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Among all scientific traditions alive, medical publishing has a good chance to be the oldest. The first fully peer reviewed academic journal, “Medical Essays and Observations” was launched in 1731 by the Royal Society in Edinburgh. Since then, hundreds of medical journals have been published worldwide. Medical publication in Hungary started in 1857 when the famous physician, Markusovszky founded “Orvosi Hetilap”, which has been published since then every week (with short breaks during the world wars). It is now a most prestigious piece in AKJournals’ portfolio, listed in Journal Citation Reports, with a remarkable impact factor.

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Abstract

Background

Although the correlation between substance use disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been largely studied, less is known about the correlation between behavioral addictions and ADHD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral addictions in a large sample of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of ADHD and to compare the clinical profile of ADHD patients with and without behavioral addictions comorbidity.

Methods

248 consecutive adults newly diagnosed as ADHD patients were assessed through a series of validated scales for gambling disorder, internet, sex, shopping and food addictions. ADHD patients with at least one comorbid behavioral addiction were compared to non-comorbid patients on ADHD symptoms, impulsivity, mood and anxiety symptoms and functional impairment.

Results

58.9% of patients had at least one behavioral addiction comorbidity. Of the whole sample, 31.9% of the patients had a comorbidity with one behavioral addiction while the 27% showed a comorbidity with two or more behavioral addictions. Internet addiction was the most common comorbidity (33.9%) followed by food addiction (28.6%), shopping addiction (19%), sex addiction (12.9%) and gambling disorder (3.6%). ADHD patients with comorbid behavioral addictions showed higher ADHD current and childhood symptoms, higher cognitive and motor impulsivity, higher mood and anxiety symptoms and higher functional impairment.

Conclusions

Behavioral addictions are highly frequent in adult ADHD patients. Comorbid patients seem to have a more complex phenotype characterized by more severe ADHD, mood and anxiety symptoms, higher impulsivity levels and greater functional impairment.

Open access

The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and the acceptance of cosmetic surgery in a nonclinical sample of Hungarian adults

A testdiszmorfiás zavar prevalenciája és a kozmetikai sebészet elfogadottsága magyar felnőttek vizsgálati mintáján

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Beáta Szászi
and
Pál Szabó

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common, often undiagnosed, serious condition. The relationship between body dysmorphic disorder and cosmetic surgery is rather complex, as many patients with body dysmorphic disorder search for cosmetic solutions for the imagined defect in appearance. Aims: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its relationship to the acceptance and use of cosmetic services and body-related variables among Hungarian adults. Methods: Body weight and height, body satisfaction, health state, aesthetic intervention-related experiences, and plans were assessed by a self-report online questionnaire that included the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Six hundred three subjects (94% women, n = 567, 6% men, n = 36, age M = 40.16 years, SD = 13.32 years) joined the research on a social media platform. Results: The prevalence of BDD is 8.1% (n = 49), 8.1% (n = 46) in women, and 8.3% (n = 3) in men. The BDD-positive group had higher BMI (U = 9641.5, p = 0.028), more plastic surgeries (χ2(1) = 19.682 , p = 0.012), and more acceptance of cosmetic surgery (U = 6664, p < 0.001). The risk of BDD is significantly higher in those who have a lower education (OR = 0.424, p = 0.031), accept cosmetic surgery (OR = 1.031, p = 0.025), plan plastic surgery (OR = 0.351, p = 0.027) and are more dissatisfied with their body (OR = 0.397, p < 0.001). Consideration of cosmetic surgery (U = 7433, p = 0.006) and planning for future plastic surgeries χ 2(1) = 7.943, p = 0.019) are more frequent in females. Sixty-six women (11.6%) have already had some intervention, 26.4% plan, and 10.4% probably plan cosmetic surgery, while these data are 11.1%, 8.3% and 5.6% in males. These symptoms occur more frequently among women according to Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire: avoidance behavior (33.9% vs. 16.7%, χ 2(1) = 4.539, p = 0.033), significant mental suffering caused by the perceived flaw(s) (29.8% vs. 13.9%, χ 2(1) = 4.178, p = 0.041). The Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale total score has a significant positive relationship with BDD caseness (β = 0.100, p = 0.011) and the number of blepharoplasties (β = 0.111, p = 0.005) and significant negative relationship with the planning of cosmetic surgery (β = –0.491, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder is high in this non-clinical, unselected Hungarian sample. The risk for body dysmorphic disorder is higher in those interested in cosmetic services; screening for this body image disorder is necessary.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Adrian Paterna
,
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez
,
Jose M. Aguilar-Parra
,
Carlos Salavera
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Background and aims

The present study aimed to synthesize existing quantitative evidence on the relationship between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and academic achievement with a focus on quantifying its magnitude and examining its potential moderators.

Methods

Eligible studies were searched for up to February 10, 2023 in six different databases (i.e., MEDLINE, Current Contents Connect, PsycINFO, Web of Science, SciELO, and Dissertations & Theses Global). Studies were considered eligible if they provided information derived from self-report instruments that allowed statistical calculation of the relationship between PSU and academic achievement. Pooled effect sizes (r) were computed using a random-effects model. Meta-regressions were conducted to test the influence of study-level moderators on the relationship of interest. Influence analyses and a three-parameter selection model (3PSM) were conducted to examine the robustness of the results and publication bias, respectively.

Results

A total of 33 effect sizes from 29 studies (n = 48,490) were retrieved. Results showed a small effect size (r = −0.110), which tended to be larger in samples consisting of students from elementary and middle schools.

Discussion and Conclusions

Findings from the present study contribute to the understanding of a potential determinant of decreased academic achievement by providing evidence that PSU may be one of them.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

Problematic pornography use (PPU) can be a manifestation of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD). Studies investigating PPU confirm approach-avoidance tendencies in response to pornographic stimuli in this population. This study show indications of the significance of the efficacy of imaginal retraining, a variant of approach bias modification, as an intervention for PPU.

Methods

A total of 274 participants (86.5% male; mean age = 30.65, SD = 10.13) with self-reported PPU were randomized to imaginal retraining (instruction video) or a waitlist control group. Assessments were conducted online at baseline and after the six-week intervention period. The primary outcome was a reduction in problematic pornography use. Compulsive sexual behavior, sexual desire, depressiveness, and satisfaction with the intervention served as secondary outcomes.

Results

Retention was low (51.7%), but comparable between groups. The retraining was performed at least once a week (the per-protocol [PP] criterion) by 51.4% of participants. The PP analyses of 111 participants showed a significant reduction in problematic pornography use (primary outcome) in the intervention compared to the control group. The intention-to-treat analyses (ITT), however, did not corroborate this result. Despite low adherence, participants rated their satisfaction with the intervention positively.

Discussion and Conclusion

Imaginal retraining can function as a low-threshold self-help intervention for PPU to overcome help-seeking barriers and may reduce PPU in a subgroup of users. Low adherence limits the results of this trial. Given the need for low-threshold interventions for PPU and/or CSBD, further research should focus on increasing adherence and should evaluate retraining for clinical groups. Modifications to augment efficacy are suggested.

Open access

Statisztikai elemzések a ROP-R szoftver segítségével és szemléltetésük egy kötődéskutatás adataival

Statistical analyses using ROP-R software and illustrating them with data from an attachment survey

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
András Vargha
,
Péter Bánsági
, and
Gyöngyvér Jantek

Tanulmányunkban egy ingyenes, kétnyelvű (magyar és angol) és egyszerűen használható többváltozós statisztikai programcsomagot, a ROP-R-t mutatjuk be, amely jól használható pszichológiai kutatások statisztikai elemzésében. A ROP-R a ROPstat programcsomag olyan fejlesztésének tekinthető, amely a többváltozós statisztika három fontos témakörében (regresszióelemzés, főkomponens- és faktoranalízis, illetve klaszteranalízis) teljes körű statisztikai elemzések végrehajtására alkalmas. Különlegessége, hogy a statisztikai menüjében kiválasztott és beállított elemzésekhez R-scripteket ír, azokat automatikusan lefuttatja, majd a kapott eredményeket táblázatos formában ROP-R-ben megjeleníti, illetve az eredményekhez tartozó fontosabb grafikonokat standard formátumú (jpg vagy pdf) képfájlokban elmenti. A ROP-R moduljainak bemutatása után egy kötődéskutatás adatain végzett többváltozós elemzéssor segítségével szemléltetjük hasznosságát a pszichológiai kutatásokban.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Nomophobia (NMP) is a contemporary digital ailment referring to the improper utilization of smartphones which can have significant impacts on the physical and mental health of college students. However, as a result of unclear cutoff points, the proportion of people with NMP may be exaggerated. This study therefore aimed to determine the critical value of NMP and assess the extent to which Chinese college students are impacted by NMP using the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q).

Methods

Latent profile analysis (LPA) and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were combined to determine the critical value based on NMP-Q scores using a large sample of 3,998 college students (M age = 20.58; SD = 1.87).

Results

Based on latent profile (i.e., at-risk NMP group), ROC revealed an optimal cut-off point of 73 (Sensitivity = 0.965, Specificity = 0.970, Accuracy = 0.968, AUC = 99.60%, Youden's index = 0.935), and the percentage of NMP students being 28.04%, with 1,121 participants identified as positive cases (probable cases). Positive cases were found to exhibit more severe depression and anxiety symptoms, with a higher proportion of females were observed in the positive group (N = 829; 73.95%).

Conclusions

These findings provide evidence that the proportion of NMP individuals may have been overestimated in the past. Furthermore, this study helps to validate the NMP-Q as a valid tool to identify NMP in college-aged individuals.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsivity contributes to the development and maintenance of multiple addictive disorders. However, the relationship between compulsivity-related cognitive features and problematic usage of the internet (PUI), an umbrella term for various internet use disorders/interfering behaviors, remains largely unclear, partly due to the multidimensional nature of compulsivity. This scoping review utilized a four-domain framework of compulsivity to consider this topic and aimed to summarize available evidence on compulsivity-related neuropsychological characteristics in PUI based on this framework.

Methods

A systematic literature search was conducted by applying the combination of search term to the search engines of PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science. A four-domain framework of compulsivity, involving cognitive flexibility, set-shifting, attentional bias, and habit learning, was used to consider its complex structure and frequently used tasks. Main findings in related PUI studies were summarized based on this framework. Our secondary aim was to compare compulsivity-related features between different PUI subtypes.

Results

Thirty-four empirical studies were retained, comprising 41 task-results and 35 independent data sets. Overall, individuals with PUI showed more consistent deficits in attentional biases and were relatively intact in set-shifting. Few studies have examined cognitive flexibility and habit learning, and more evidence is thus needed to establish reliable conclusions. Moreover, most studies focused on internet gaming disorder, whereas other PUI sub-types were not sufficiently examined.

Conclusion

This systematic review highlights the use of the four-domain framework for advancing understanding of mechanisms underlying compulsivity in PUI. Related therapeutic implications and future directions are discussed.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Yihong Zhao
,
Martin P. Paulus
,
Susan F. Tapert
,
Kara S. Bagot
,
R. Todd Constable
,
H. Klar Yaggi
,
Nancy S. Redeker
, and
Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

Background and Aims

The precise roles of screen media activity (SMA) and sleep problems in relation to child/adolescent psychopathology remain ambiguous. We investigated temporal relationships among sleep problems, SMA, and psychopathology and potential involvement of thalamus-prefrontal-cortex (PFC)-brainstem structural covariation.

Methods

This study utilized data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study (n = 4,641 ages 9–12) at baseline, Year1, and Year2 follow-up. Cross-Lagged Panel Models (CLPMs) investigated reciprocal predictive relationships between sleep duration/problems, SMA, and psychopathology symptoms. A potential mediating role of baseline Thalamus-PFC-brainstem covariation on SMA-externalizing relationships was examined.

Results

Participants were divided into discovery (n = 2,359, 1,054 girls) and replication (n = 2,282, 997 girls) sets. CLPMs showed 1) bidirectional associations between sleep duration and SMA in late childhood, with higher frequency SMA predicting shorter sleep duration (β = −0.10 [95%CI: −0.16, −0.03], p = 0.004) and vice versa (β = −0.11 [95%CI: −0.18, −0.05], p < 0.001); 2) externalizing symptoms at age 10–11 predicting sleep problems (β = 0.11 [95%CI: 0.04, 0.19], p = 0.002), SMA (β = 0.07 [95%CI: 0.01, 0.13], p = 0.014), and internalizing symptoms (β = 0.09 [95%CI: 0.05, 0.13], p < 0.001) at age 11–12; and 3) externalizing behavior at age 10-11 partially mediating the relationship between baseline thalamus-PFC-brainstem covariation and SMA at age 11–12 (indirect effect = 0.032 [95%CI: 0.003, 0.067], p-value = 0.030). Findings were replicable.

Conclusion

We found bi-directional SMA-sleep-duration associations in late childhood. Externalizing symptoms preceded future SMA and sleep disturbances and partially mediated relationships between structural brain covariation and SMA. The findings emphasize the need for understanding individual differences and developing and implementing integrated strategies addressing both sleep concerns and screen time to mitigate potential impacts on psychopathology.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ke Zhang
,
Jason D. Rights
,
Xiaolei Deng
,
Tilman Lesch
, and
Luke Clark

Abstract

Background and aims

This study characterized chasing behaviour as the time to return to an online gambling website after a losing or a winning visit.

Methods

We analyzed a naturalistic dataset from an eCasino (PlayNow.com, the provincial platform for British Columbia, Canada), comprising 1,909,681 sessions from 15,544 individuals. Analyses distinguished sessions on slot machines, blackjack, roulette, video poker, probability games, or mixed-category sessions.

Results

Overall, gamblers on most games returned more slowly as a function of the prior loss, and more quickly as a function of the prior win. Loss chasing intensities in blackjack, probability, video poker, and mixed sessions did not differ significantly from slot machines, but roulette was associated with shorter intervals to return (b = −0.13, p < 0.001). Similarly, win chasing did not vary across slot machines, blackjack, probability games, and video poker, but roulette (b = −0.08, p < 0.001) and mixed (b = −0.02, p = 0.009) sessions were associated with shorter intervals.

Discussion and conclusions

The average behavioural patterns provide limited evidence for loss chasing but clearly indicate win chasing. Although slot machines are commonly considered a high-risk product, roulette in our analyses was associated with the greatest chasing intensities.

Open access

Adalékok a mesmerizmus korai történetéhez Magyarországon – Gecse Dániel (1768–1824), az erdélyi magnetizőr halálának 200. évfordulója apropóján

Contributions to the early history of mesmerism in Hungary – on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the death of Daniel Gecse (1768–1824), a Transylvanian magnetiseur

Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
László Kiss
Restricted access