Authors:Duygu Durna Corum, Orhan Corum, Ramazan Yildiz, Hatice Eser Faki, Merve Ider, Gul Cetin and Kamil Uney
The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin (4 mg/kg), administered both alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid (2 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg), was established after intravenous administration in sheep. Plasma levofloxacin concentrations were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography and analysed according to the two-compartment open model. Following the administration of levofloxacin alone, the mean distribution half-life, elimination half-life, total clearance, volume of distribution at steady state and area under the plasma concentration–time curve were 0.20 h, 1.82 h, 0.39 L/h/kg, 0.96 L/kg and 10.40 h × µg/mL, respectively. Tolfenamic acid and flunixin meglumine caused a slow elimination and increased plasma concentrations of levofloxacin in combination administration. Levofloxacin, with an alteration in the dosage regimen, can be used effectively with tolfenamic acid and flunixin meglumine for the therapy of infections and inflammatory conditions in sheep.
A 1-day-old male calf presented with clinical signs of severe progressive abdominal distension. Abdominal radiographic and ultrasonic images revealed several loop-like structures in the small intestine, which were indicative of gas retention. Experimental laparotomy was performed. However, the calf died during surgery. At necropsy, a round, well-circumscribed mass (3 × 3 × 2.5 cm) was found in the jejunal wall, and the jejunal lumen was narrowed. The mass was firm and had white to grey appearance on the cut surface. Histologically, the submucosa and the muscle layer were diffusely thickened due to abundance of neural tissues comprising several fascicles of nerve fibres and large aggregates of ganglion cells. Some ganglion cells contained basophilic Nissl substances in their cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, these cells were positive for S-100 and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural examination revealed that the neoplastic ganglion cells contained dense core vesicles in the cytoplasm. Based on these findings, the neoplastic lesion was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma in the jejunum.
Authors:Levente Szeredi, Ádám Dán, Péter Malik, Szilárd Jánosi and Ákos Hornyák
An epizootic caused by a new orthobunyavirus called Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was recognised in European ruminants in 2011 and 2012. The re-emergence of the infection was reported in several countries in the subsequent years. Although the main clinical sign of SBV infection is abortion, the impact of SBV in natural cases of abortion in domestic ruminants had not been systematically examined before this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of SBV infection and to compare it to the importance of other causes of abortion by examining 537 natural cases of abortion that had occurred between 2011 and 2017 in Hungary. The cause of abortion was determined in 165 (31%) cases. An infectious cause was proved in 88 (16%) cases. SBV infection was found only in a total of four cases (0.8%) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three of them proved to be inapparent SBV infection, and one case was attributed to SBV-induced abortion by detecting non-purulent encephalitis and SBV nucleoprotein by immunohistochemistry in a brain tissue sample. According to the results, SBV played a minor role in natural cases of domestic ruminant abortion in Hungary during the 7-year period following the first SBV outbreak in 2011.
Authors:Katy Satué, Paloma Montesinos and Ana MuÑoz
In women and females of different species of laboratory animals, oestrogens stimulate the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) by increasing tissue and circulating levels of angiotensinogen and renin during the preovulatory period. Progesterone and cortisol compete with aldosterone for mineralocorticoid receptors, which results in increased Na+ reabsorption during the postovulatory period. The purpose of the current research was to analyse the relationship of oestradiol-17β, progesterone and cortisol with RAAS in 23 mares during an oestrous cycle. During the preovulatory period, significant positive correlations of oestradiol-17β with renin and aldosterone concentrations and negative correlations of progesterone with renin and aldosterone concentrations were found. In contrast, during the postovulatory period, oestradiol-17β concentrations were positively correlated with angiotensin concentrations and progesterone was negatively correlated with this component of the RAAS. Cortisol concentrations were not correlated with the hormones of the RAAS, neither before nor after ovulation. This research demonstrates that, as occurs in other species, changes in the RAAS during the periovulatory period in mares may be modulated by variations in the concentrations of steroid hormones.
Authors:Gábor Cech, Diána Sándor, Kálmán Molnár, Petra Paulus, Melitta Papp, Bálint Preiszner, Zoltán Vitál, Ádám Varga and Csaba Székely
Two species of the genus Posthodiplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae) (Posthodiplostomum brevicaudatum Nordmann, 1832 and Posthodiplostomum cuticola Nordmann, 1832) are known as parasites of Hungarian native fishes. Metacercariae of P. cuticola are widespread in Europe and cause black spot disease. Several species of Posthodiplostomum were described also from North America but none of them has been isolated in Hungary up to now. Posthodiplostomum centrarchi Hoffman, 1958 has been detected recently in pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus L., 1758) in several European countries. Posthodiplostomum centrarchi was isolated for the first time in Hungary from pumpkinseeds caught in the Maconka water reservoir in 2015. Thereafter, several natural waters (e.g. the River Danube, Lake Balaton and the Sió channel) were sampled in order to determine its presence and distribution. Only the native species P. cuticola was detected in Lake Balaton on cyprinids but a relatively high infection rate of P. centrarchi was observed in the Sió channel close to the lake. Pathological changes were absent, and metacercariae were mostly attached to the surface of the liver, kidney and heart. The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and COI sequences of P. centrarchi and P. cuticola clustered into two distinct branches, which was in agreement with the morphological results.
Authors:Abdullah Altayban, Mahmoud Kandeel, Yukio Kitade and Mohammed Al-nazawi
This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in camel calves after a single intramuscular injection in a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight (kg b. w.). Cefquinome concentrations were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A non-compartmental pharmacokinetic model was used to fit the time–concentration curve and estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 28.4 μg/mL at the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) of 25 min. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 17.4 h. The area under the concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞) was 103.7 μg/ml−1h and the mean residence time (MRT0–∞) was 21.3 h. In comparison with other animal species, the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in Arabian camel calves showed faster absorption from the site of injection and slower elimination. Since cefquinome, as other beta-lactams, is a time-dependent antimicrobial agent, a single dose of 2 mg/kg b. w. might be sufficient against the most sensitive organisms in camel calves owing to its prolonged elimination phase. However, dose readjustment is required for cases needing concentrations above 2 µg/mL for 12 h or above 1 µg/mL for 24 h.
Authors:András Gáspárdy, Eszter Renkó, Bence Somoskői, András Bába and Sándor Cseh
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) carried out with frozen and fresh, diluted and chilled semen under field conditions. One hundred and twenty-nine mares of different breeds were included in the study. Eighty-one out of the 107 mares inseminated with fresh, chilled semen got pregnant. Seven pregnant mares aborted and 74 foals were born. Out of the 22 mares inseminated with frozen semen, 17 mares got pregnant. Two mares out of the 17 pregnant mares aborted and finally 15 healthy foals were born. No difference was found between the two groups in the ratio of the foals born (P > 0.05). The comparison of medians for the number of insemination cycles did not show significant differences. However, a significant difference (Kruskal–Wallis test, P = 0.014) was found in the number of the inseminations per conception in favour of frozen semen (2.5 vs. 1.8 with fresh chilled and frozen semen, respectively). The Cox regression revealed that the type of semen has a significant impact (P < 0.001) on the service period (duration of the insemination period): the use of frozen semen prolonged the insemination period. This could be due to management issues, since re-insemination with frozen semen took place after only one/a few missed oestrous cycles not used for AI.
Authors:Augusto Carluccio, Ippolito De Amicis, Monica Probo, Brunella Giangaspero and Maria Cristina Veronesi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of uterine prolapse in cows and assess its effects on survival and subsequent fertility. Of 33,450 calving cows considered retrospectively, 216 (0.6%) developed uterine prolapse. A higher prevalence was found in beef cows (n = 57/5,700 cows, 1%) compared to dairy cows (n = 157/27,750 cows, 0.6%). Treatment consisted of cleaning and replacing the uterus with local administration of antibiotics, and applying a harness for uterine containment. The recovery rate was 81.9% (n = 177), similar in dairy (n = 129; 81.1%) and beef (n = 48; 84.2%) cows. Of the 216 cows with uterine prolapse, 18 (8.3%) died before or immediately after treatment; 21 cows (9.7%) were voluntarily culled for economic reasons (low milk yield, low fertility, insufficient weight gain). All recovered dairy cows were artificially inseminated with semen of proven fertility after a voluntary waiting period of 50 days; the beef cows were naturally mated. Among the 172 inseminated/mated cows, 84.7% (n = 150) became pregnant (83.7% dairy cows, 87.5% beef cows), while 15.2% (n = 27) did not conceive. Recurrence of uterine prolapse at subsequent calvings was recorded in one dairy cow. Based upon the data presented here, treated cows with uterine prolapse showed high chances of survival and conception, and a low risk of recurrence.
Authors:Kenji Tsukano, Toshio Shimamori and Kazuyuki Suzuki
The objective of this study was to examine whether serum iron (Fe) concentration is useful as a prognostic biomarker for cows with acute coliform mastitis (ACM). Our study was composed of determining the reproducibility of serum Fe concentration as a prognostic criterion in cows with ACM (Study 1) and clarifying the sequential changes in serum Fe concentration in cattle that received endotoxin (Study 2). Seventy-seven cows with (n = 47) or without (n = 30) ACM were enrolled in Study 1. The proposed diagnostic cut-off value of serum Fe concentration indicating a poor prognosis of ACM based on the analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves was < 31.5 µg/dL. Ten young cattle aged 176.8 ± 23.7 days were enrolled in Study 2. Five young cattle received endotoxin (LPS group) and the remaining five received physiological saline (control group). Blood collections were carried out before endotoxin challenge (pre), and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after the challenge. As a result, a significant decrease in serum Fe concentration was not observed until 24 h after endotoxin challenge. Because in cows with clinical ACM it is difficult to know the time course after infection, the alteration in serum Fe concentrations alone may be an insufficient prognostic criterion.
Authors:László Lehner, Kálmán Czeibert and Gábor Nagy
In this study we described two different indications of ventriculo- and cystoperitoneal shunting (VPS, CPS) procedures in six dogs, including their clinical data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. One dog had moderate and two dogs had severe congenital hydrocephalus, one was presented with intracranial pressure elevation due to meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO) associated with congenital hydrocephalus, and two with quadrigeminal cysts (QC). VPS procedures were done in four and CPS in two dogs, using low-pressure valve systems. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 6 months and control MRI scans were also made. Significant improvement was detected in five cases during the short-term follow-up period (1 month) and in four cases in the medium-term follow-up (2–6 months). Major complications were found in two cases: one dog with acute-hypertensive hydrocephalus died one week after surgery, and in another case development of a chronic subdural haematoma and hygroma caused death 3 months after the surgery. Minor complications (e.g. subdural hygroma) were found in two cases. In cases of severe hydrocephalus or intracranial cysts, higher-pressure valve systems are recommended in order to prevent subdural hygroma. Transient postoperative clinical signs usually resolve within one week after the surgery.