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Authors: Elham Abbasi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ali Hashemi, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Abdollah Ardebili, Mehdi Goudarzi, Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi, Sara Davoudabadi, Ghazaleh Talebi and Narjes Bostanghadiri

Abstract

A major challenge in the treatment of infections has been the rise of extensively drug resistance (XDR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii. The goals of this study were to determine the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility, bla OXA and carO genes among burn-isolated A. baumannii strains. In this study, 100 A. baumannii strains were isolated from burn patients and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics were determined using disc diffusion testing and broth microdilution. Presence of carO gene and OXA-type carbapenemase genes was tested by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE was done to survey CarO porin and the expression level of carO gene was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. A high rate of resistance to meropenem (98%), imipenem (98%) and doripenem (98%) was detected. All tested A. baumannii strains were susceptible to colistin. The results indicated that 84.9% were XDR and 97.9% of strains were MDR. In addition, all strains bore bla OXA-51 like and bla OXA-23 like and carO genes. Nonetheless, bla OXA-58 like and bla OXA-24 like genes were harbored by 0 percent and 76 percent of strains, respectively. The relative expression levels of the carO gene ranged from 0.06 to 35.01 fold lower than that of carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii ATCC19606 and SDS – PAGE analysis of the outer membrane protein showed that all 100 isolates produced CarO. The results of current study revealed prevalence of bla OXA genes and changes in carO gene expression in carbapenem resistant A.baumannii.

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Authors: P. L. Latchman, G. Gates, J. Pereira, R. Axtell R, K. Gardner, J. Schlie, Q. Yang, T. Yue, A. Morin-Viall and R. DeMeersman

Abstract

Purpose

High central blood pressure is more predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) versus high peripheral blood pressure. Measures of central pressures (CPs) include, central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) and central diastolic blood pressure. Measures of central pressures augmentation (CPsA) include augmentation pressure (AP) and the augmentation index @ 75 beats·min−1 (AIx@75). Increased sympathetic tone (ST) is also associated with CVD. The low to high frequency ratio (LF/HF) is often used to determine sympatho-vagal balance. Given the association between ST, CPs, CPsA and CVD there is a need to understand the association between these predictors of CVD. The aims of this study were to examine the association between the LF/HF ratio, CPs, and CPsA in men and women collectively and based on gender.

Methods

We measured the LF/HF ratio, CSBP, AP, and AIx@75 in 102 participants (41F/61M). The LF/HF ratio was determined via power spectral density analysis. CSBP, AP, and AIx@75 were determined via applanation tonometry.

Results

The LF/HF ratio was inversely associated with AP (r = –0.26) and AIx @75 (r = –0.29) in the combined group of men and women. The LF/HF ratio was inversely associated with CSBP (r = –0.27), AP (r = –0.28), and AIx@75 (r = –0.32) in men, but not in women.

Conclusion

There is an inverse association between the LF/HF ratio, AP, and AIx@75 in men and women combined. The association between the LF/HF ratio, CSBP, AP, and AIx@75, differs based on gender.

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Abstract

Introduction

Left ventricular (LV) twist is considered an essential part of LV function due to oppositely directed LV basal and apical rotations. Several factors could play a role in determining LV rotational mechanics in normal circumstances. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between LV rotational mechanics and mitral annular (MA) size and function in healthy subjects.

Methods

The study comprised 118 healthy adult volunteers (mean age: 31.5 ± 11.8 years, 50 males). All subjects had undergone complete two-dimensional (2D) Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) at the same time by the same echocardiography equipment.

Results

The normal mean LV apical and basal rotations proved to be 9.57 ± 3.33 and −3.75 ± 1.98°, respectively. LV apical rotation correlated with end-systolic MA diameter, area, perimeter, fractional area change, and fractional shortening, but did not correlate with any end-diastolic mitral annular morphologic parameters. The logistic regression model identified MA fractional area change as an independent predictor of ≤6° left ventricular apical rotation (P < 0.003).

Conclusions

Correlations could be detected between apical LV rotation and end-systolic MA size and function, suggesting relationships between MA dimensions and function and LV rotational mechanics.

Open access

Abstract

Introduction

During mammalian brain development, neural activity leads to maturation of glutamatergic innervations to locus coeruleus. In this study, fast excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were evaluated to investigate the maturation of excitatory postsynaptic currents in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons.

Methods

NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in LC neurons were evaluated using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording during the primary postnatal weeks. This technique was used to calculate the optimum holding potential for NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the best frequency for detecting spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC).

Results

The optimum holding potential for detecting NMDA receptor-mediated currents was + 40 to + 50 mV in LC neurons. The frequency, amplitude, rise time, and decay time constant of synaptic responses depended on the age of the animal and increased during postnatal maturation.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that most nascent glutamatergic synapses express functional NMDA receptors in the postnatal coerulear neurons, and that the activities of the neurons in this region demonstrate an age-dependent variation.

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Abstract

Numerous studies indicate that smoking during pregnancy exerts harmful effects on fetal brain development. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the early physical and neurobehavioral development of newborn rats. Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body smoke exposure for 2 × 40 min daily from the day of mating until day of delivery. For this treatment, a manual closed-chamber smoking system and 4 research cigarettes per occasion were used. After delivery the offspring were tested daily for somatic growth, maturation of facial characteristics and neurobehavioral development until three weeks of age. Motor coordination tests were performed at 3 and 4 weeks of age. We found that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure did not alter weight gain or motor coordination. Critical physical reflexes indicative of neurobehavioral development (eyelid reflex, ear unfolding) appeared significantly later in pups prenatally exposed to smoke as compared to the control group. Prenatal smoke exposure also resulted in a delayed appearance of reflexes indicating neural maturity, including hind limb grasping and forelimb placing reflexes. In conclusion, clinically relevant prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke results in slightly altered neurobehavioral development in rat pups. These findings suggest that chronic exposure of pregnant mothers to cigarette smoke (including passive smoking) results in persisting alterations in the developing brain, which may have long-lasting consequences supporting the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DoHAD).

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Authors: P. Kovács, József Gábor Joó, V. Tamás, Z. Molnár, D. Burik-Hajas, J. Bódis and L. Kornya

Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to assess the etiological role of apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bax in the background of major obstetric and gynaecological diseases.

Methods

Placental tissue samples were collected from 101 pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction and 104 pregnancies with premature birth with 140 controll samples from term, eutrophic newborns. In addition, gene expression assessment of the genes Bax and Bcl-2 was performed in 101 uterine leiomyoma tissue samples at our disposal with 110 control cases. Gene expression levels were assessed by PCR method.

Results

The expression of the Bcl-2 gene was decreased in placental samples with intrauterine growth restriction. Significant overexpression of the proapoptotic Bax gene was detected in samples from premature infants. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression was found to be significantly increased in fibroid tissues.

Conclusion

Apoptosis plays a crucial role in the development of the most common OB/GYN conditions. Decrease in the placental expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 may upset the balance of programmed cell death.

Open access
Authors: L. Yahaghi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, N. Hayati-Roodbari, S. Irani and A. Ebrahim-Habibi

Abstract

Purpose

Betanin is a betacyanin with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities whose effects were investigated in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model.

Main methods

Ninety-six male naval medical research institute (NMRI) mice were divided into eight groups (n = 12) including normal control, high fat diet (HFD), Sham, and positive control treated with trans-chalcone. Three experimental groups were treated with 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg betanin, and a betanin protective group was also defined.

Results

Four weeks of HFD treatment resulted in steatohepatitis with associated fibrosis. Significant increase was observed in serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, leptin, liver enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA), furthermore insulin resistance and (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c) SREBP-1c were detected. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), adiponectin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and PPAR-α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) considerably decreased. Treatment by betanin, particularly the 20 mg/kg dosage, attenuated these changes.

Conclusion

Betanin is a potential treating agent of steatohepatitis and works through up-regulation of PPAR-α, down-regulation of SREBP-1c, modification of adipokine levels and modulation of lipid profile.

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Abstract

Exercise‐induced stem cell activation is implicated in cardiovascular regeneration. However, ageing limits the capacity of cellular and molecular remodelling of the heart. It has been shown that exercise improves structure regeneration and function in the process of ageing. Aged male Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups: Control (CO), High-intensity interval training (HIIT) (80–100% of the maximum speed), and continuous endurance training (CET) (60–70% of the maximum speed) groups. Training groups were trained for 6 weeks. The expression of the Nkx2.5 gene was determined by real-time (RT-PCRs) analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the C-kit positive cardiac progenitor and Ki67 positive cells. The mRNA level of Nkx2.5 was significantly increased in the CET and HIIT groups (P < 0.05). Also, cardiac progenitor cells positive for C-kit were increased in both the CET and HIIT groups (P < 0.05). Exercise training improved the ejection fraction and fractional shortening in both training groups (P < 0.05). This study indicated that training initiates the activation of cardiac progenitor cells, leading to the generation of new myocardial cells (R = 0.737, P = 0.001). It seems that C-kit positive cells in training groups showed an increase in the expression of some transcription factors (Nkx2.5 gene), representing an increased regenerative capacity of cardiomyocytes during the training period. These findings suggest that the endogenous regenerative capacity of the adult heart, mediated by cardiac stem cells, would be increased in response to exercise.

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Abstract

The physiology of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors present in large blood vessels of the heart is well known in the regulation of cardiorespiratory functions. Since large blood vessels and peripheral blood vessels are of the same mesodermal origin, therefore, involvement of the latter in the regulation of cardiorespiratory system is expected. The role of perivascular nerves in mediating cardiorespiratory alterations produced after intra-arterial injection of a nociceptive agent (bradykinin) was examined in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Respiratory frequency, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded for 30 min after the retrograde injection of bradykinin/saline into the femoral artery. In addition, paw edema was determined and water content was expressed as percentage of wet weight. Injection of bradykinin produced immediate tachypneic, hypotensive and bradycardiac responses of shorter latency (5–8 s) favoring the neural mechanisms involved in it. Injection of equi-volume of saline did not produce any responses and served as time-matched control. Paw edema was observed in the ipsilateral hind limb. Pretreatment with diclofenac sodium significantly attenuated the bradykinin-induced responses and also blocked the paw edema. Ipsilateral femoral and sciatic nerve sectioning attenuated bradykinin-induced responses significantly, indicating the origin of responses from the local vascular bed. Administration of bradykinin in the segment of an artery produced reflex cardiorespiratory changes by stimulating the perivascular nociceptors involving prostaglandins. This is a novel study exhibiting the role of peripheral blood vessels in the regulation of the cardiorespiratory system.

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Abstract

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is involved in development and reproduction. We previously described elevated PACAP levels in the milk compared to the plasma, and the presence of its specific PAC1 receptor in the mammary gland. This study aimed to determine PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in female suckling lambs compared to ewe plasma and mammary gland, as well as their age-dependent alterations. mRNA expressions of PACAP, VIP, PAC1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were quantified in the milk whey and mammary gland. PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) was measured in plasma, milk whey and mammary gland by radioimmunoassay, VIP-LI by enzyme-linked immunoassay. PACAP38-LI was 5, 6 times higher in the milk compared to the plasma of lactating sheep. It significantly increased in the lamb plasma 1 h, but returned to basal level 2 h after suckling. However, VIP mRNA was not present in the mammary gland, we detected the VIP protein in the milk whey. BDNF mRNA significantly decreased with age to approximately 60% and 25% in the 3- and 10-year-old sheep respectively, compared to the 3-month-old lambs. No differences were found between mammary and jugular vein plasma PACAP and VIP concentrations, or during the daily cycle. We propose a rapid absorption of PACAP38 from the milk and/or its release in suckling lambs. PACAP accumulated in the milk might be synthesized in the mammary gland or secreted from the plasma of the mothers. PACAP is suggested to have differentiation/proliferation promoting and immunomodulatory effects in the newborns and/or a local function in the mammary gland.

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