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Among all scientific traditions alive, medical publishing has a good chance to be the oldest. The first fully peer reviewed academic journal, “Medical Essays and Observations” was launched in 1731 by the Royal Society in Edinburgh. Since then, hundreds of medical journals have been published worldwide. Medical publication in Hungary started in 1857 when the famous physician, Markusovszky founded “Orvosi Hetilap”, which has been published since then every week (with short breaks during the world wars). It is now a most prestigious piece in AKJournals’ portfolio, listed in Journal Citation Reports, with a remarkable impact factor.

Medical and Health Sciences

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Andrea Ildikó Gasparik, Monica-Beáta Demián, Ionela Maria Pascanu, Iulian Merlan, László Hodinka, and Edit Vereckei

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A sarcopenia – időskori izomerő- és izomtömeg-csökkenés – a természetes öregedés része, ha viszont súlyos működési zavarokat okoz, már betegségnek tekintendő. Ezért a szövődményes, rossz kimenetelek mérsékléséhez minél korábbi felismerése nélkülözhetetlen. Célkitűzés: A sarcopenia kockázatának gyors értékelésére a SARC-F szerzői egyszerű szűrő kérdőívet alkottak, amelyet a sarcopeniát meghatározó diagnosztikus ajánlások kiemelten javallanak. E kérdőív magyar változatának jellemzőit vizsgáltuk, annak validálása céljából. Módszer: A kérdőívet 105, 65 éves vagy ennél idősebb személy bevonásával teszteltük. Az izomtömeg, az izomerő és a teljesítmény értékelése előtt a résztvevők kitöltöttek két generikus, valamint egy betegségspecifikus életminőség-kérdőívet. A megbízhatóság, konvergens, divergens, valamint konstruktumérvényesség vizsgálata mellett az eszköz diagnosztikus alkalmasságát is teszteltük. Statisztikai analízis: A Cronbach-alfa-érték, a Spearman/Pearson-féle korrelációs koefficiensek, a khi-négyzet-teszt, a szenzitivitás, a specificitás meghatározásához, a pozitív és negatív predikciós számításokhoz az SPSS 17.0 programot használtuk. Eredmények: A sarcopenia várható kockázata a SARC-F-teszt szerint (≥4 pont) 36%, míg az európai konszenzusdefiníció alapján sarcopeniásnak minősített esetek előfordulása 40% volt. A sarcopeniás egyéneknek jelentősen magasabb – domének szerinti és összesített – SARC-F-pontjaik voltak. A kérdőívet nagyon jó belső konzisztencia (Cronbach-alfa: 0,755), jó specificitás és magas negatív predikciós értékek jellemezték. Következtetés: A SARC-F magyar változata megbízható eszköznek tekinthető a sarcopenia kockázatának gyors és olcsó előrejelzésére. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(47): 2000–2005.

Summary. Introduction: Sarcopenia is an age-related involution process, causing a significant functional disability, therefore it can be classified as a disease. Early recognition of the disease is essential. Objetive: Authors of the original SARC-F questionnaire developed a simple and rapid screening tool, recommended by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia as the mandatory first step in the diagnostic process of sarcopenia. Our study aimed to test and validate the Hungarian version of this instrument. Method: 105 volunteers of 65+ years were recruited and evaluated for sarcopenia (muscle mass, strength and performance). Participants completed the SARC-F, other two generic and one disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaires. We checked the instrument for reliability, validity (discriminative power, construct, convergent and divergent validity) and screening performance. Statistical analysis: Cronbach’s alpha test, the Pearson/Spearman’s correlation coefficient, chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value calculations have been performed. The SPSS 17.0 statistical program was used. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia according to the SARC-F test (score: ≥4) was 36%, while 40% was diagnosed with the European consensus definition. Sarcopenic individuals had significantly higher SARC-F total and domain scores. Very good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.755), specificity and negative predictive values were found. Conclusion: A reliable, rapid and inexpensive sarcopenia indicator is now available to timely detect the Hungarian-speaking patients at risk of sarcopenia. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(47): 2000–2005.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Youssef Ikken, Réda Charof, Amina Benaouda, Farida Hilali, Sanae Akkaoui, Mostafa Elouennass, and Yassine Sekhsokh

Abstract

Over a 4-year study period from 2015 to 2018, altogether 183 isolates of bacterial meningitis were collected from 12 hospitals covering the entire Moroccan territory. Neisseria meningitidis represented 58.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 35.5%, and Haemophilus influenzae type b 6%. H. influenzae type b mainly affected 5-year-olds and unvaccinated adults. N. meningitidis serogroup B represented 90.7% followed by serogroup W135 with 6.5%. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin G (DSPG) for all isolates accounted for 15.7%, with 11.6% being resistant to penicillin G (PG) and 4.1% decreased susceptibility. Cumulative results of all strains showed 2.7% decreased susceptibility to amoxicillin and 3.3% resistant, 2.2% of isolates were resistant to third-generation cephalosporin and 2.2% were decreased susceptible, 5.5% were resistant to chloramphenicol and 2.7% were resistant to rifampin. The frequency of DSPG observed in our study is more common in S. pneumoniae than in N. meningitidis (P < 0.05). These isolates have been found to be highly susceptible to antibiotics used for treatment and prophylaxis chemotherapy and the observed resistance remains rare. The impact of introduction of conjugate vaccines against H. influenzae type b and S. pneumoniae (PCVs) is an advantage in reducing meningitis cases due to these two species.

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: ZS. Molnár, L. Varga, G. Gyenes, Á. Lehotsky, E. Gradvohl, Á.J. Lukács, R.A. Füzi, A. Gézsi, A. Falus, and H.J. Feith

Abstract

Purpose

Proper handwashing helps prevent the spread of communicable diseases. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare children's knowledge and skills in hand hygiene before and after school interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of our peer education programme.

Materials/methods

In our longitudinal study, short- and long-term changes in the knowledge, hand-washing skills and health behaviour of 224 lower, upper and secondary school students were assessed. Our measurements were performed with a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire and the Semmelweis Scanner.

Results

As a result of the intervention, the proportion of correct answers increased significantly both in the short term and in the long run compared to the input measurements, but age differences did not disappear for most variables. There is a difference in the process of learning theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Areas not used for handwashing in the paediatric population are different from those described for adults in the literature. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the right and left hands.

Conclusions

There was a significant positive change in both theory and practice of handwashing. In education, emphasis should also be put on long-term retention of theoretical knowledge in age-specific health promotion programmes within the paediatric population.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of probiotic products in Hungary, to explore consumers' knowledge of probiotics, and to gain information about the main characteristics of current usage.

Materials and Methods

The research used a self-developed explorative questionnaire to obtain the necessary information. The data collected was further analysed with IBM SPSS 25.0 and Microsoft Office Excel.

Results

Nearly three-quarters of respondents (73.9%) have used probiotics in their life. Those who have already used these products, mostly heard about them from doctors (62.8%) and friends/relatives (40.5%), while among non-users the main sources of information were web pages (46.8%) and commercials (45.2%).

Conclusions

We found several differences between users and non-users in terms of probiotics awareness. Consequently, healthcare providers may play an important role in the process of careful product choice and proper usage.

Open access

Abstract

Extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-Ab), has emerged as an important pathogen in several outbreaks. The aim of our study was to investigate the eventual genetic relatedness of XDR-Ab strains recovered from burn patients and environment sites in the largest Tunisian Burn Intensive Care Unit (BICU) and to characterize β-lactamase encoding genes in these strains. Between March 04th, 2019 and April 22nd, 2019 an outbreak of XDR-Ab was suspected. Environmental screening was done. All isolates were screened by simplex PCR for β-lactamase genes. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of ApaI-digested total DNA. During the study period, 21 strains of A. baumannii were isolated in burn patients, mainly in blood culture (n = 7) and central vascular catheter (n = 6). All strains were susceptible to colistin but resistant to imipenem (n = 23), ciprofloxacin (n = 23), amikacin (n = 22), tigecyclin (n = 5) and rifampicin (n = 4). The bla OXA-51-like, bla OXA23, and bla ADC genes were present in all strains. These resistance determinants were associated with bla PER-1 in 10 strains. The ISAba1 was inserted upstream of bla OXA-23 in all isolates. PFGE revealed two major clusters A (n = 11) and B (n = 5). This is the first description in Tunisia of clonally related PER-1 producing XDR-Ab in burn patients with probable environmental origin.

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Abstract

Purpose

Our aims were to evaluate the primary and clinical evisceration indications and to analyse orbital implant related complications.

Materials/methods

We included in our retrospective review all eviscerations between 2006 and 2016 at the Department of Ophthalmology of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Primary evisceration indications were classified into six groups: trauma, surgical diseases, infections or inflammations, systemic diseases, tumours and unclassifiable diseases. Clinical immediate evisceration indications were also classified into six groups: painful blind eye due to glaucoma, atrophia/phthisis bulbi, endophthalmitis, cosmetic reasons, acute trauma and expulsive bleeding.

Results

Evisceration was performed in 46 eyes of 46 patients (54.3% males, age 43.0 ± 18.6 years). The most common primary evisceration indications were trauma (37%), surgical diseases (34.8%), infection or inflammation (10.9%), systemic diseases (6.5%), tumours (8.7%) and unclassifiable diseases (2.2%). Painful blind eye due to glaucoma (34.8%) was the most common clinical indication for evisceration, followed by atrophia/phthisis bulbi (26.1%), endophthalmitis (17.4%), cosmetic reasons (13.0%), acute trauma (6.5%) and expulsive bleeding (2.2%). After evisceration, 91.3% of the patients received orbital implant and during 26.8±28.9 months follow-up implant related complications were found in 14.3% of the cases, including implant extrusion (4.8%), partial wound dehiscence (4.8%), implant exposure (2.4%) and orbital inflammation (2.4%).

Conclusion

Painful blind eye and atrophia/phthisis bulbi due to ocular trauma and surgical diseases represent the most common indications for ocular evisceration. If malignant intraocular tumours can be excluded, evisceration surgery combined with a silicon-based orbital implant is a safe and effective procedure.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

Our aims were to evaluate the primary and clinical evisceration indications and to analyse orbital implant related complications.

Materials/methods

We included in our retrospective review all eviscerations between 2006 and 2016 at the Department of Ophthalmology of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Primary evisceration indications were classified into six groups: trauma, surgical diseases, infections or inflammations, systemic diseases, tumours and unclassifiable diseases. Clinical immediate evisceration indications were also classified into six groups: painful blind eye due to glaucoma, atrophia/phthisis bulbi, endophthalmitis, cosmetic reasons, acute trauma and expulsive bleeding.

Results

Evisceration was performed in 46 eyes of 46 patients (54.3% males, age 43.0 ± 18.6 years). The most common primary evisceration indications were trauma (37%), surgical diseases (34.8%), infection or inflammation (10.9%), systemic diseases (6.5%), tumours (8.7%) and unclassifiable diseases (2.2%). Painful blind eye due to glaucoma (34.8%) was the most common clinical indication for evisceration, followed by atrophia/phthisis bulbi (26.1%), endophthalmitis (17.4%), cosmetic reasons (13.0%), acute trauma (6.5%) and expulsive bleeding (2.2%). After evisceration, 91.3% of the patients received orbital implant and during 26.8±28.9 months follow-up implant related complications were found in 14.3% of the cases, including implant extrusion (4.8%), partial wound dehiscence (4.8%), implant exposure (2.4%) and orbital inflammation (2.4%).

Conclusion

Painful blind eye and atrophia/phthisis bulbi due to ocular trauma and surgical diseases represent the most common indications for ocular evisceration. If malignant intraocular tumours can be excluded, evisceration surgery combined with a silicon-based orbital implant is a safe and effective procedure.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present cross-sectional study is to examine the degree of degenerative patho-anatomical changes in the thoracic vertebrae in asymptomatic adult patients.

Materials and Methods

A total of 150 adult patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) because of various health conditions (e.g., tumour risk). The images were revised with post-processing procedures to detect bony changes in the thoracic vertebrae. Three types of degenerations (osteophytes, arthrosis, and irregular endplates) were examined and graded using appropriate grading systems. Correlational investigations were carried out in relation to age, BMI, and degenerations. Moreover, to examine the value of the degenerations the frequencies of the grading categories were assessed in each segment.

Results

The total number of the patients included was 41, who had no trunk symptoms. We found no convincing correlations in terms of age, BMI, and degenerations, however, age and facet joint arthrosis showed a tentative association. The degree of the degenerations was the largest in the Th7-8, Th8-9, Th9-10 segments for osteophytes, in the Th4-5, Th5-6 for arthrosis, and in the Th8-9, Th9-10 for irregular endplates.

Conclusions

This study found that there are several progressive degenerative changes in the thoracic spine without any clinical symptoms. Accordingly, it can be advised that clinicians should avoid labelling the disorders and planning their treatment based on the results of diagnostic imaging only.

Open access