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Factors associated with postural control in nursing home residents

Oral presentation at the 13th Conference of the Hungarian Medical Association of America – Hungary Chapter (HMAA-HC) at 30–31 August 2019, in Balatonfüred, Hungary

Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: R.L. ErdŐs, I. Jónásné Sztruhár, A. Simon and É. Kovács

Abstract

Purpose

Decline of the sensory and motor systems in older people negatively affects postural control. This increases the risk of falls, which is dangerous for older people in long-term care. Being aware of the quality of postural control and the factors affecting it among elderly people, is crucial in implementing an effective fall-prevention program. This study aimed to measure postural control and the demographic, health-related, and functional factors presumed to be correlated with it among nursing home residents. Another aim was to find valid screening tools based on these factors.

Materials and methods

Seventy one nursing home residents were included. Postural control was measured using the Berg Balance Scale. Grip strength, the 30-s chair stand test, and the Timed Up and Go test were used to measure global muscle strength, and functional mobility, respectively. The results of these functional tests were dichotomized using age-specific reference values.

Results

Postural control was significantly worse in those who did not reach the age-specific reference values in any of the three functional tests. Effect sizes were large for functional mobility and medium for muscle strength. Multimorbidity and gender had no effect on postural control in our sample.

Conclusions

Among nursing home residents, postural control is related to functional mobility and muscle strength. Thus, routine testing of these skills among elderly people is an important task of the physiotherapist.

Open access

History of cataract surgery from ancient times to today

Honorary Lecture at the 13th Conference of the Hungarian Medical Association of America – Hungary Chapter (HMAA-HC) at 30–31 August 2019, in Balatonfüred, Hungary

Developments in Health Sciences
Author: Z. Z. Nagy

Abstract

Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed ophthalmic surgery worldwide. This year approximately 32 million surgeries will be performed. The journey to modern, quick, and safe cataract surgery has been quite long. This review covers topics from ancient couching to the most modern phacoemulsification and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. The gain in quality of life is the largest with cataract surgery compared to other implant surgeries (e.g. knee, hip replacement, etc.). Ophthalmology has made huge advancements in recent decades. New microsurgical tools and diagnostic equipment have been developed, together with new surgical methods and foldable intraocular lenses, made from biocompatible material. From monofocal lenses, through aspheric, toric, and multifocal lenses, to multifocal toric lenses, today almost all kinds of refractive error can be compensated, including presbyopia. Teamwork, precise preoperative assessment, and fine surgical technique should also be emphasized in order to achieve the best and most predictable postoperative results for both patient and surgeon.

Open access

Nutritional intake and body composition in children with inflammatory bowel disease

Oral presentation at the 13th Conference of the Hungarian Medical Association of America – Hungary Chapter (HMAA-HC) at 30–31 August 2019, in Balatonfüred, Hungary

Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: H. K. Pintér, K. K. Boros, E. Pálfi and G. Veres

Abstract

Purpose

In this study we assessed nutritional intake, body composition, and their relationship in patients with paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods

We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 38 patients' nutritional intake using 3-day food records (FR) and bioimpedance analysis of body composition. FR were evaluated by Nutricomp DietCAD software. Results were analysed with Microsoft Excel 2013 and IBM SPSS Statistics 22 software.

Results

Patients treated with biological and conventional therapy (CT) had a higher intake of vegetable protein and carbohydrate from starch than those treated earlier with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in the remission phase (F = 5.926, F = 5.130, P < 0.05). The former EEN group had a higher intake of iron compared to the other two groups (F = 3.967, P = 0.036). Protein intake and fat-free mass (FFM) had a significant positive correlation, while added sugar correlated with body fat mass (BFM) in the same way (R 2 = 0.122, R 2 = 0.169, P < 0.05). Body-fat mass in patients of the biological therapy (BT) group overstepped the healthy median, and the FFM in the EEN group stayed under it.

Conclusions

Our results confirm that it is essential to monitor body composition and not only measure body weight. Patients should be advised based on their body composition, therapy, and phase of the disease.

Open access

Abstract

By now, there is no doubt that regular physical exercise has an overall beneficial effect on each organ of the body. However, the effects of highly competitive sports (HCS) are more complex, as they exert greater demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, among others. Strength, athletic, and aesthetic sport types each has a different exercise intensity and nutritional loading, as well as a different prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases at a later age. HCS athletes experience hypertension and mental stress during competitions and high nutritional loads between them. The post-career effects of this behaviour on the heart, arteries, cellular metabolism, and risk of obesity, are not well known and are not often the focus of research. In this review, we aimed to summarize the post-career effects of HCS. Based on data in the literature, we propose that athletes involved in highly competitive strength sports progressively develop metabolic syndrome and sustained elevated blood pressure.

Open access

Postpartum female sexual dysfunctions in Hungary: A cross-sectional study

Oral presentation at the 13th Conference of the Hungarian Medical Association of America – Hungary Chapter (HMAA-HC) at 30–31 August 2019, in Balatonfüred, Hungary

Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: K. SzÖllŐsi and L. Szabó

Abstract

Purpose

Although the prevalence of sexual dysfunction after delivery is generally considered high, this has not been well examined in Hungary. The aim of our study was to evaluate female sexual function at 3-months postpartum and to investigate some of the possible predictor factors which might influence it.

Materials and Methods

We designed a cross-sectional study using online questionnaires and recruited 253 participants. Risk factors such as infant-feeding method and urinary incontinence were assessed for a potential relationship with sexual dysfunction. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to assess sexual function. We wrote our own questions about potential predictors.

Results

48.79% of participants reported sexual dysfunction according to total FSFI score (M = 25.16, SD = 7.00). A significant relationship was found between infant-feeding method and sexual dysfunction (P = 0.003). Sexual dysfunction was more common in exclusive-breastfeeding mothers than in mixed or formula-feeding mothers. Women with urinary incontinence had significantly lower total FSFI scores (P = 0.006), and in the arousal (P = 0.033), lubrication (P = 0.022), satisfaction (P = 0.006) and pain (P = 0.032) domains compared to women with no incontinence problem.

Conclusions

Women suffering from urinary incontinence are more likely to have sexual problems, especially a higher risk of dyspareunia and a lower level of sexual interest and wetness. Exclusive breastfeeding has a negative effect on sexual function.

Open access

Abstract

Although the use of aspirin has substantially reduced the risks of cardiovascular events and death, its potential mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In a previous study, we found that aspirin triggers cellular autophagy. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of aspirin on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and explore its underlying mechanisms. HCAECs were treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), angiotensin II (Ang-II), or high glucose (HG) with or without aspirin stimulation. The expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), p-eNOS, LC3, p62, phosphor-nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-κB), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK), and Beclin-1 were detected via immunoblotting analysis. Concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured via ELISA. NO levels were determined using the Griess reagent. Autophagic flux was tracked by tandem mRFP-GFP-tagged LC3. Results showed that aspirin increased eNOS level and reduced injury to the endothelial cells (ECs) caused by ox-LDL, Ang-II, and HG treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Aspirin also increased the LC3II/LC3I ratio, decreased p62 expression, and enhanced autophagic flux (autophagosome and autolysosome puncta) in the HCAECs. p-NF-κB and p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 secretion, and eNOS activity promotion by aspirin treatment were found to be dependent on Beclin-1. These results suggested that aspirin can protect ECs from ox-LDL-, Ang-II-, and HG-induced injury by activating autophagy in a Beclin-1-dependent manner.

Restricted access

Abstract

Purpose

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common type of degenerative joint disease which decreases the quality of life. Sex-determining region Y box 9 (SOX9) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) are considered as the key regulators of OA. We investigated the effect of combined therapies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), ozone (O3) and exercise training on SOX9 and HIF1 expression in the cartilage of rats with knee OA.

Methods

Knee OA was induced by surgical method. OA rats were divided into model, MSCs, ozone, exercise, MSCs + ozone, MSCs + exercise, ozone + exercise and MSCs + ozone + exercise groups. Rats in the MSCs group received intraarticular injection of 1 × 106 cells/kg. Rats in the ozone group received O3 at the concentration of 20 μg/mL, once weekly for 3 weeks. Rats in the exercise group were trained on rodent treadmill three times per week. 48 hours after the programs, cartilage tissues were isolated and the expression of SOX9 and HIF1 was determined using Real-Time PCR.

Results

Significant differences were found in the expression of SOX9 and HIF1 between groups (P < 0.0001). Although combined therapies with exercise, MSCs and O3 significantly increased the expression of SOX9 and HIF1 in the cartilage tissue of rats with knee OA, combination of exercise with O3 was significantly more effective compared to the other combined therapies (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Combined therapy with exercise, MSCs and O3 significantly increased the expression of SOX9 and HIF1 genes in the cartilage of rats with knee OA; however, exercise + O3 was significantly more effective.

Restricted access

Abstract

Introduction

Exposure to noise stress during early life may permanently affect the structure and function of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to urban traffic noise on the spatial learning and memory of the rats' offspring and the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in their hippocampi.

Methods

Three g\roups of pregnant rats were exposed to recorded urban traffic noise for 1, 2 or 4 h/day during the last week of pregnancy. At the age of 45 days, their male offspring were introduced to the Morris water maze (MWM) for assessment of spatial learning and memory. The corticosterone levels were measured in the offspring's sera by radioimmunoassay, and the relative expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in their hippocampi was evaluated via RT-PCR.

Results

Facing urban traffic noise for 2 and 4 h/day during the third trimester of pregnancy caused the offspring to spend more time and to travel a larger distance than the controls to find the target platform. Analogously, these two groups were inferior to their control counterparts in the probe test. Also, prenatal noise stress elevated the corticosterone concentration in the sera of the rats' offspring and dose-dependently decreased the relative expression of the mRNA of both GRs and MRs in their hippocampi.

Conclusions

Urban traffic noise exposure during the last trimester of pregnancy impairs spatial learning and memory of rat offspring and reduces GRs and MRs gene expression in the hippocampus.

Restricted access

Abstract

A considerable number of patients arriving in dental offices are being treated with ongoing medication for a variety of chronic diseases. As a result, dentists must be familiar with the potential side effects these therapeutic agents may have on the tissues of the oral cavity, and in particular on the salivary gland. Salivary gland function may be altered by a wide range of medications, leading to effects such as xerostomia, hyposalivation, hypersalivation or even swelling of the glands. These disorders can cause a variety of other health complications. This review will focus on the most common groups of drugs responsible for salivary gland dysfunction, including psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, and antihistamines.

Open access