kang, Gabriella Medvegy, and Yufang Zhou
With the development of economic globalization and the information age, architecture has gradually become a kind of seal of politics, capital and culture, and is divorced from the spirit and life experience of the existing places in the region. Therefore, the field of architecture constantly seeks new research paradigm from the interdisciplinary perspective and reconsiders the creative activities of architecture. From the late last century, with the introduction of architecture by postmodern philosophy, semiotics, geographical psychology, phenomenology and cultural anthropology, there has been a cross-research between architecture and narratology. The recent research hopes to conduct an in-depth analysis of the theory of architectural spatial narrative and its development in the context of complex disciplines, and to research spatial narrative as a design methodology for architecture.
Authors:Seyed Ali Hasheminejad, Khadijeh Valipour, and Hamid Khoshnood
Supply chain management intends to integrate supply chains' activities such as material flow, information flow and financial issues. Material flow management is the most significant issue since the inventory level in the whole supply chain could be optimized by an integrated plan. In other words, when one member of the supply chain plans to reduce its inventory level solely, despite reducing inventory in this node the inventory will be stocked in other partners' warehouses. Therefore, in this paper a new mathematical model has been developed to facilitate the process of finding the optimum solution in economic production, purchase and delivery lots and their schedules in a three-echelon supply chain environment; including raw material in suppliers, manufacturer and assembly facility as a customer. The manufacturer with a flow shop system provides its requirements from supplier, assemble multiple products, and delivers products to the customer (automotive OEM alike) on an optimum multiple delivery points. The delivery cycles would be identified through the production common cycle regarding the supply chain flexibility. Finally, a modified real-valued Genetic Algorithm (MRGA), and an Optimal Enumeration Method (OEM) are developed, and some numerical experiments have been done and compared as well.
Authors:Alaa Sulaiman, Yasser Hunaiti, Mu’tasim Abdel-Jaber, and Ma’en Abdel-Jaber
The axial capacity of light–gauge steel tube columns filled with concrete including recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) was investigated. A total of 51 specimens, including 6 bare steel tubes, 30 composite columns and 15 concrete-only columns were tested under uniaxial load. Fifteen concrete mixes were considered by replacing the weight of natural coarse aggregates (NA) with RCA and RAP at replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. In addition, RAP and RCA were combined in the same mixes with replacement levels of (1) 20% RAP and 80% RCA; (2) 40% RAP and 60% RCA; (3) 60% RAP and 40% RCA; and (4) 80% RAP and 20% RCA. Experimental results were analyzed by reporting the ultimate capacities and the patterns of failure. Moreover, the predictions of EUROCODE 4 (EC4) and American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) codes were checked. ABAQUS software was used to perform a finite element analysis (FEA) of the tested composite specimens. The results showed that using recycled aggregates decreased the carrying capacity of columns. Carrying capacity of light–gauge steel tubes filled with concrete including different combinations of RCA, NA and RAP aggregates can be conservatively predicted by the AISC and EC4 recommendations. Results of FEA showed a good agreement with the experimental results.
The aim of the study is to create an effective and standard risk assessment tool that provides the company with support and security in purchasing of new products. The goal was to create a tool that complements and standardizes risk assessment forms and shows rapid results. Using the procurement risk management system, the risk associated with a given product can be determined easily and in a short time. In the process, critical areas where hazards may occur can be clearly identified and the risk can be minimized if properly managed.
Authors:Abdulrazak A. Mohammed and Ghassan A. QasMarrogy
Fiber Optic Network is an advanced and modern system technology, which is used in sending pulses of laser light inside a glass of fiber over long distances, widely used in every environment with various sorts of applications in a different field. It is well-known that the main material of fiber optics is glass, therefore it is typical that the temperature can affect the glass during the thermal expansion. This effect will be applied to the properties of the optical components such as refractive index, radius curvature of the fiber optics layers, and also there is an effect on the data transfer through the fiber optics network units. In this paper, the effect of temperature degree on the optical signal and the functions of the fiber optic network will be simulated, measured, and analyzed. The result will be discussed and the conclusion will show the serious points of thermal effects on the optical signal of a fiber-optic network.
Authors:K. Aktaş, H. Levent, S. Yeşil, and E. Adıgüzel
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of wheat shorts, a milling by-product, on some properties of pasta. For this purpose, wheat semolina was replaced with wheat shorts at 15, 30, and 45% levels in pasta formulation. Some physical, chemical, and sensory properties of pasta samples were evaluated and compared with control samples prepared with durum wheat semolina. As the concentrations of shorts increased in the pasta formulation, the brightness values decreased and the redness values increased. The ash, fat, total dietary fibre, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and mineral content increased with the use of shorts. The highest solid loss value (10.28%) was found in pasta samples containing 45% shorts. The addition of shorts up to 30% presented similar overall acceptability scores to control pasta samples. As a result, it was observed that as the shorts content of the samples increase, the nutritional value and the levels of some components that affect health positively, increase as well. So, the samples containing 30% shorts appear to be at forefront due to health effects and overall acceptability scores.
In this study, 14 yeast cultures from 62 isolates from traditional sourdoughs collected from 6 different regions of Turkey were selected by FT-IR identification and characterised to reveal their probiotic properties. Four yeast strains were genotypically identified and compared with FT-IR identification. In all analyses, it was observed that mostly Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain exhibited high hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation feature, and all yeast isolates in this study showed tolerance to 0.3%, even salt concentration. In addition, all yeast strains were susceptible to anti-yeasts agents, although they were resistant to all antibiotics used in the study. All selected yeast isolates exhibited high antimicrobial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, this study investigated the potential probiotic properties of yeast strains isolated from sourdough.