Assessment of pressure ulcers is an indicator of nursing care quality. In physically handicapped patients, the risk is elevated, due to the neuropathy and incontinence that frequently accompany paresis and paralysis. We conducted a systematic review of 4 assessment scales to assess their use and usefulness for these patients.
We searched 5 databases for articles published between 2016 and 2018 that included terms related to the risk of pressure ulcers in physically handicapped patients, including the names of 4 assessment scales (Norton, Braden, Waterlow and Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale). One hundred and three sources were returned, from which we selected 10. We also selected an earlier source, for a total of 11.
The Braden and Waterlow scales are popular in clinical practice. The Norton scale is used for scientific comparisons and in clinical practice only sporadically. Expert opinion suggests that acceptance of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale could reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in physically handicapped patients.
Introduction of a scale designed for handicapped patients, combined with better preventive measures, could result in the bedsore reduction of pressure ulcers. Research testing the effectiveness of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale in the Czech population is needed to validate its use in clinical practice.
Authors:Orsolya Kutasi, Orsolya Fehér, Sára Sárdi, Nándor Balogh, Anna Nagy, Leticia Moravszki, Emese Bódai and Ottó Szenci
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes between wild birds (natural hosts) and other vertebrates. Horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. Owing to the close contact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the extracellular fluid of the brain, the analysis of CSF composition can reflect central nervous system (CNS) impairments enabling the diagnosis and understanding of various neurodegenerative CNS disorders. Our objective was to compare the findings from the CSF samples of horses with neuroinvasive WNV infection with those of healthy controls. We compared findings from fifteen CSF samples of 13 horses with acute WNV encephalomyelitis with those of 20 healthy controls. Protein, particular enzymes and ions, glucose and lactate showed abnormal levels in a significant number of WNV cases. None of the six horses with elevated glucose concentrations survived. Rather neutrophilic than mononuclear pleocytosis was identified with WNV infection. Neutrophils probably play a role in the development of inflammatory response and brain damage. Although elevated glucose levels reliably predicted the outcome, they might be the consequence of increased plasma levels and reflect general stress rather than CNS pathophysiology. The CSF findings of WNV encephalomyelitis patients are non-specific and variable but facilitate the differential diagnosis.
Authors:Barbara Ujvári, Levente Szeredi and Tibor Magyar
In this paper we report the phenotypic and partial genetic characterisation of a novel bacterium strain isolated from a cat with severe nephritis. Multilocus sequence analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA and three housekeeping (recN, rpoB, infB) gene sequences obtained by PCR. In accordance with the results of phenotypic tests, the phylogenetic analyses confirmed the relatedness of the new strain (6036) to the family Pasteurellaceae. On the phylogenetic trees, strain 6036 appeared in a separate branch, closest to that of the type species (Frederiksenia canicola) of the genus Frederiksenia. These two bacteria shared 95.14 and 76.88% identity in their partial 16S rRNA and recN gene sequences, respectively. The rpoB- and infB-based phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain 6036 is most closely related to Bibersteinia trehalosi (with 90.58% identity) and [Haemophilus] felis ATCC 49733 (89.50% identity), respectively. The predicted genome identity values, based on the recN gene sequences, suggested that strain 6036 can be classified into the genus Frederiksenia as a novel species. A PCR method, specific to strain 6036, was developed to allow its rapid and accurate identification and differentiation from F. canicola and other species of Pasteurellaceae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 18 antimicrobial agents for strain 6036 were also determined.
Authors:Eszter Balogh, Anna Boglárka Dálnoki, László Rózsa, Viktória Johanna Debnár, Orsolya Varga-Balogh, József Rátky, Attila Zsolnai and István Anton
When using artificial insemination in porcine reproduction, one of the most important requirements is the suitable quality of semen regarding its total motility (TM) and progressive motility (PM). Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) is an appropriate method to analyse the quality of semen. Recently a portable instrument has been developed to help specialists in their everyday field work. In our study, semen quality was measured simultaneously by the portable device (Ongo) and a laboratory CASA system (Microptic) to compare TM and PM values obtained by these appliances at a concentration of 50 × 106 spermatozoa/mL. Agreement between measurements was evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot. Strong correlation was found between the investigated instruments for all the three parameters, i.e. sperm concentration, TM and PM. However, a few measurements fell outside the defined range of acceptance.
Authors:Mohamed R. Mousa, Faten F. Mohammed, Ayman H. El-deeb, Hanan Saad Khalefa and Kawkab A. Ahmed
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains a constant threat to the poultry industry even with intensive vaccination programmes. In the present study, 40 samples were collected from farms showing high mortalities in some Egyptian governorates between 2016 and 2018. Tracheal samples were collected for virus isolation and confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Molecular characterisation was performed by sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the novel sequences. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on different organs from NDV-infected broilers. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NDV isolates from different areas of Egypt were genetically closely related and all belonged to genotype VII. The histopathological hallmarks included haemorrhagic tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia with syncytia formation, haemorrhagic proventriculitis, necrotising pancreatitis, pan-lymphoid depletion, non-suppurative encephalitis and nephritis. Immunological detection of NDV antigen clarified the widespread presence of viral antigen in different organs with severe lesions. The present study confirmed that a virulent NDV of genotype VII became the predominant strain, causing severe outbreaks in poultry farms in Egypt. The presence of viral antigen in different organs indicates the pantropic nature of the virus. Immunohistochemistry was a very useful diagnostic tool for the detection of NDV antigen.
Authors:Péter Csébi, Alexander Tichy, Michaela Gumpenberger and Eberhard Ludewig
The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of the slope of the pelvis in different dog breeds and the correlation between pelvic slope and femoral subluxation. The sacrum–pelvis angle (SPA), the angulation between the sacrum and the axis of the ilium was created to represent the differences in the slope of the pelvis on lateral pelvic radiographs. The Norberg angle (NA) was used to quantify the femoral subluxation on hip-extended radiographs. Archived standard ventrodorsal hip radiographs and lateral lumbosacral radiographs of the same dogs were retrieved and a single observer measured the SPA and the NA in each case. A total of 180 dogs from six different breeds were sampled. The SPA varied between 40° and 71.5° and the NA between 71.2° and 113.9°. The findings indicated that there are significant individual and interbreed variations in the slope of the pelvis. However, no significant relationship between the slope of the pelvis and femoral subluxation could be identified.
Authors:Anja Strobl, Frank Künzel, Alexander Tichy and Michael Leschnik
The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively the prevalence of the complicated and uncomplicated forms of babesiosis and to evaluate various laboratory and clinical parameters of dogs infected with Babesia canis in order to assess their prognostic value regarding the outcomes of the disease. Medical records, complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis from the animal hospital information system of 240 dogs were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ascertain correlations between alterations in the obtained parameters and survival probability. The results showed that creatinine levels of more than 5 mg/dL and phosphate levels of more than 3 mmol/L have a highly significant link to death (P ≤ 0.001). Albumin levels of <2.2 g/dL (P = 0.003) and a rectal body temperature below 38 °C (P ≤ 0.001) may also serve as prognostic markers for the severity of the disease. If renal involvement was present, 33.9% of the dogs died, while 40.0% of the dogs died in the presence of pancreatitis. The parameters creatinine, phosphate, albumin and rectal temperature serve as reliable predictive markers of an increased risk of death in the case of an infection with B. canis.
Authors:Nilgün Ünal, Erhan Bal, Alper Karagöz, Belgin Altun and Nadir Koçak
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is a global threat to public health. Knowledge about the occurrence of vanA-carrying enterococci in broiler and environmental samples is important as antibiotic resistance can be transferred to human bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of VRE in broiler cloacal and environmental (house) samples and to genotype the isolates. In this study, 350 swabs were collected from broiler farms. All samples were plated onto enterococcus selective agar containing 6 mg/L vancomycin and 64 mg/L ceftazidime. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for vancomycin and teicoplanin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) was isolated from 6 out of 300 (2%) broiler cloacal samples and 13 out of 50 (26%) house samples. All E. faecium isolates had vanA genes. All VREfm isolates (19 isolates) were confirmed to be 95% similar to each other. In conclusion, although 20 years have passed since the ban on avoparcin in Turkey, the present study shows that VREfm isolates are still present in broiler production and especially in broiler houses, and most importantly, a major VREfm clone was isolated from broiler cloacal and house samples.
Authors:Melinda Fábián, Györgyi Pónyai, Gergely Szombath, Eszter Nagy, Zsolt Komlósi, Ágnes Szigeti, Kende Lőrincz, Bernadett Hidvégi and Márta Medvecz
A nemszteroid gyulladáscsökkentők (NSAID-ok) lokális és szisztémás formában
történő alkalmazása egyre elterjedtebbé vált, az ezzel kapcsolatos adverz
reakciók gyakoriak. A szerzők egy 49 éves férfi beteg esetét ismertetik, aki
lábszárak fájdalma miatt etofenamáttartalmú lokális készítményt alkalmazott,
majd az alkalmazás helyén, UV-expozíciót követően, haemorrhagiás, atípusos,
kontaktdermatitisnek megfelelő bőrtünetek jelentek meg. Tüneteinek rapid
terjedése miatt sürgősségi fekvőbeteg-ellátásra szorult. Fizikális vizsgálata
során az etofenamátexpozíció helyén, mindkét lábszáron, valamint azon túlmenően
a karokon, valamint a törzsön és az arcon bevérzett, konfluáló, erythemás
seropapulákat és maculákat láttunk, melyek mellett testszerte és a buccalis
nyálkahártyán petechiák voltak megfigyelhetők. A nagy kiterjedésű és aspecifikus
bőrtünetek, a fizikális vizsgálattal észlelt splenomegalia, valamint a
perifériás vérképeltérés miatt indított onkohematológiai kivizsgálás során hajas
sejtes leukaemia diagnózisa igazolódott. Epicutan tesztelés (ET) során az
etofenamáttartalmú gélre adott, erősen pozitív reakció mellett fakátrány-,
propilén-glikol-, propolisz-, ’fragrance mix I’, metilizotiazolinon-, benzoesav-
és perubalzsam-poliszenzibilizáció volt verifikálható. Az etofenamát
hatóanyaggal elvégzett lymphocytatranszformációs teszt (LTT) és
CD69-expresszió-vizsgálat negatív eredményt adott. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(38):