Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections and rapid diagnosis of the infection is essential for appropriate antibiotic therapy. The goal of our study was to identify urinary pathogens directly by MALDI-TOF MS and to perform antibiotic susceptibility tests in order to shorten the period spent for culturing.
Urine samples submitted for culture to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory were enrolled in this study. Urine samples were screened for leukocyte and bacteria amount by flow cytometry. Samples with bacterial load of 106–107/mL were tested directly by MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility tests (AST) were performed.
In total, 538 positive urine samples were evaluated in our study. MALDI-TOF MS identified the microorganism directly from the urine sample in 91.8% of these samples and the concordance rate of conventional identification and direct detection was 95.8% for Gram-negatives at the genus and species level. Escherichia coli (n:401) was the most frequently isolated microorganism, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n:57). AST results were generated for 111 of these urine samples and the concordance was 90% and 87% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively.
Our results showed that screening of urine samples with flow cytometry to detect positive samples and identification of uropathogens directly by MALDI-TOF MS with an accuracy of over 90% can be a suitable method particularly for Gram-negative bacteria in clinical microbiology laboratories.
Authors:Ebrahim Ezzati, Saeed Mohammadi, Hassanali Karimpour, Javad Amini Saman, Afshin Goodarzi, Amir Jalali, Afshin Almasi, Kamran Vafaei and Rasool Kawyannejad
Negligence of proper time and poor performance of resuscitation team can lead to more mortality and negative consequences of cardiac arrest, as well as less survival. This study was conducted with objective of determining the arrival time of physician and resuscitation team to survive the victims of cardiopulmonary arrest.
Materials and methods
In this prospective and descriptive-analytic study, the resuscitation performance and the arrival time of resuscitation team in 143 inpatients who had been diagnosed with witnessed cardiopulmonary arrest were examined using a researcher-made checklist. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests and SPSS.
Initial survival rate was 26.6%. In general, the mean time of physician’s presence after the code announcement in minutes and seconds was 02:31 ± 01:22. It was also 02:24 ± 01:15 in successful cases and 02:34 ± 01:25 in unsuccessful cases. Independent t-test did not show a significant difference between the physician’s presence time and the rate of initial successful resuscitation (p = 0.504). The time of first shock after observing ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (in minutes and seconds) was 01:30 ± 00:47. According to independent t-test, the aforementioned time was less than the mean time (02:31 ± 01:22) of physician’s presence (p < 0.001).
In this study, the initial survival rate in comparison to other regions in the country was almost more favorable and it was similar to global norms. In this study, the starting time of resuscitation was within the acceptable range. There was no relationship between the presence of physician and the initial survival rate of patients, as well as the use of defibrillator (by physician compared to other team members) and intubation with the initial survival rate. This could indicate the adequate performance of resuscitation team in the absence of physician on the condition of having sufficient knowledge and skill.
Authors:Javad Amini Saman, Ali Valinejadi, Saeed Mohammadi, Hassanali Karimpor, Maryam Mirzaei and Rasool Kawyannejad
Sleep quality is an essential aspect in human health and function. Considering high prevalence of using smartphones and social networks among students and their impact on sleep quality, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the overuse of cell phone and addiction to social networks and students’ sleep quality.
Materials and methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran in 2018. Using cluster sampling, 321 students from different disciplines were selected. Data gathering tools consisted of the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cell phone use and addiction to social networks were assessed using Cell Phone Overuse Scale and a researcher-made questionnaire, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19) and Pearson’s correlation test.
The mean total score of sleep quality in students was 6.58 ± 1.05. There was a positive and significant correlation between sleep quality and social networks addiction score (p < 0.05, r = 0.5) and cell phone overuse (p < 0.05, r = 0.44); this is an inverse correlation, because higher scores of the total PSQI denote a lower sleep quality and, in Cell Phone Overuse Scale, higher scores shows overuse.
According to the findings of this study, there was a significant statistical relationship between the overuse of cell phone and social networks and students’ sleep quality. In other words, students who have had overuse of cell phones had poorer sleep quality. Therefore, providing effective educational programs to improve the sleep quality in this group is essential.
Assessment of pressure ulcers is an indicator of nursing care quality. In physically handicapped patients, the risk is elevated, due to the neuropathy and incontinence that frequently accompany paresis and paralysis. We conducted a systematic review of 4 assessment scales to assess their use and usefulness for these patients.
We searched 5 databases for articles published between 2016 and 2018 that included terms related to the risk of pressure ulcers in physically handicapped patients, including the names of 4 assessment scales (Norton, Braden, Waterlow and Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale). One hundred and three sources were returned, from which we selected 10. We also selected an earlier source, for a total of 11.
The Braden and Waterlow scales are popular in clinical practice. The Norton scale is used for scientific comparisons and in clinical practice only sporadically. Expert opinion suggests that acceptance of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale could reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in physically handicapped patients.
Introduction of a scale designed for handicapped patients, combined with better preventive measures, could result in the bedsore reduction of pressure ulcers. Research testing the effectiveness of the Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Scale in the Czech population is needed to validate its use in clinical practice.
Authors:Orsolya Kutasi, Orsolya Fehér, Sára Sárdi, Nándor Balogh, Anna Nagy, Leticia Moravszki, Emese Bódai and Ottó Szenci
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes between wild birds (natural hosts) and other vertebrates. Horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. Owing to the close contact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the extracellular fluid of the brain, the analysis of CSF composition can reflect central nervous system (CNS) impairments enabling the diagnosis and understanding of various neurodegenerative CNS disorders. Our objective was to compare the findings from the CSF samples of horses with neuroinvasive WNV infection with those of healthy controls. We compared findings from fifteen CSF samples of 13 horses with acute WNV encephalomyelitis with those of 20 healthy controls. Protein, particular enzymes and ions, glucose and lactate showed abnormal levels in a significant number of WNV cases. None of the six horses with elevated glucose concentrations survived. Rather neutrophilic than mononuclear pleocytosis was identified with WNV infection. Neutrophils probably play a role in the development of inflammatory response and brain damage. Although elevated glucose levels reliably predicted the outcome, they might be the consequence of increased plasma levels and reflect general stress rather than CNS pathophysiology. The CSF findings of WNV encephalomyelitis patients are non-specific and variable but facilitate the differential diagnosis.
Authors:Barbara Ujvári, Levente Szeredi and Tibor Magyar
In this paper we report the phenotypic and partial genetic characterisation of a novel bacterium strain isolated from a cat with severe nephritis. Multilocus sequence analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA and three housekeeping (recN, rpoB, infB) gene sequences obtained by PCR. In accordance with the results of phenotypic tests, the phylogenetic analyses confirmed the relatedness of the new strain (6036) to the family Pasteurellaceae. On the phylogenetic trees, strain 6036 appeared in a separate branch, closest to that of the type species (Frederiksenia canicola) of the genus Frederiksenia. These two bacteria shared 95.14 and 76.88% identity in their partial 16S rRNA and recN gene sequences, respectively. The rpoB- and infB-based phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain 6036 is most closely related to Bibersteinia trehalosi (with 90.58% identity) and [Haemophilus] felis ATCC 49733 (89.50% identity), respectively. The predicted genome identity values, based on the recN gene sequences, suggested that strain 6036 can be classified into the genus Frederiksenia as a novel species. A PCR method, specific to strain 6036, was developed to allow its rapid and accurate identification and differentiation from F. canicola and other species of Pasteurellaceae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 18 antimicrobial agents for strain 6036 were also determined.
Authors:Eszter Balogh, Anna Boglárka Dálnoki, László Rózsa, Viktória Johanna Debnár, Orsolya Varga-Balogh, József Rátky, Attila Zsolnai and István Anton
When using artificial insemination in porcine reproduction, one of the most important requirements is the suitable quality of semen regarding its total motility (TM) and progressive motility (PM). Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) is an appropriate method to analyse the quality of semen. Recently a portable instrument has been developed to help specialists in their everyday field work. In our study, semen quality was measured simultaneously by the portable device (Ongo) and a laboratory CASA system (Microptic) to compare TM and PM values obtained by these appliances at a concentration of 50 × 106 spermatozoa/mL. Agreement between measurements was evaluated with a Bland-Altman plot. Strong correlation was found between the investigated instruments for all the three parameters, i.e. sperm concentration, TM and PM. However, a few measurements fell outside the defined range of acceptance.
Authors:Mohamed R. Mousa, Faten F. Mohammed, Ayman H. El-deeb, Hanan Saad Khalefa and Kawkab A. Ahmed
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains a constant threat to the poultry industry even with intensive vaccination programmes. In the present study, 40 samples were collected from farms showing high mortalities in some Egyptian governorates between 2016 and 2018. Tracheal samples were collected for virus isolation and confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Molecular characterisation was performed by sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the novel sequences. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on different organs from NDV-infected broilers. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NDV isolates from different areas of Egypt were genetically closely related and all belonged to genotype VII. The histopathological hallmarks included haemorrhagic tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia with syncytia formation, haemorrhagic proventriculitis, necrotising pancreatitis, pan-lymphoid depletion, non-suppurative encephalitis and nephritis. Immunological detection of NDV antigen clarified the widespread presence of viral antigen in different organs with severe lesions. The present study confirmed that a virulent NDV of genotype VII became the predominant strain, causing severe outbreaks in poultry farms in Egypt. The presence of viral antigen in different organs indicates the pantropic nature of the virus. Immunohistochemistry was a very useful diagnostic tool for the detection of NDV antigen.
Authors:Péter Csébi, Alexander Tichy, Michaela Gumpenberger and Eberhard Ludewig
The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of the slope of the pelvis in different dog breeds and the correlation between pelvic slope and femoral subluxation. The sacrum–pelvis angle (SPA), the angulation between the sacrum and the axis of the ilium was created to represent the differences in the slope of the pelvis on lateral pelvic radiographs. The Norberg angle (NA) was used to quantify the femoral subluxation on hip-extended radiographs. Archived standard ventrodorsal hip radiographs and lateral lumbosacral radiographs of the same dogs were retrieved and a single observer measured the SPA and the NA in each case. A total of 180 dogs from six different breeds were sampled. The SPA varied between 40° and 71.5° and the NA between 71.2° and 113.9°. The findings indicated that there are significant individual and interbreed variations in the slope of the pelvis. However, no significant relationship between the slope of the pelvis and femoral subluxation could be identified.
Authors:Anja Strobl, Frank Künzel, Alexander Tichy and Michael Leschnik
The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively the prevalence of the complicated and uncomplicated forms of babesiosis and to evaluate various laboratory and clinical parameters of dogs infected with Babesia canis in order to assess their prognostic value regarding the outcomes of the disease. Medical records, complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis from the animal hospital information system of 240 dogs were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ascertain correlations between alterations in the obtained parameters and survival probability. The results showed that creatinine levels of more than 5 mg/dL and phosphate levels of more than 3 mmol/L have a highly significant link to death (P ≤ 0.001). Albumin levels of <2.2 g/dL (P = 0.003) and a rectal body temperature below 38 °C (P ≤ 0.001) may also serve as prognostic markers for the severity of the disease. If renal involvement was present, 33.9% of the dogs died, while 40.0% of the dogs died in the presence of pancreatitis. The parameters creatinine, phosphate, albumin and rectal temperature serve as reliable predictive markers of an increased risk of death in the case of an infection with B. canis.