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Among all scientific traditions alive, medical publishing has a good chance to be the oldest. The first fully peer reviewed academic journal, “Medical Essays and Observations” was launched in 1731 by the Royal Society in Edinburgh. Since then, hundreds of medical journals have been published worldwide. Medical publication in Hungary started in 1857 when the famous physician, Markusovszky founded “Orvosi Hetilap”, which has been published since then every week (with short breaks during the world wars). It is now a most prestigious piece in AKJournals’ portfolio, listed in Journal Citation Reports, with a remarkable impact factor.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Elise Victoria Tørdal
,
Ståle Pallesen
,
Dominic Sagoe
,
Lise Øen Jones
, and
Farha Mahjabeen

Abstract

Introduction

The overall prevalence of gambling problems across prison populations is currently unknown. The objective of the present study was therefore to quantitatively synthetize prevalence estimates of gambling problems in prison populations using a random effects meta-analytic model and to investigate if the estimates were moderated by time frame, cut-off levels, and sample size.

Methods

To be included the studies had to report original data on the prevalence of gambling problems in a prison sample and to be written in a European language, whereas data based on abstracts or qualitative reports were excluded. The search ended on December 1, 2023 and were conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Embase, Google Scholar, Grey Literature Report, and GreyNet. Risk of bias was assessed with a standardized 10-item measure for epidemiological studies.

Results

A total of 26 studies comprising 9,491 participants were included. The vast majority of the participants were males. The most commonly used instrument for assessment of gambling problems was the South Oaks Gambling Screen. The pooled random-effects gambling problems prevalence estimate was 30.8% (95% CI = 25.1–37.3). The meta-regression analysis showed that none of the three moderator variables (criteria, timeframe, sample size) were related to the gambling problems prevalence. Common limitations of the included studies entailed not being representative nationally or for the target population, lack of randomization, and low response rate. The meta-analysis was restricted to studies published in a European language.

Conclusions

Overall, the studies show that 1 in 3 prisoners has gambling problems and suggests that more emphasis on relevant prevention and treatment is warranted for this population. The study was funded by the Norwegian Competence Center for Gambling and Gaming Research and pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42023390552).

Open access

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen, because it causes both community- and hospital-acquired infections. Several multidrug-resistant high-risk clones of K. pneumoniae have been reported worldwide, and these are responsible for high numbers of difficult-to-treat infections. In Greece, a K. pneumoniae ST39 high-risk clone was detected in 2019 in a survey of carbapenem- and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriacae. The present study included nine carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates collected during a retrospective analysis from October 2020 to December 2020. They were isolated from nine different patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in Volos, Greece, and they were selected for analysis due to their phenotypic profile. In this study, we analyzed A165 strain K. pneumoniae ST39 isolated from a blood culture in November 2020. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed using Ion Torrent Platform, and resistance genes, virulence determinants, capsular types, insertion sequences, phage regions, and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) regions were detected by bioinformatic analysis. The molecular characterization revealed antimicrobial resistance genes, including sul2 for sulfamethoxazole; dfrA1 for trimethoprim; bla VIM-1 and bla KPC-2 for carbapenems; aac(6′)-II for aminoglycosides; fosA for fosfomycin and aad1 for streptomycin, bla SHV-40, bla SHV-85, bla SHV-79, bla SHV-56, and bla SHV-89 for beta-lactams. Point mutations were identified in ompK36, and ompK37 and in acrR, gyrA, parC. Several replicons were found, including CoIRNA, IncC, IncFIB(K), IncFIB(pQiL), and IncFII(K). The capsular typing revealed that the strain was KL23, O2afg. The genome sequence of A165 was submitted to NCBI under PRJNA1074377 and have been assigned to Genbank accession number JAZIBV000000000.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and Aims

The high prevalence of internet addiction (IA) has become a worldwide problem that profoundly affects people's mental health and executive function. Empirical studies have suggested trait anxiety (TA) as one of the most robust predictors of addictive behaviors. The present study investigated the neural and socio-psychological mechanisms underlying the association between TA and IA.

Methods

Firstly, we tested the correlation between TA and IA. Then we investigated the longitudinal influence of TA on IA using a linear mixed effect (LME) model. Secondly, connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) was employed to explore neuromarkers of TA, and we tested whether the identified neuromarkers of TA can predict IA. Lastly, stressful life events and default mode network (DMN) were considered as mediating variables to explore the relationship between TA and IA.

Findings

A significant positive correlation between TA and IA was found and the high TA group demonstrated higher IA across time. CPM results revealed that the functional connectivity of cognitive control and emotion-regulation circuits and DMN were significantly correlated with TA. Furthermore, a significant association was found between the neuromarkers of TA and IA. Notably, the CPM results were all validated in an independent sample. The results of mediation demonstrated that stressful life events and correlated functional connectivity mediated the association between TA and IA.

Conclusions

Findings of the present study facilitate a deeper understanding of the neural and socio-psychological mechanisms linking TA and IA and provide new directions for developing neural and psychological interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Slot-scanning EOS radiography is increasingly utilised in skeletal imaging. It has been shown that EOS often reveals significant incidental findings including cardiopulmonary abnormalities. Furthermore, the slot-scanning image acquisition of EOS can substantially influence depiction of cardiac morphology, which can be confusing for those unfamiliar with the technique.

Patients and methods

We aimed to explore the relationship between the depicted cardiac anatomy EOS and chest x-ray, by analysis of the differences in the measurements of the cardiothoracic ratio in 52 patients who had an erect, postero-anterior chest radiograph in deep inspiration, with less than a year difference to the EOS spine radiograph. Internal chest and cardiac diameter were measured, and the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) was calculated as a surrogate marker for gross cardiac size.

Results

We have found that EOS consistently yields a lower internal chest diameter, and as a result higher CTR (P < 0.0001). However CTR measured on EOS and plain radiograph show strong correlation (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots also revealed a consistently higher CTR on EOS, and a high intra-individual variability of cardiac and chest diameters on EOS vs. x-ray. CTR measured on EOS showed correlation with age (P < 0.05).

Discussion

We show that the CTR on EOS radiographs is consistently higher compared to the chest radiography, and while cardiac diameter shows only minimal difference, chest diameter measured on EOS is markedly lower. This should be considered by those reporting spine EOS imaging to avoid overcalling incidental cardiomegaly.

Open access

Abstract

Background

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the interreader reliability of a grading system for UIP based on the quantification of normal lung. This grading system considers each of the following lung regions: right upper and middle lobes, right lower lobe, left upper lobe, and left lower lobe. Each is assigned a grade based on the following: 0: 0% normal lung; 1: 1–49% normal lung; 2: 50–74% normal lung; 3: 75–89% normal lung; 4: 90–99% normal lung; 5: 100% normal lung. The secondary purpose was to compare the grades rendered by non-cardiothoracic subspecialty trained radiologists to grades established by cardiothoracic radiologists, which were considered the gold standard.

Methods

Chest CT images of patients were obtained by searching the radiology record system for the terms “usual interstitial pneumonia” and “UIP”. Each case was confirmed by radiologist review; pathology was not assessed given the small fraction of cases that underwent biopsy due to the high risk of complications in patients with fibrotic lung disease. Two cardiothoracic radiologists evaluated each CT and reached a consensus grade. Two different radiologists who were not subspecialty trained in cardiothoracic radiology independently graded each case. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to compare the two reader's grades as well as each reader's grade independently to the gold standard score.

Results

Our analysis demonstrated a strongly positive statistically significant interreader correlation coefficient (RS) = 0.7062, P < 0.001. Our analysis of each reader compared to the gold standard demonstrated an Rs = 0.77559, P < 0.001 and an RS = 0.69958, P < 0.001 for readers 1 and 2, respectively, both representing statistically significant strongly positive correlations.

Conclusions

These results demonstrate strong interreader reproducibility and show that radiologists without subspecialty training in cardiothoracic radiology render grades that correlate strongly with those given by cardiothoracic radiologists. These findings support the use of this grading system for UIP both to monitor clinical progression and as a surrogate endpoint for antifibrotic drug trials.

Open access

Abstract

Though several treatments effectively address the pervasive impact of trauma, they do not achieve complete symptom resolution for all clients, inspiring the search for alternatives. Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy has grown popular, especially in informal psychedelic-assisted treatments (PAT). Compared to stereotypes of empirically validated, exposure-based treatments, IFS has novel facets with widespread appeal. The model encourages improved quality of interactions among multiple, naturally arising “parts” or subpersonalities potentially generated by traumatic experience. The body of IFS literature is extensive, enthusiastic, and thought-provoking. Outcome data for applying the model to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are limited. Attempts to operationalize and falsify the theory's assumptions and proposed mechanisms will likely prove challenging. Nevertheless, the model's popularity underscores a problem with perceptions of the empirically-supported treatments. Contemplating ethical ways to present the IFS approach given the state of relevant research, we note strategies that would apply to recommendations for PAT of any type. These strategies include detailed psychoeducation about empirically-supported treatments, candid description of the experimental nature of alternatives, frequent assessments of improvement, and detailed monitoring of potential iatrogenic effects. Drawing on facets of IFS to improve perceptions of the empirically validated treatments might provide an efficient way to appeal to more clients, decrease drop out, and increase gains as we await results of empirical investigations of IFS-influenced PAT. These steps can allow clients to choose an approach consistent with their own impressions of a credible intervention, potentially leading to better outcomes.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

The training load required at elite level can lead to shoulder pain even among the youngest swimmers, thus, besides modern water training plans and swimming technique development, the planning of dryland training with a preventive approach is of the utmost importance. The aim of the present study was to map kinetic patterns and sports injury risk factors among young competitive swimmers (between 9 and 12 years of age) and to investigate the effectiveness of a complex injury prevention programme on dry land.

Materials and methods

A total of 37 swimmers (19 girls and 18 boys, aged 10.8 ± 1 yrs) participated in the research. We performed a physical examination using the PostureScreen11.1 application, a digital goniometer, a manual dynamometer, and functional and diagnostic orthopaedic tests. The swimmers were divided into a trained group and a control group. A three-month complex injury prevention programme was developed for the trained group. We analysed our data using Statistica for Windows.

Results

We found that 19% of the swimmers had experienced shoulder pain since starting swimming. We also found several postural faults, a reduction in the rotational arc of motion in the shoulder joint, rotational muscle imbalance, serratus anterior weakness, and scapular dyskinesia. Following the programme, swimmers in the trained group showed significant improvement in the rotational arc of the shoulder joint, internal rotational range of motion, rotational muscle strength, and upper limb stability. Progress was also made in many other areas, although these results were not significant.

Conclusions

As shoulder pain and its risk factors can be observed even among the youngest competitors, a dryland training plan tailored to this group can reduce the occurrence of sports injuries.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Emerging research indicates that psychedelics may have therapeutic potential by fostering meaningful experiences that act as “inflection points” in people's narratives of personal development. However, psychedelic research has largely failed to address pertinent developmental considerations. We investigated whether attachment-related variables were associated with psychedelic experiences and whether psychedelic experiences moderated expected links between perceived attachment history and current adult attachment orientations.

Methods

We administered an online survey to an international Jewish sample (N = 185) with psychedelic experience. The survey included measures about recollection of attachment interactions with parents (perceived attachment history), adult attachment orientations (anxiety, avoidance), and psychedelic phenomenology (mystical experiences, challenging experiences, emotional breakthrough, ego dissolution, sensed presence) associated with respondents' most memorable psychedelic experiences.

Results

Perceptions of an insecure attachment history were positively linked to all measures of psychedelic phenomenology (r's = 0.19–32, p's mostly < 0.01). In contrast, adult attachment orientations were unrelated to psychedelic phenomenology. Also, psychedelic phenomenology mostly did not moderate the links observed between perceptions of an insecure attachment history and adult attachment orientations.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that perceptions of early attachment experiences may be relevant to psychedelic phenomenology. However, subjective experiences associated with naturalistic psychedelic use do not typically attenuate links between a perceived insecure attachment history and attachment insecurity at present.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study is to show the relationship between the change in the strengthening of synaptic plasticity and tau phosphorylation and tau-kinases and phosphatase. The averages of the field excitatory-postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and population spike (PS) in the last 5 min were used as a measure of LTP, LTD and MP. Total and phosphorylated levels of tau, kinases and phosphatases were evaluated by western blot and mRNA levels were evaluated by RT-qPCR. The stimulation of synapses by HFS and LFS+HFS increased the phosphorylation of total-tau and phospho-tau at the Thr181, Ser202/Thr205, Ser396 and Ser416 residues, and these were accompanied by increased enzymatic activity of Akt, ERK1/2. The increased phosphorylation of tau may mediate maintenance of LTP. If the increase in phosphorylation of tau cannot be prevented, together with inhibition of the subsequent LTP, this may indicate that the physiological role of hyperphosphorylated tau in synaptic plasticity may extend to pathological processes.

Restricted access

Az anatómia, szövet- és fejlődéstan oktatásának jelene és jövője az orvosképzésben

Presence and future of the teaching of anatomy, histology and embryology in the medical curriculum

Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
Alán Alpár

Hazai orvosképző helyeinken az emberi test szerkezetét az anatómia, szövet- és fejlődéstan egységében tanítjuk. Ez a dolgozat áttekinti és gondolatokat fogalmaz meg tárgyunk jelenével és jövőjével kapcsolatban. Az orvosképzés sarokkövét jelentő anatómiaoktatásnak úgy kell választ adnia a rohamléptékben fejlődő orvostudomány kérdéseire és igényeire, hogy mindeközben egy megváltozott társadalmi és gazdasági környezethez igazodó orvosképzést kell szolgálnia. Oktatógárdánknak olyan hallgatókkal kell közösen fáradoznia a tudás átadásán, akik egy digitális, sokszor virtuális világban nőttek fel, de nagyon is valóságos, gyakorlati képzés során kell orvossá válniuk. A tudás átadásának új módszertanával kell kiegészítenünk a valóságot megmutató jógyakorlatot, melyben a makroszkópos anatómiai tudást a boncasztalnál, a mikroszkópos anatómiai tudást a mikroszkóp mellett értetjük meg, s ebben a fejlődéstani ismeretek nélkülözhetetlen és folyamatos kiinduló- és támpontot adnak. A korlátozott számú előadások a tényközlés helyett a megértetést, a gyakorlatok a megtapasztalást kell hogy szolgálják, míg a vizsgák egy tanár-diák komplementer képességei mentén átadott tudásanyag objektív, igényes tükrét kell hogy nyújtsák. Új és leendő anatómus munkatársaink számára a tudományos munka és a kiérdemelt függetlenség jövőjét kell láttatnunk és biztosítanunk, melyben a rezidens- és szakorvosképzés, valamint a makroszkópos anatómiai témájú tudományos témák, munkatervek felé való gondolkodás nyit új utakat. Ápoljuk és gyakoroljuk, ami magyar és nemzetközi képzésünk visszajelzései alapján kiváló és igényelt, de keresnünk kell tárgyunk további helyét és lehetőségét mind a graduális, mind a posztgraduális képzésben és a tudományban. Orv Hetil. 2024; 165(9): 323–331.

Open access