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Authors: K. Kalantar, Z. Farzaneh, M. Eshkevar Vakili, M.H. Karimi, M. Asadi, S. Khosropanah and M. Doroudchi

Abstract

Introduction

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease causing a vast array of cardiovascular diseases. Adipophilin has been reported to be highly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. This study investigated the possible existence of auto-reactive T cells against an HLA-A02-restricted adipophilin-derived peptide as well as peptides from Epstein-barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and influenza (Flu) virus in patients with atherosclerosis.

Methods

HLA-A02 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was examined by flow cytometry. PBMCs from HLA-A02 individuals were stimulated with adipophilin, CMV, EBV, and Flu peptides at a concentration of 10 µM. Interferon (IFN)-γ production was evaluated in the culture supernatant using a commercial ELISA test.

Results

The levels of IFN-γ production against an HLA-A02-restricted adipophilin peptide and peptides from CMV, EBV, and Flu revealed no statistically significant differences between patients and healthy controls. However, we found a positive correlation between IFN-γ production against adipophilin and Body mass index (BMI) of patients (R = 0.8, P = 0.003), whereas no significant correlation was found in healthy controls (R = −0.267, P = 0.378). No correlation between BMI and IFN-γ production against CMV, EBV, or Flu peptides was found.

Discussion

Atherosclerotic patients with higher BMIs might have greater numbers of T cells against adipophilin that is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, autoimmune reactions may have a greater role in the development of atherosclerosis in individuals with higher BMI.

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Abstract

Objective

It has been shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to skeletal muscle hypertrophy; however, its mechanisms of cellular and molecular regulation are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of HIIT on muscle hypertrophy and major signal transduction pathways.

Design

12 male rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and HIIT. The exercise group performed 30-min HIIT in each session (5 × 4-min intervals running at 85–95% VO2max separated by 2-min active rest at 55–60% VO2max), 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and the expression of signal transduction pathway proteins were determined in the gastrocnemius muscle.

Results

In the HIIT group, the expression of IGF-I, IGF-IR Akt, p-Akt, AMPKα, p-AMPKα and follistatin increased significantly, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the expression of FoxO1, p-FoxO1, myostatin, ActRIIB, Smad2/3 and p-Smad2/3 (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the HIIT and control groups in the expression of mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K, and p-P70S6K (P > 0.05). In addition, CSA and gastrocnemius muscle weight increased significantly in the HIIT group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

HIIT induced muscle hypertrophy by improving IGF-I/Akt/FoxO and myostatin/Smad signal transduction pathways.

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Authors: Balazs Ittzes, Eva Szentkiralyi, Zoltan Szabo, Istvan Z. Batai, Ors Gyorffy, Tamas Kovacs, Istvan Batai and Monika Kerenyi

Abstract

Infection is one of the most feared hospital-acquired complications. Infusion therapy is frequently administered through a central line. Infusions facilitating bacterial growth may be a source of central line-associated bloodstream infections. On the other hand, medications that kill bacteria may protect against this kind of infection and may be used as a catheter lock.

In this study, we examined the impact of amiodarone on bacterial growth. Amiodarone is used for controlling cardiac arrhythmias and can be administered as an infusion for weeks. Standard microbiological methods have been used to study the growth of laboratory strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in amiodarone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amiodarone was determined. Bacterial growth from in use amiodarone syringes and giving sets was also investigated.

Most examined strains were killed within 1 min in amiodarone. The other strains were killed within 1 h. The MICs of amiodarone were <0.5–32 μg/mL.

Amiodarone infusion is unlikely to be responsible for bloodstream infections as contaminating bacteria are killed within 1 h. Amiodarone may also protect against central line infections if used as a catheter lock.

Open access
Authors: Balazs Ittzes, Eva Szentkiralyi, Zoltan Szabo, Istvan Z. Batai, Ors Gyorffy, Tamas Kovacs, Istvan Batai and Monika Kerenyi

Abstract

Infection is one of the most feared hospital-acquired complications. Infusion therapy is frequently administered through a central line. Infusions facilitating bacterial growth may be a source of central line-associated bloodstream infections. On the other hand, medications that kill bacteria may protect against this kind of infection and may be used as a catheter lock.

In this study, we examined the impact of amiodarone on bacterial growth. Amiodarone is used for controlling cardiac arrhythmias and can be administered as an infusion for weeks. Standard microbiological methods have been used to study the growth of laboratory strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in amiodarone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amiodarone was determined. Bacterial growth from in use amiodarone syringes and giving sets was also investigated.

Most examined strains were killed within 1 min in amiodarone. The other strains were killed within 1 h. The MICs of amiodarone were <0.5–32 μg/mL.

Amiodarone infusion is unlikely to be responsible for bloodstream infections as contaminating bacteria are killed within 1 h. Amiodarone may also protect against central line infections if used as a catheter lock.

Open access
Authors: Serra Örsten, Selay Demirci-Duarte, Tuğçe Ünalan-Altıntop, Aslı Çakar, Banu Sancak, Koray Ergünay and Cumhur Özkuyumcu

Abstract

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains are associated with vigorous clinical presentation and relapses. Initially reported from Asia, these variants have spread globally and become an emerging agent of significant health threat. This study was carried out to identify hvKP strains in a previously uninvestigated region and to evaluate the impact of commonly-employed phenotypic and genotypic markers as diagnostic assays. A total of 111 blood culture isolates, collected at a tertiary care center was investigated. The hvKP strains were sought by a string test and the amplification of partial magA, rmpA, iucA and peg344. All products were characterized via sequencing. Evidence for hvKP was observed in 10.8% via iucA amplification (7.2%), string test (2.7%) and magA amplification (0.9%). Specific products were not produced by assays targeting rmpA and peg344 genes. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns compatible with possible extensive or pan-antimicrobial resistance was noted in 66.7% of the hvKP candidate strains. Capsule type in the magA positive strain was characterized as K5. We have detected hvKP in low prevalence at a region with no prior documentation. Targetting the aerobactin gene via iucA amplification provided the most accurate detection in this setting. The epidemiology of hvKP in Anatolia requires elucidation for effective control and management.

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Authors: Amina Iftikhar, Faiza Jabeen, Maleeha Manzoor, Tahira Younis and Mussarat Shaheen

Abstract

World has been suffering from pandemic caused by mysterious Coronavirus. The novel member of Coronaviridae causing COVID-19 disease is named as SARS-Cov-2. Its first case was reported in China by the end of 2019, but its exponential spread has wrapped entire globe, suspended and is penalizing mankind. A retrospective meta-analysis study showed that outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and SARS-Cov-1 (Coronaviridae), influenza infection H1N1 and West-African Ebola caused lower mortality than this new pandemic COVID-19. Virus has appeared as a new human pathogen so to counter COVID-19 no specific vaccine, monoclonal antibodies have been manufactured till day. The outbreak of novel Coronavirus is treated with antimicrobial drugs but they have their own mild side effects. But the drastic spread of COVID-19 compels us also to use other ways to counter pandemic. Thus, passive immunization can be opted to hold back this mysterious virus. Passive immunization has been in use since early 20th century and showed its effectiveness against all previous infectious outbreaks including MERS and SARS-Cov-1 members of Coronaviridae. The review argues that convalescent plasma is an explicit option for containment of COVID-19 disease.

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Authors: M. Jung, I. Brizes, S. Wages, P. Ponce, M. Kang and P.D. Loprinzi

Abstract

No previous studies have evaluated the potential combined effects of acute exercise and acute hypoxia exposure on memory function, which was the purpose of this study. Twenty-five participants (Mage = 21.2 years) completed two laboratory visits in a counterbalanced order, involving 1) acute exercise (a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity exercise) and then 30 min of exposure to hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12), and 2) exposure to hypoxia alone (FIO2 = 0.12) for 30 min. Following this, participants completed a cued-recall and memory interference task (AB/AC paradigm), assessing cued-recall memory (recall 1 and recall 2) and memory interference (proactive and retroactive interference). For cued-recall memory, we observed a significant main effect for condition, with Exercise + Hypoxia condition having significantly greater cued-recall performance than Hypoxia alone. Memory interference did not differ as a function of the experimental condition. This experiment demonstrates that engaging in an acute bout of exercise prior to acute hypoxia exposure had an additive effect in enhancing cued-recall memory performance.

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Authors: Serra Örsten, Selay Demirci-Duarte, TuĞçe Ünalan-Altıntop, Aslı Çakar, Banu Sancak, Koray ErgÜnay and Cumhur Özkuyumcu

Abstract

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains are associated with vigorous clinical presentation and relapses. Initially reported from Asia, these variants have spread globally and become an emerging agent of significant health threat. This study was carried out to identify hvKP strains in a previously uninvestigated region and to evaluate the impact of commonly-employed phenotypic and genotypic markers as diagnostic assays. A total of 111 blood culture isolates, collected at a tertiary care center was investigated. The hvKP strains were sought by a string test and the amplification of partial magA, rmpA, iucA and peg344. All products were characterized via sequencing. Evidence for hvKP was observed in 10.8% via iucA amplification (7.2%), string test (2.7%) and magA amplification (0.9%). Specific products were not produced by assays targeting rmpA and peg344 genes. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns compatible with possible extensive or pan-antimicrobial resistance was noted in 66.7% of the hvKP candidate strains. Capsule type in the magA positive strain was characterized as K5. We have detected hvKP in low prevalence at a region with no prior documentation. Targetting the aerobactin gene via iucA amplification provided the most accurate detection in this setting. The epidemiology of hvKP in Anatolia requires elucidation for effective control and management.

Restricted access
Authors: Amina Iftikhar, Faiza Jabeen, Maleeha Manzoor, Tahira Younis and Mussarat Shaheen

Abstract

World has been suffering from pandemic caused by mysterious Coronavirus. The novel member of Coronaviridae causing COVID-19 disease is named as SARS-Cov-2. Its first case was reported in China by the end of 2019, but its exponential spread has wrapped entire globe, suspended and is penalizing mankind. A retrospective meta-analysis study showed that outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and SARS-Cov-1 (Coronaviridae), influenza infection H1N1 and West-African Ebola caused lower mortality than this new pandemic COVID-19. Virus has appeared as a new human pathogen so to counter COVID-19 no specific vaccine, monoclonal antibodies have been manufactured till day. The outbreak of novel Coronavirus is treated with antimicrobial drugs but they have their own mild side effects. But the drastic spread of COVID-19 compels us also to use other ways to counter pandemic. Thus, passive immunization can be opted to hold back this mysterious virus. Passive immunization has been in use since early 20th century and showed its effectiveness against all previous infectious outbreaks including MERS and SARS-Cov-1 members of Coronaviridae. The review argues that convalescent plasma is an explicit option for containment of COVID-19 disease.

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Authors: B. Sági, A. Peti, O. Lakatos, T. Gyimesi, E. Sulyok, I. Wittmann and Botond Csiky

Abstract

Objective

In this observational study we addressed accelerated arteriosclerosis (AS) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis (HD) by measuring vascular stiffness (VS) parameters and attempted to relate them to pro-inflammatory and protective factors.

Patients

96 consecutive patients receiving regular HD were included. 20 adult patients without major renal, cardiovascular or metabolic morbidities served as controls.

Methods

AS parameters (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity – PWV, aortic augmentation index – Aix) were measured by using applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Sidney). In addition to routine laboratory tests 25(OH) vitamin D3 (vitamin D3) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were quantified by immunometric assay; whereas fetuin-A, α-Klotho, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were determined by ELISA.

Results

Pro-inflammatory biomarkers (hsCRP, TNF-α and TGF-β1) were markedly elevated (P < 0.01), while anti-inflammatory factors (fetuin-A: P < 0.05, α-Klotho: P < 0.01, vitamin D3: P < 0.01) significantly depressed in HD patients when compared to controls. PWV was significantly affected only by total cholesterol, fetuin-A and dialysis time. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that several clinical and laboratory parameters were associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers rather than VS. The impact of baseline clinical and biochemical variables on outcome measures were also analyzed after three-year follow-up, and it was demonstrated that low levels of vitamin D, α-Klotho protein and fetuin-A were related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, whereas all-cause mortality was associated with elevated hsCRP and depressed vitamin D.

Conclusions

Our results provide additional information on the pathomechanism of accelerated AS in patients with CRF, and documented direct influence of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers on major outcome measures.

Open access