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Among all scientific traditions alive, medical publishing has a good chance to be the oldest. The first fully peer reviewed academic journal, “Medical Essays and Observations” was launched in 1731 by the Royal Society in Edinburgh. Since then, hundreds of medical journals have been published worldwide. Medical publication in Hungary started in 1857 when the famous physician, Markusovszky founded “Orvosi Hetilap”, which has been published since then every week (with short breaks during the world wars). It is now a most prestigious piece in AKJournals’ portfolio, listed in Journal Citation Reports, with a remarkable impact factor.

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Abstract

Psychological flexibility has been proposed as a core process of change when psychedelics are used for therapeutic purposes, but to date empirical outcomes have only documented changes on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), a very general measure of psychological flexibility. This pilot study measured outcomes from psilocybin administered in a retreat setting across a range of measures assessing aspects of psychological flexibility. Nine participants attended a 7-day psilocybin retreat and completed measures at baseline, 2-, and 6-month follow up. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in cognitive defusion (Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire), valued living (Valuing Questionnaire), and Self-Compassion (Self-Compassion Scale), as well as a trend towards increased overall psychological flexibility (AAQ). Other outcome and process measures included measures related to acute effects of the psilocybin, belief in oneness, social safeness, mental health, burnout and emotion expressivity. These results offer preliminary evidence that therapeutic benefits obtained from psilocybin experiences may be linked to changes in psychological flexibility.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Ádám Kerek
,
Ábel Szabó
,
Krisztián Bányai
,
Eszter Kaszab
,
Krisztina Bali
,
Márton Papp
,
László Kovács
, and
Ákos Jerzsele

Abstract

The authors aimed to investigate eight strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains from Hungarian layer flocks for antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG), using metagenomic methods. The strains were isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy adult layers. This study employed shotgun sequencing-based genetic and bioinformatic analysis along with determining phenotypic minimum inhibitory concentrations. A total of 59 ARGs were identified in the eight E. coli isolates, carrying ARGs against 15 groups of antibiotics. Among these, 28 ARGs were identified as transferable. Specifically, four ARGs were plasmid-derived, 18 ARGs were phage-derived and an additional six ARGs were predicted to be mobile, contributing to their mobility and potential spread between bacteria.

Open access

Abstract

Proteus mirabilis is a common enteric bacterium in livestock and humans. The increase and spread of the antimicrobial resistant P. mirabilis is considered alarming worldwide. Transmission mainly occurs through consumption of contaminated poultry products. We investigated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence markers in broiler chicken-originated P. mirabilis isolates from 380 fecal samples. Phenotypic AMR test was performed against seventeen different antimicrobials. Genotypic AMR test was performed to detect sixteen different AMR genes. The samples were also tested for the presence of eight different virulence genes and biofilm formation. P. mirabilis was isolated in 11% of the samples, with significantly high multidrug-resistant (MDR) prevalence (63%). All isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%). The combined disc method indicated that all isolates were of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, which was compatible with the high bla TEM prevalence (95%). This was associated with bla TEM being responsible for more than 80% of ampicillin resistance in enteric pathogens. The absence of phenotypically carbapenem-resistant isolates was compatible with the very low prevalences of bla OXA (2%) and bla NDM (0%). All isolates were positive for pmfA, atfA, hpmA, and zapA (100%) virulence genes, while biofilm formation rate (85%) indicated high adherence abilities of the isolates.

Restricted access

Abstract

Feeding costs of farmed insects may be reduced by applying alternative nitrogen sources such as urea that can partly substitute true proteins. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different nitrogen sources on body weight (BW) and survival rate (SR) of the Jamaican field cricket (JFC, Gryllus assimilis), the house cricket (HC, Acheta domesticus), yellow mealworm larvae (YM, Tenebrio molitor) and superworm larvae (SW, Zophobas morio). Crickets were either housed individually or in groups, and larvae were group-housed. Six isonitrogenous feeds composed of 3.52% nitrogen were designed for all four insect species using four independent replicates with micellar casein: urea proportions of 100–0%, 75–25%, 50–50%, 25–75%, 0–100% and 100% extracted soybean meal. All selected insect species were able to utilise urea. However, urea as the only nitrogen source resulted in low final BW. In the HC, the JFC, and the YM on nitrogen basis urea can replace 25% of micellar casein without having any negative effects on BW and SR in comparison to the 100% micellar casein group. In the SW, a 25% urea level did not have a significant effect on final BW, but SR decreased significantly.

Open access

Abstract

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a critical life-threatening challenge which necessitates the urgency to trigger life-saving treatment in a timely manner. This study aimed to evaluate the time required for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) directly from blood culture bottles to optimize empirical treatment of BSI, especially in pediatric and infant patients, using a cost-effective method. This study included 419 Gram-negative bacteria, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were the most common CPE causing BSI in pediatric and neonatal patients. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance of the selected isolates (45 K. pneumoniae and 9 E. coli) were determined by VITEK-2 Compact system and PCR, respectively. BACT/ALERT bottles were spiked with isolates. Finally, colorimetric RESIST-BC assay and Vitek-2 compact system were evaluated for the rapid detection of carbapenem-resistant bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles. All selected isolates were phenotypically resistant to carbapenems. PCR showed that bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were present in all isolates, bla VIM was present in 44.4%, while bla KPC and bla IMP were entirely absent. The RESIST-BC kit showed good agreement with PCR for bla NDM and bla OXA-48, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity, but not with bla VIM. These findings point out that RESIST-BC assay demonstrated an exceptionally short detection time for CPE, completing all cases within the first hour after the blood culture bottles flagged positive. It is also superior in providing a clue for clinicians on antibiotic combinations that can be administered, depending on the type of β-lactamases detected, promptly and efficiently, with low expenses.

Restricted access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Salvatore Parrillo
,
Ippolito De Amicis
,
Roberta Bucci
,
Jasmine Hattab
,
Domenico Robbe
, and
Augusto Carluccio

Abstract

Placental abnormalities more frequently occur during pregnancy of somatic cell clones and may lead to pregnancy loss or dystocia. Adventitious placentation, or diffuse semi-placenta, is determined by the development of areas of accessory placentation between the cotyledons due to the abnormal growth of placentomes.

After a full-term pregnancy, a 3-year-old Jersey heifer was referred for dystocia which resulted in the delivery of a dead calf. The cause of dystocia was found to be foetal malposition, while the placenta was physiologically expelled after dystocia resolution.

Grossly, cotyledons appeared reduced in size and number in one placental horn, while the surface of the other horn was covered with microplacentomes. Numerous villous structures without trophoblastic coating were highlighted after histopathology. The dominant sign was an inflammatory reaction. The findings were consistent with inter-cotyledonal placentitis, which led to adventitial placentation.

Diffuse semi-placenta compensates for the inadequate development of placentomes and may occur as a congenital or acquired defect. The outcome depends on its severity: in the worst scenario, pregnancy may not proceed beyond midterm and may be complicated by hydrallantois. In the case under examination, the dimensions of the cotyledons (from 2 to 10 cm) allowed for the natural course of pregnancy.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

First responders such as firefighters and police officers often experience traumatic events as part of their work. As a result, they are more likely to have mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety compared to the general population. Psychedelic-assisted therapy has emerged as a promising avenue to alleviate these issues, but little is currently known about first responders' interest in, and barriers to, these treatments. Here, we aimed to document first responders' attitudes towards LSD-assisted therapy and previous use of psychoactive drugs.

Methods

We recruited 102 participants through mailing lists of first responders' unions. Respondents were typically male firefighters in western Canada; others were police officers, paramedics, and military personnel across Canada and the United States. They were asked about their attitudes towards LSD- and marijuana-assisted therapies, previous psychiatric diagnoses, psychosocial impairments, and substance use.

Results

Respondents showed higher rates of distress and illicit drug use compared to the general population. Of those who sought professional treatment, a minority reported that the treatment had helped them. The respondents were generally interested in taking part in therapy or research involving LSD or marijuana. The setting (e.g., at home vs. a clinic), therapist presence, and drug dose were commonly reported to influence this participation.

Conclusions

First responders may particularly benefit from psychedelic therapy given their high interest in psychedelic drugs and high rates of treatment-relevant disorders. Better understanding the needs of this population will help inform future clinical trials and psychedelic therapies.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Interest in psychedelic research has grown significantly in recent years and the naturally derived substance psilocybin, in combination with therapy, has shown promising results as a treatment for a range of psychiatric conditions. However, the negative effects and risks of psilocybin-assisted treatment are not well-established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential negative effects of psilocybin-assisted psychological interventions in both the short and long term.

Method

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight psychedelic treatment providers and facilitators. Their content was thematically interpreted.

Results

Three themes of short-term negative effects were identified. They included negative reactions to psilocybin dosing sessions, undesirable processes in the therapeutic relationship, and difficult self-experiences. Four themes of long-term negative effects were identified. They included destabilization of the client, difficulties adapting to life post-treatment, complications in the treatment relationship, and undesirable outcomes.

Conclusions

These results highlight the multifaceted challenges clients may face, emphasizing the need for thorough pre-intervention assessment and post-intervention support. The findings both confirm previous research and highlight new aspects that can contribute to increased safety and be relevant for clinical implementation. Further rigorous research is needed to ensure safety, establish ethical guidelines, and optimize the positive effects of these experimental medicines. Integrating various research approaches and types of measurements will be vital to further our understanding of negative effects of psychedelic-assisted therapy.

Open access

Dr. Sándor Tamás 90 éves

Dr. Tamás Sándor is 90 years old

Magyar Sebészet
Author:
István Sugár
Restricted access

A felnőttkori invaginatiók sebészeti vonatkozásai

Esetismertetés és irodalmi áttekintés

Magyar Sebészet
Authors:
László Bor
,
Géza Telek
,
Balázs Kesserű
,
Fanni Fülöp
,
Renáta Juhász
,
Viktória Sági
, and
Ferenc Ender

A felnőttkori invaginatiók ritkák, klinikai megjelenésük eltér a gyerekkori formáktól. Klinikumuk igen változatos, gyakran atípusos, jellemző, hogy egy klinikai sejtés nyomán gondolni kell az invaginatio lehetőségére. A kiegészítő vizsgálatok közül kiemelkedő szerep jut a computer tomográfiának (CT), ami magas érzékenységgel és fajlagossággal képes kimutatni a béltraktus invaginatióját. Gyógyításuk az esetek legnagyobb részében sebészi, sokszor csak a műtét során lehetséges felismerni a kiváltó okot. Esetismertetésünkben egy rendkívül ritka, felnőttkori, passage-zavart okozó colo-colicus, a bal colonfelet érintő, a colon-flexura lienalis-descendens határra lokalizált invaginatio klinikai jellemzőit, diagnosztikáját és definitív megoldásaként a laparoscoposan asszisztált bal oldali haemicolectomia műtéti megoldását mutatjuk be. Munkánkban összefoglaljuk a felnőttkori invaginatiókra vonatkozó kórélettani fogalmakat, diagnosztikai lehetőségeket, a leggyakoribb kiváltó tényezőket és terápiás lehetőségeket.

Restricted access