Browse

You are looking at 401 - 500 of 11,017 items

Abstract

The intellectual structure and its evolution of library and information science (LIS) in China are analyzed with time series data from Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index which is the properest database for ACA practice in the field of social science at present. The result indicates that the subfields of Library and Information Science in China kept changing from 1998 to 2007: some subfields have emerged and developed a lot, e.g., webometrics and competitive intelligence; some subfields maintain, e.g., bibliometrics and intellectual property; and some subfields have begun to decline, e.g., cataloging. Through the comparison with the international LIS, it is found that there are some unique subfields in Chinese LIS from 1998 to 2007, such as competitive intelligence and intellectual property. At the same time, I also suggest that Chinese authors in LIS should pay more attention to the applied research in the future.

Restricted access

Abstract

With reference to Vanclay (Scientometrics in press, ) the paper argues for a pragmatic approach to the Thomson-Reuter's journal impact factor. The paper proposes and discusses to replace the current synchronous Thomson-Reuter journal impact factor by an up-to-date diachronic version (DJIF), consisting of a three-year citation window over a one year publication window. The DJIF online data collection and calculation is exemplified and compared to the present synchronous journal impact factor. The paper discusses briefly the dimensions of currency, robustness, understandability and comparability to other impact factors used in research evaluation.

Restricted access
Authors: Gregorio González-Alcaide, Juan Carlos Valderrama-Zurián and Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent

Abstract

The representativeness of the ISI-Thomson Impact Factor rankings and the existing relationship between countries’ national languages and the diffusion of scientific publications is analyzed. We discuss literature on the Impact Factor related to language use, publication strategies for authors and editors from non-English-speaking countries, the effects of the inclusion of a new journal in the ISI-Thomson databases and the scientific policies articulated in some non-English-speaking countries. The adoption of the Impact Factor as the valuation criterion for scientific activities has favoured the consolidation of English language journals in the diffusion of scientific knowledge. The vernacular languages only conserve part of their importance in certain disciplines, such as Clinical Medicine or Social Sciences and Humanities. The Impact Factor, invented over 50 years ago now, could be a limitation for non-English authors and scientific journals, and does not consider some widely used practices among the scientific community concerning the development of Internet as a means for the diffusion of knowledge.

Restricted access

Abstract

We discuss research evaluation, the nature of impact, and the use of the Thomson Reuters journal impact factor and other indicators in scientometrics in the light of recent commentary.

Restricted access

Abstract

J.K. Vanclay's article is a bold attempt to review recent works on the journal impact factor (JIF) and to call for alternative certifications of journals. The too broad scope did not allow the author to fulfill all his purposes. Attempting after many others to organize the various forms of criticism, with targets often broader than the JIF, we shall try to comment on a few points. This will hopefully enable us to infer in which cases the JIF is an angel, a devil, or a scapegoat. We shall also expand on a crucial question that Vanclay could not really develop in the reduced article format: the field-normalization. After a short recall on classical cited-side or ex post normalization and of the powerful influence measures, we will devote some attention to the novel way of citing-side or ex ante normalization, not only for its own interest, but because it directly proceeds from the disassembling of the JIF clockwork.

Restricted access

Abstract

Using a collection of papers gathered from the Web of Science, and defining disciplines by the JCR classification, this paper compares the disciplinary structure of the G7 countries (representing high S&T level countries) and the BRIC countries (representing fast breaking countries in S&T) by using bibliometric methods. It discusses the similarity and the balance of their disciplinary structure. We found that: (1) High S&T level countries have a similar national disciplinary structure; (2) In recent years the disciplinary structure of the BRIC countries has become more and more similar to that of the G7 countries; (3) The disciplinary structure of the G7 countries is more balanced than that of the BRIC countries (4) In the G7 countries more emphasis goes to the life sciences, while BRIC countries focus on physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering.

Restricted access

Abstract

We find evidence for the universality of two relative bibliometric indicators of the quality of individual scientific publications taken from different data sets. One of these is a new index that considers both citation and reference counts. We demonstrate this universality for relatively well cited publications from a single institute, grouped by year of publication and by faculty or by department. We show similar behaviour in publications submitted to the arXiv e-print archive, grouped by year of submission and by sub-archive. We also find that for reasonably well cited papers this distribution is well fitted by a lognormal with a variance of around σ2 = 1.3 which is consistent with the results of Radicchi et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:17268–17272, ). Our work demonstrates that comparisons can be made between publications from different disciplines and publication dates, regardless of their citation count and without expensive access to the whole world-wide citation graph. Further, it shows that averages of the logarithm of such relative bibliometric indices deal with the issue of long tails and avoid the need for statistics based on lengthy ranking procedures.

Restricted access

Abstract

Information systems permeate every business function, thereby requiring holistic Information Systems (IS) approaches. Much academic research is still discipline specific. More interdisciplinary research is needed to inform both industry and academe. Interdisciplinary research has been positively associated with increased levels of innovation, productivity and impact. IS research contributes to the knowledge creation and innovation within IS and other College of Business (COB) disciplines. This research defines the intellectual structures within IS and between IS and other COB disciplines. We use a large scale, diachronic bibliometric analysis of COB journals to assess reciprocal knowledge exchange and also to identify potential intra- and interdisciplinary publication outlets. Our findings show an increase in IS knowledge contributions to other COB disciplines, which supports the discussion that IS is a reference discipline. Our research also visually depicts the intellectual structures within IS and between IS and other COB disciplines. Anyone exploring research in IS and allied COB disciplines can peruse the proximity maps to identify groups of similar journals. The findings from this research inform decisions related to which journals to read, target as publication outlets, and include on promotion and tenure lists.

Restricted access

Abstract

Few contemporary inventions have influenced academic publishing as much as journal impact factors. On the other hand, debates and discussion on the potential limitations of, and appropriate uses for, journal performance indicators are almost as long as the history of the measures themselves. Given that scientometrics is often undertaken using bibliometric techniques, the history of the former is inextricably linked to the latter. As with any controversy it is difficult to separate an invention from its history, and for these reasons, the current article provides an overview of some key historical events of relevance to the impact factor. When he first proposed the concept over half a century ago, Garfield did not realise that impact factors would one day become the subject of such widespread controversy. As the current Special Issue of Scientometrics suggests, this debate continues today.

Restricted access

Abstract

For certain tasks in patent management it makes sense to apply a quantitative measure of textual similarity between patents and/or parts thereof: be it the analysis of freedom to operate, the analysis of technology convergence, or the mapping of patents for strategic purposes. In this paper we intend to outline the process of measuring textual patent similarity on the basis of elements referred to as ‘combined concepts’. We are going to use this process in various operations leading to design decisions, and shall also provide guidance regarding these decisions. By way of two applications from patent management, namely the prioritization of patents and the analysis of convergence between two technological fields, we mean to demonstrate the crucial importance of design decisions in terms of patent analysis results.

Restricted access
Authors: Nicolas Carayol, Ghislaine Filliatreau and Agenor Lahatte

Abstract

Based on new comparison principles that take into account both the volume of scientific production and its impact, this paper proposes a method for defining reference classes of universities. Several tools are developed in order to enable university managers to define the value system according to which their university shall be compared to others. We apply this methodology to French universities and illustrate it using the reference classes of the best ranked universities according to several value systems.

Restricted access

Abstract

In the present work we analyze the Country Profiles, open access data from ISI Thomson Reuter's Science Watch. The country profiles are rankings of the output (indexed in Web of Science) in different knowledge fields during a determined time span for a given country. The analysis of these data permits defining a Country Profile Index, a tool for diagnosing the activity of the scientific community of a country and their possible strengths and weakness. Furthermore, such analysis also enables the search for identities among research patterns of different countries, time evolution of such patterns and the importance of the adherence to the database journals portfolio in evaluating the productivity in a given knowledge field.

Restricted access

Abstract

In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China–US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese–American scientists have been playing an important role in China–US scientific collaboration. We find that China–US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese–American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese–American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China–US scientific collaboration.

Restricted access

Abstract

The institutional environment of science differs across countries. Its particularities have an impact on outcomes of scientific enterprise in terms of authorship patterns and patterns of citations. The paper analyzes scholarly papers produced by faculty and graduate students affiliated with six universities, two of them operate in the Russian institutional environment of science and four others—in the Western European and North American. The citation analysis of papers included in two major databases, eLibrary (Russian) and Web of Knowledge (international), shows that the lists of predictors for the number of references to a scholarly article significantly differ in the Western and Russian cases.

Restricted access

Abstract

We present direct and strong converse theorems for a general sequence of positive linear operators satisfying some functional equations. The results can be applied to some extensions of Baskakov and Szász–Mirakyan operators.

Restricted access

Abstract

We prove that a relatively general even function f(x) (satisfying a vanishing condition, and also some analyticity and growth conditions) on the real line can be expanded in terms of a certain function series closely related to the Wilson functions introduced by Groenevelt in 2003. The coefficients in the expansion of f will be inner products in a suitable Hilbert space of f and some polynomials closely related to Wilson polynomials (these are well-known hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials).

Restricted access
Authors: J. S. Brauchart, P. D. Dragnev, E. B. Saff and C. E. van de Woestijne

Abstract

A positive unit point charge approaching from infinity a perfectly spherical isolated conductor carrying a total charge of +1 will eventually cause a negatively charged spherical cap to appear. The determination of the smallest distance ρ(d) (d is the dimension of the unit sphere) from the point charge to the sphere where still all of the sphere is positively charged is known as Gonchar's problem. Using classical potential theory for the harmonic case, we show that 1+ρ(d) is equal to the largest positive zero of a certain sequence of monic polynomials of degree 2d−1 with integer coefficients which we call Gonchar polynomials. Rather surprisingly, ρ(2) is the Golden ratio and ρ(4) the lesser known Plastic number. But Gonchar polynomials have other interesting properties. We discuss their factorizations, investigate their zeros and present some challenging conjectures.

Restricted access

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to determine the locally densest horoball packing arrangements and their densities with respect to fully asymptotic tetrahedra with at least one plane of symmetry in hyperbolic 3-space extended with its absolute figure, where the ideal centers of horoballs give rise to vertices of a fully asymptotic tetrahedron. We allow horoballs of different types at the various vertices. Moreover, we generalize the notion of the simplicial density function in the extended hyperbolic space (n≧2), and prove that, in this sense, the well known Böröczky–Florian density upper bound for “congruent horoball” packings of does not remain valid to the fully asymptotic tetrahedra.

The density of this locally densest packing is ≈0.874994, may be surprisingly larger than the Böröczky–Florian density upper bound ≈0.853276 but our local ball arrangement seems not to have extension to the whole hyperbolic space.

Restricted access

Abstract

We prove two results concerning solvability of a linear equation in sets of integers. In particular, it is shown that for every k∊ℕ, there is a noninvariant linear equation in k variables such that if A⫅{1,…,N} has no solution to the equation then , for some absolute constant c>0, provided that N is large enough.

Restricted access

Abstract

The concept of enlargement of a generalized topology and (κ,λ)-continuity was introduced by Á. Császár [2]. In this paper we investigate enlargements on generalized neighbourhood systems. In addition, we give a characterization of (κ,λ)-continuity.

Restricted access

Abstract

The generalized Christoffel function λ p,q,n(;x) (0<p<∞, 0≦q<∞) with respect to a measure on R is defined by

ea
.

The novelty of our definition is that it contains the factor |tx|q, which is of particular interest. Its properties are discussed and estimates are given. In particular, upper and lower bounds for generalized Christoffel functions with respect to generalized Jacobi weights are also provided.

Restricted access

Abstract

We introduce the notion of maximal μ-open and minimal μ-closed sets in a generalized topological space. We also investigate some of their fundamental properties.

Restricted access

Abstract

We give a constructive proof of existence of random vectors and discrete-time random processes with arbitrary nonsingular marginal distributions and arbitrary dependence structure. A corollary of this fact regarding Gaussian distributions is also established, as well as some abstract properties of dependence structures.

Restricted access
Authors: B. Della Vecchia, G. Mastroianni, L. Szili and P. Vértesi

Abstract

This paper generalizes some results of L. B. Golinskii [4] on the asymptotic behaviour of reflection coefficients associated with generalized Jacobi weight functions.

Restricted access

Abstract

For the Riemann zeta-function we present an asymptotic formula of a shifted fourth moment in an unbounded shift range along the critical line.

Restricted access

Abstract

Our purpose is to show that the various concepts of singularity of representable positive functionals on -algebras coincide, moreover to present a new characterization of singularity by means of Choquet theory of the state space. In the context of singularity, the paper includes an equivalent condition for a representable positive functional to be pure.

Restricted access

Abstract

In this note noncommutative versions of Etemadi's SLLN and Petrov's SLLN are given. As a noncommutative counterpart of the classical almost sure convergence, the almost uniform convergence of measurable operators is used.

Restricted access

The paper concerns a biunique correspondence between some positively homogeneous functions on ℝn and some star-shaped sets with nonempty interior, symmetric with respect to the origin (Theorems 3.5 and 4.3).

Restricted access

Abstract

The paper presents a methodology called hybrid documents co-citation analysis, for studying the interaction between science and technology in technology diffusion. Our approach rests mostly on patent citation, cluster analysis and network analysis. More specifically, with the patents citing Smalley RE in Derwent innovations index as the data sets, the paper implemented hybrid documents co-citation network through two procedures. Then spectrum cluster algorithm was used to reveal the knowledge structure in technology diffusion. After that, with the concordance between network properties and technology diffusion mechanisms, three indicators containing degree, betweenness and citation half-life, were calculated to discuss the basic documents in the pivotal position during the technology diffusion. At last, the paper summarized the hybrid documents co-citation analysis in practise, thus concluded that science and technology undertook different functions and acted dominatingly in the different period of technology diffusion, though they were co-activity all the time.

Restricted access

Abstract

To demonstrate the importance of Arctic studies in the humanities and social sciences, we collected data from the SSCI and A&HCI covering a period of over 100 years and focused on the number of papers published each year, the major journals, types of documents, major languages represented, authors and their countries publishing the most articles, author's affiliations, collaboration and the major research subjects covered. The results indicate that worldwide scholars had never been absent in this field for more than one century. Countries near the Arctic, particularly in North America and the Nordic, show the most interest and have the most research results. Universities and colleges are the most important research institutions in this field. North America is the area that has conducted the largest amount of research, while some Western European countries such as Germany and France, performed with great enthusiasm research in relation with North Pole expeditions. Arctic research in the humanities and social sciences has gradually expanded from the historical, archaeological, and anthropological fields to the realm of political, social, educational sciences including international relations, music, art, etc.

Restricted access
Authors: Jian Wang, Kaspars Berzins, Diana Hicks, Julia Melkers, Fang Xiao and Diogo Pinheiro

Abstract

This paper proposes a method for classifying true papers of a set of focal scientists and false papers of homonymous authors in bibliometric research processes. It directly addresses the issue of identifying papers that are not associated (“false”) with a given author. The proposed method has four steps: name and affiliation filtering, similarity score construction, author screening, and boosted trees classification. In this methodological paper we calculate error rates for our technique. Therefore, we needed to ascertain the correct attribution of each paper. To do this we constructed a small dataset of 4,253 papers allegedly belonging to a random sample of 100 authors. We apply the boosted trees algorithm to classify papers of authors with total false rate no higher than 30% (i.e. 3,862 papers of 91 authors). A one-run experiment achieves a testing misclassification error 0.55%, testing recall 99.84%, and testing precision 99.60%. A 50-run experiment shows that the median of testing classification error is 0.78% and mean 0.75%. Among the 90 authors in the testing set (one author only appeared in the training set), the algorithm successfully reduces the false rate to zero for 86 authors and misclassifies just one or two papers for each of the remaining four authors.

Restricted access

Abstract

In this study the issue of the validity of the argument against the applied length of citation windows in Journal Impact Factors calculations is critically re-analyzed. While previous studies argued against the relatively short citation window of 1–2 years, this study shows that the relative short term citation impact measured in the window underlying the Journal Impact Factor is a good predictor of the citation impact of the journals in the next years to come. Possible exceptions to this observation relate to journals with relatively low numbers of publications, and the citation impact related to publications in the year of publication. The study focuses on five Journal Subject Categories from the science and social sciences, on normal articles published in these journals, in the 2 years 2000 and 2004.

Open access

Abstract

The paper summarizes some basic features of the Garfield impact factor (GF). Accordingly, GF should be regarded as a scientometric indicator representing the relative contribution of journals to the total impact of information in a field. For calculating GF, both from theoretical and practical reasons the “ratio of the sums” method is recommended over the “mean of the ratios” method. Scientific advances are made by the most influential, presumably most frequently cited articles. The distribution of citations among the publications is skewed in journals. Consequently, the GF index will be influenced primarily by the highly cited papers. It follows, GF represents the most valuable part of the information in journals quantitatively, and even therefore it may be regarded as a reliable impact indicator.

Restricted access

Abstract

To study the behavior of Italian researchers living in Italy with a view to creating appropriate policies to tackle the brain drain and discourage academics from weight in driving emigrating, we constructed a survey based on a sample of 4,700 Italian researchers (assistant professors) in several universities in Italy. The outlook is far from rosy: Italian researchers are generally dissatisfied with the economic and social situation of the country. Strong family ties represent the element keeping them at home in Italy. In this regard, no particular differences were noted between the North and South of the country. In analyzing the Italian academic system we identified factors that have greater weight in driving Italian intellectual talent to emigrate: the country's higher education system leaves all dissatisfied. Furthermore, we discovered other factors that, albeit weak, keep Italian researchers in Italy. However, one wonders how much longer family and national ties will be able to keep Italian skilled agents in Italy, and whether such dissatisfaction may jeopardize the country's future economic development.

Restricted access
Authors: Milica Jovanovic, Veljko Jeremic, Gordana Savic, Milica Bulajic and Milan Martic

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present new ideas in evaluating Shanghai University's Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). In particular, this paper shall try to determine whether the normalization of data affects University ranks. In accordance with this, both the normalized and original (raw) data for each of the six variables has been obtained. Based on a sample containing the 54 US universities which are placed in the ARWU top 100, the statistical I-distance method was performed. The results showed great inconsistencies between university ranks obtained for the original and normalized data. These findings were then analyzed and the universities that had the greatest fluctuation in their ranks were noted.

Restricted access

Abstract

In theory, the web has the potential to provide information about the wider impact of academic research, beyond traditional scholarly impact. This is because the web can reflect non-scholarly uses of research, such as in online government documents, press coverage or public discussions. Nevertheless, there are practical problems with creating metrics for journals based on web data: principally that most such metrics should be easy for journal editors or publishers to manipulate. Nevertheless, two alternatives seem to have both promise and value: citations derived from digitised books and download counts for journals within specific delivery platforms.

Restricted access

Abstract

Journal impact factors (JIF) have been an accepted indicator of ranking journals. However, there has been increasing arguments against the fairness of using the JIF as the sole ranking criteria. This resulted in the creation of many other quality metric indices such as the h-index, g-index, immediacy index, Citation Half-Life, as well as SCIMago journal rank (SJR) to name a few. All these metrics have their merits, but none include any great degree of normalization in their computations. Every citation and every publication is taken as having the same importance and therefore weight. The wealth of available data results in multiple different rankings and indexes existing. This paper proposes the use of statistical standard scores or z-scores. The calculation of the z-scores can be performed to normalize the impact factors given to different journals, the average of z-scores can be used across various criteria to create a unified relative measurement (RM) index score. We use the 2008 JCR provided by Thompson Reuters to demonstrate the differences in rankings that would be affected if the RM-index was adopted discuss the fairness that this index would provide to the journal quality ranking.

Restricted access

Abstract

Objective measures of research performance are necessary to facilitate academic advancement of trainee physicians. In this cross-sectional study, all anaesthetists (n = 98) in higher specialist training in Ireland were surveyed to determine bibliometrics of their scientific publications and individual and institutional characteristics that can influence research productivity. For trainees with publications, the median (range) h-index was 1 (0–4). There was a positive correlation between participation in a formal research program and increased research productivity using mean citations per publication (r 2 = 0.26, P = 0.006) and h-index (r 2 = 0.26, P = 0.006). There was a positive correlation between formal mentorship and mean citations per publication (r 2 = 0.15, P = 0.04) and h-index (r 2 = 0.17, P = 0.03).

Restricted access

Abstract

This paper suggests an empirical framework to classify research collaboration activities with developed indicators that carry on a previous theoretical framework (Wagner [Science and Technology Policy for Development, ]; Wagner et al. [Linking effectively: Learning lessons from successful collaboration in science and technology. DB-345-OSTP, ]) by employing the Gaussian mixture model, an advanced probabilistic clustering analysis. By further exploring the method upon a profound evidence-based reflection of actual phenomena, this paper also proposes an exploratory analysis to manage and evaluate research projects upon their differentiated classification in a preceding perspective of research collaboration and R&D management. In addition, the results show that international collaboration tends to be associated with more evenly committed collaboration, and that collaboration featuring a higher degree of funding or dispersed commitments generally results in larger outcomes than research clustered on the opposite side of the framework.

Restricted access
Authors: Tim C. E. Engels, Truyken L. B. Ossenblok and Eric H. J. Spruyt

Abstract

An analysis of the changing publication patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) in the period 2000–2009 is presented on the basis of the VABB-SHW, a full coverage database of peer reviewed publication output in SSH developed for the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data collection took place as part of the Flemish performance-based funding system for university research. The development of the database is described and an overview of its contents presented. In terms of coverage of publications by the Web of Science we observe considerable differences across disciplines in the SSH. The overall growth rate in number of publications is over 62.1%, but varies across disciplines between 7.5 and 172.9%. Publication output grew faster in the Social Sciences than in the Humanities. A steady increase in the number and the proportion of publications in English is observed, going hand in hand with a decline in publishing in Dutch and other languages. However, no overall shift away from book publishing is observed. In the Humanities, the share of book publications even seems to be increasing. The study shows that additional full coverage regional databases are needed to be able to characterise publication output in the SSH.

Restricted access

Abstract

To identify delayed recognition publications, or ‘Sleeping Beauties’ (SBs), that are scarcely cited in the years or decades following their publication, but then go on to become highly cited, we screened citation histories of 184,606 articles in 52 ophthalmology journals using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (Thomson Reuters). Nine articles were identified as SBs, which accounted for 0.005% of basic materials. The SBs were published in Archives of Ophthalmology (n = 3), American Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 3), Acta Ophthalmologica (n = 1), Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (n = 1), and Japanese Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology (n = 1). For citation histories according to the conjuring SB from the fairy tale, the sleep duration ranged from 7 to 59 years with mean of 19.7 years, the depth of sleep as evaluated by the average citations per year during the sleeping period ranged from 0.09 to 0.82 with mean of 0.45 citations, and the awake intensity as determined by the average citations per year during the first 5 years period following awakening ranged from 3.60 to 17.80 with mean of 8.51 citations. The number of total citations up to 2010 ranged from 109 to 375 with mean of 176.3 citations. Topics of the SBs covered description of new clinical diseases including acute retinal necrosis syndrome, cancer-associated retinopathy, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, correlate of central corneal thickness with intraocular pressure readings, inadvertent eyeball perforation in retrobulbar anesthesia, pharmacologic weakening of extraocular muscles, amniotic membrane graft for ocular surface reconstruction, and refractive surgery. These data provide a perspective of rare but interesting delayed citation articles in ophthalmology.

Restricted access

Abstract

The impact factor is a highly polemic metric. It was designed to help scientists in searching for bibliographic references for their own works, enabling communication among researchers and helping librarians in deciding which journal they should purchase. Nevertheless, it has soon become the most important measure of scientific performance applied to journals, articles, scientists, universities, etc. Since then, some researchers argue that it is a useless and flawed measure, while others defend its utility. The current study is the first survey on the opinion on the topic of a broad sample of scientists from all over the world. The questionnaire was answered by 1,704 researchers from 86 different countries, all the continents and all the UNESCO major fields of knowledge. The results show that the opinion is slightly above the median which could be understood as “neither positive nor negative”. Surprisingly, there is a negative correlation between the number of articles published by the respondents and their opinion on the impact factor.

Restricted access

Abstract

In the almost 40 years since we wrote Evaluative bibliometrics enormous advances have been made in data availability and analytic technique. The journal impact factor of the 1960s has clearly not kept up with the state of the art. However, for both old and new indicators, basic validity and relevance issues remain, such as by what standard can we validate our results, and what external use can appropriately be made of them? As funding support becomes more difficult, we should not lose sight of the necessity to again demonstrate the importance of our research, and must keep in mind that it is the relevance of our results that count, not the elegance of our mathematics.

Restricted access

Abstract

The aim of this article is to test the model analysis conceived by Terry Shinn on the autonomy and unity of science. For him, the differentiation of sciences can be explained in a large part by the diffusion of generic instruments created by research-technologists moving in interstitial arenas between higher education, industry, statistics institutes or the military. We have applied this analysis to research on depression by making the hypothesis that psychiatric rating scales could have played a similar role in the development of this scientific field. To that purpose, we proceeded to a lexicographic study of keywords mentioned in articles listed by the PsycINFO© data base on this subject between 1950 and 2000. In order to realize an associated words analysis, we constructed a co-occurrence matrix and used clustering analysis based on a grouping index; that is, the equivalency index. We obtained significant aggregates of keywords associated with significant periods, or major moments, of the development of research on depression. This periodization confirmed the structural role played by psychiatric rating scales in the development of this scientific field, and led us to discuss and to extend some elements of the model initiated by Shinn.

Restricted access
Authors: Saeed-Ul Hassan, Peter Haddawy, Pratikshya Kuinkel, Alexander Degelsegger and Cosima Blasy

Abstract

Two relevant recent developments in the area of science and technology (S&T) and related policy-making motivate this article: first, bibliometric data on a specific research area's performance becomes an increasingly relevant source for S&T policy-making and evaluation. This trend is embedded in wider discussions on evidence-based policy-making. Secondly, the scientific output of Southeast Asian countries is rising, as is the number of international research collaborations with the second area of our interest: Europe. Against this background, we employ basic bibliometric methodology in order to draw a picture of Southeast Asian research strengths as well the amount and focus of S&T cooperation between the countries in Southeast Asia and the European Union. The results can prove useful for an interested public as well as for the scientific community and science, technology and innovation policy-making.

Restricted access
Authors: Hildrun Kretschmer, Ramesh Kundra, Donald deB. Beaver and Theo Kretschmer

Abstract

The causes of gender bias favoring men in scientific and scholarly systems are complex and related to overall gender relationships in most of the countries of the world. An as yet unanswered question is whether in research publication gender bias is equally distributed over scientific disciplines and fields or if that bias reflects a closer relation to the subject matter. We expected less gender bias with respect to subject matter, and so analysed 14 journals of gender studies using several methods and indicators. The results confirm our expectation: the very high position of women in co-operation is striking; female scientists are relatively overrepresented as first authors in articles. Collaboration behaviour in gender studies differs from that of authors in PNAS. The pattern of gender studies reflects associations between authors of different productivity, or “masters” and “apprentices” but the PNAS pattern reflects associations between authors of roughly the same productivity, or “peers”. It would be interesting to extend the analysis of these three-dimensional collaboration patterns further, to see whether a similar characterization holds, what it might imply about the patterns of authorship in different areas, what those patterns might imply about the role of collaboration, and whether there are differences between females and males in collaboration patterns.

Restricted access

Abstract

Journal impact factors (IFs) can be considered historically as the first attempt to normalize citation distributions by using averages over 2 years. However, it has been recognized that citation distributions vary among fields of science and that one needs to normalize for this. Furthermore, the mean—or any central-tendency statistics—is not a good representation of the citation distribution because these distributions are skewed. Important steps have been taken to solve these two problems during the last few years. First, one can normalize at the article level using the citing audience as the reference set. Second, one can use non-parametric statistics for testing the significance of differences among ratings. A proportion of most-highly cited papers (the top-10% or top-quartile) on the basis of fractional counting of the citations may provide an alternative to the current IF. This indicator is intuitively simple, allows for statistical testing, and accords with the state of the art.

Open access

Abstract

This study assessed research patterns and trends of library and information science (LIS) in Korea by applying bibliometric analysis to 159 Korean LIS professors’ 2,401 peer-reviewed publications published between 2001 and 2010. Bibliometric analysis of publication data found an increasing trend for collaboration, robust publication patterns, increasing number of international publications, and internationalization of LIS in Korea. The maturation and internalization of LIS research was evidenced in increased number of publications in high impact journals (e.g., SSI, SSCI), growing participation in leading international conferences (e.g., ASIST, TREC), increasing proportion of Korean LIS faculty with international degrees, and high publication rates by professors with international degrees. Though limited in its evaluative power without citation data, publication data can be a rich source for bibliometric analysis as this study has shown. The analysis of publication patterns conducted by the study, which is a first step in our aim to establish a multi-faceted approach for assessing the impact of scholarly work, will be followed up in a future study, where the question of quantity versus quality will be examined by comparing publication counts with citation counts.

Restricted access

Abstract

Nanotechnology is promising to be the ‘transformative’ technology of the 21st century with its boundless potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries. Stakes are high as projected estimate of market value and economic and social benefits are immense for countries that can attain competency in this technology. This has stimulated OECD countries as well as emerging economies to channel huge resources for developing core capabilities in this technology. Unlike, other key technologies, recent influential reports highlight China in particular and to some extent India, Brazil and other emerging economies competing with advanced OECD countries in ‘nanotechnology’. The present paper investigates through bibliometric and innovation indicators to what extent China and India have been able to assert their position in the global stage. The paper also underscores the importance of capturing indications from standards and products/processes along with publications and patents to capture more accurately the latent variable ‘performance’. Study shows that China's progress is remarkable; it has already attained leading position in publications and standard development. India is making its presence more visible particularly in publications. China's research is more sophisticated and addresses nano-materials and its applications whereas India's research shows healthy trend towards addressing developmental problems.

Restricted access

Abstract

Citation studies have become an important tool for understanding scientific communication processes, as they enable the identification of several characteristics of information-retrieval behavior. This study seeks to analyze citation behavior using two popular ethnobotany articles, and our analysis is guided by the following question: when an author references a work, is he pointing out the work's theoretical contribution, or is bias a factor in citing this reference? Citation analysis reveals an interesting phenomenon, as the majority of citing texts do not consider the theoretical contributions made by the articles cited. Two possible conclusions can be drawn from this scenario: (1) citing authors read the original texts that they cite only superficially, and (2) the works cited are not read by the vast majority of people who reference them. Thus, it is clear that even with sufficient access to reference texts; ethnobotanical studies highlight elements less relevant to the research and reproduce discussions in a non-reflective manner.

Restricted access

Abstract

The journal impact factor (JIF) proposed by Garfield in the year 1955 is one of the most commonly used and prominent citation-based indicators of the performance and significance of a scientific journal. The JIF is simple, reasonable, clearly defined, and comparable over time and, what is more, can be easily calculated from data provided by Thomson Reuters, but at the expense of serious technical and methodological flaws. The paper discusses one of the core problems: The JIF is affected by bias factors (e.g., document type) that have nothing to do with the prestige or quality of a journal. For solving this problem, we suggest using the generalized propensity score methodology based on the Rubin Causal Model. Citation data for papers of all journals in the ISI subject category “Microscopy” (Journal Citation Report) are used to illustrate the proposal.

Restricted access

Abstract

The impact factor is one of the most used scientometric indicators. Its proper and improper uses have been discussed extensively before. It has been criticized extensively, yet it is still here. In this paper I propose the journal report card, which is a set of measures, each with an easily comprehensible meaning that provides a fuller picture of the journals’ standing. The set of measures in the report card include the impact factor, the h-index, number of citations at different points on the ranked list of citations, extent of uncitedness and coverage of the h-core. The report card is computed for two sets of journals, the top-20 journals in JCR 2010 and the top-20 journals in JCR 2010 for the category Information and Library Science.

Restricted access

Abstract

This paper develops a structured comparison among a sample of European researchers in the field of Production Technology and Manufacturing Systems, on the basis of scientific publications and patents. Researchers are evaluated and compared by a variegated set of indicators concerning (1) the output of individual researchers and (2) that of groups of researchers from the same country. While not claiming to be exhaustive, the results of this preliminary study provide a rough indication of the publishing and patenting activity of researchers in the field of interest, identifying (dis)similarities between different countries. Of particular interest is a proposal for aggregating analysis results by means of maps based on publication and patent indicators. A large amount of empirical data are presented and discussed.

Restricted access

Abstract

As our fields have become more sophisticated, complex, and specialized, we deal with ever larger masses of data, and our quantitative results have become more detailed and esoteric, and difficult to interpret. Because our methods are predominantly quantitative, we tend to overlook or underemphasize the qualitative judgments that enter at every stage of our work, and to forget that quantity is only one of the qualities. As in our world today, where we face a flood of factoids and quantitative data stripped of context, and struggle to evaluate it, to give it meaning, and make it into information, so ought we qualitatively to acknowledge and contextualize our research results, not only to make them more relevant, meaningful, and useful to the larger world, but to give our work greater impact and value.

Restricted access
Authors: Clarice Gameiro da Fonseca Pachi, Jorge Futoshi Yamamoto, Anna Paula Amadeu da Costa and Luis Fernandez Lopez

Abstract

A relevant factor in the growth of academic productivity in the second half of 20th century is the implementation of the internet, particularly in developing countries. One of the first networks in Brazil is the Academic Network at Sao Paulo (ANSP), a regional network implemented in the state of Sao Paulo, which contains the largest concentration of researchers in the country. This study presents a unique metric for analyzing the impact of ANSP in academic productivity in the state of Sao Paulo. We correlate academic production and available bandwidth using Fisher ideal price index with suitable variables to evaluate the impact of the internet on research centers and universities. We find that the members of ANSP show a steady growth in academic productivity compared with other institutions outside of the ANSP network. These results suggest that policies which increase available bandwidth can positively affect academic productivity.

Restricted access

Abstract

Productivity and citedness of the staff of a German medical research institution are analyzed. It was found in our previous study (Pudovkin et al.: Scientometrics, doi: 10.1007/s11192-012-0659-z, ) that male scientists are more prolific and cited more often than female scientists. We explain in our present study one of the possible causes for obtaining this result with reference to Abramo et al. (Scientometrics 84(3): 821–833, ), who found in the small subgroups of star scientists a higher performance of male star scientists with respect to female star scientists; but in the remaining complementary subpopulations the performance gap between the two sexes is marginal. In agreement with Abramo et al. (), in our small subgroup of star scientists a higher performance of male star scientists with respect to female star scientists could be found. Contrasting, in the large complementary subgroup even a slightly higher performance of female scientists with respect to male scientists was identified. The last is even stronger expressed in favor of women than Abramo's result that the performance gap between the two sexes is truly marginal. In addition to Abramo et al. (), we already found in our previous study, special indexes characterizing the quality of papers (but not quantity) are not substantially different among sexes compared.

Restricted access

Abstract

Recently, geographical information systems have been very intensively applied in social life and in public health in particular. A retrospective problem-oriented search on their use in health planning was performed in Web of Science of Web of Knowledge, three versions of MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Medical in 1990–2010. The annual dynamics of a set of scientometric parameters characterizing several aspects of the abstracted publications, authors’ scientific institutions, journals, authors, citations, and languages was comparatively analyzed. It was established that world publication output on such a relatively narrow topic was reflected to a different extent in these data-bases. MEDLINE (PubMed) presented with 484 papers published in 243 journals followed by MEDLINE (WoK) with 360 papers in 215 journals. The abstracted publications were mainly in English, but 14 other languages were present in significant numbers. Publications by authors from 44 countries were abstracted in WoS but from 29 countries in MEDLINE (Ebsco). The most productive authors and institutions as well as the ‘core’ journals were identified. The International Journal of Health Geography occupied the leading position. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) was one of the most productive research institutions in WoS and in Scopus. Scientific institutions and journals belonged to problem-oriented and to mono-, two- and three-disciplinary thematic profiles as well. Some essential peculiarities of the dynamics of research institutionalization and internationalization in this interdisciplinary field were illustrated. The constellation of specific semantically-loaded indicators could be applied for the purposes of problem-oriented analyses as it could timely identify the essential patterns of scientific advances in rapidly expanding interdisciplinary topics.

Restricted access

Abstract

Nanoscience and technology (NST) is a relatively new interdisciplinary scientific domain, and scholars from a broad range of different disciplines are contributing to it. However, there is an ambiguity in its structure and in the extent of multidisciplinary scientific collaboration of NST. This paper investigates the multidisciplinary patterns of Iranian research in NST based on a selection of 1,120 ISI—indexed articles published during 1974–2007. Using text mining techniques, 96 terms were identified as the main terms of the Iranian publications in NST. Then the scientific structure of the Iranian NST was mapped through multidimensional scaling, based upon the co-occurrence of the main terms in the academic publications. The results showed that the NST domain in Iranian publications has a multidisciplinary structure which is composed of different fields, such as pure physics, analytical chemistry, chemistry physics, material science and engineering, polymer science, biochemistry and new emerging topics.

Restricted access

Abstract

An evaluation exercise was performed involving 313 papers of research staff (66 persons) of the Deutsche Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ) published in 2004–2008. The records and citations to them were retrieved from the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) in March 2010. The authors compared productivity and citedness of “group leaders” vs. “regular scientists”, of “male scientists” vs. “female scientists” using citation-based indexes. It was found that “group leaders” are more prolific and cited more often than “regular scientists”, the same is true considering “male” vs. “female scientists”. The greatest contrast is observed between “female leaders” and “female regular scientists”. The above mentioned differences are significant in indexes related to the number of papers, while values of indexes characterizing the quality of papers (average citation rate per paper and similar indexes) are not substantially different among the groups compared. The mean value of percentile rank index for all the 313 papers is 58.5, which is significantly higher than the global mean value of about 50. This fact is evidence of a higher citation status, on average, of the publications from the DRFZ.