The recent paper by Aarseth et al. (2016) questioned whether problematic gaming should be considered a new disorder particularly because “Gaming Disorder” (GD) has been identified as a disorder to be included in the next (11th) revision of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).
This study uses contemporary literature to argue why GD should be included in the ICD-11.
Aarseth and colleagues acknowledge that there is much literature (including papers by some of the authors themselves) that some individuals experience serious problems with video gaming. How can such an activity be seriously problematic yet not disordered? Similar to other addictions, gaming addiction is relatively rare and is in essence a syndrome (i.e., a condition or disorder characterized by a set of associated symptoms that tend to occur under specific circumstances). Consequently, not everyone will exhibit exactly the same set of symptoms and consequences, and this partly explains why those working in the problematic gaming field often disagree on symptomatology.
Research into gaming is not about pathologizing healthy entertainment, but about pathologizing excessive and problematic behaviors that cause significant psychological distress and impairment in an individual’s life. These are two related, but (ultimately) very distinct phenomena. While being aware that gaming is a pastime activity which is enjoyed non-problematically by many millions of individuals worldwide, it is concluded that problematic gaming exists and that it is an example of disordered gaming.
This study was aimed to analyze the effect of two different megadoses of α-tocopherol (vit E) in the antioxidant activity and red and white blood series of Wistar rats after a 180-min ultraendurance probe. Three groups of 10 rats were analyzed; VEAG: acute administration of a megadoses of 5,000 IU/kg of vit E the day before the probe; VECG: chronic administration of 1,000 IU/kg/day of vit E for 6 days before the probe; CG: placebo administration. VEAG presented white cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin values significantly higher than CG and VECG (p < 0.05). The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and lymphocytes concentrations were significantly higher in the VECG than in the other two groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, VEAG presented a significantly higher vit E blood concentration than VECG and CG (p < 0.05), and VECG than CG (p < 0.05). Finally, we found a significantly positive correlation between trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and red blood cells concentration (r = 0.374) and a significantly inverse correlation between TEAC and blood lactate concentration (r = −0.365). Our findings suggest that acute vit E megadoses could protect against transitory sport anemia symptoms and increase the white blood cell count in comparison with the chronic dose and control groups after an ultraendurance probe.
In this work, a synthetic hydroxyapatite, Bio-gel HTP, marketed by BIO-RAD®, has been studied in order to propose a method
to remove the excess fluoride present in drinking water. The removal of fluoride ions by this adsorbent has been studied as
a function of solution pH, and fluoride ion concentration. Experiments of fluoride ions sorption have been carried out with
the use of 18F radiotracer in solutions of NaF at several concentrations with an ion selective electrode used for fluoride analysis. The
adsorption isotherms show that the best fluoride adsorption on hydroxyapatite occurs at a pH range of 7.0–7.5. At this pH
value the solid presents an important capacity of subtraction of fluoride, of around of 100 mmol/100 g.
Gaming applications have become one of the main entertainment features on smartphones, and this could be potentially problematic in terms of dangerous, prohibited, and dependent use among a minority of individuals. A cross-national study was conducted in Belgium and Finland. The aim was to examine the relationship between gaming on smartphones and self-perceived problematic smartphone use via an online survey to ascertain potential predictors.
The Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) was administered to a sample comprising 899 participants (30% male; age range: 18–67 years).
Good validity and adequate reliability were confirmed regarding the PMPUQ-SV, especially the dependence subscale, but low prevalence rates were reported in both countries using the scale. Regression analysis showed that downloading, using Facebook, and being stressed contributed to problematic smartphone use. Anxiety emerged as predictor for dependence. Mobile games were used by one-third of the respective populations, but their use did not predict problematic smartphone use. Very few cross-cultural differences were found in relation to gaming through smartphones.
Findings suggest mobile gaming does not appear to be problematic in Belgium and Finland.
The development of photopolymers was helped by the development of photocalorimetry, which is now a basic technique for the study of these materials. This work shows how to obtain vitrification times in single isothermal curing experiments by monitoring the reversing heat capacity along time in modulated temperature DSC–photocuring systems, overcoming the time-consuming problem of standard DSC. The effects of the light intensity and the isothermal curing temperature on the vitrification time of a photocurable system were evaluated. The results obtained at a given curing temperature with different light intensities indicate that the UV-light affects the molecular mobility hindering the vitrification process. The effects of the curing temperature on the vitrification time, the conversion at the vitrification time and the maximum conversion were also evaluated.
This study deals with the characterization of a marine sediments profile from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Ten sediment
samples obtained from a core of 18.3 m of length were analysed. Although there have been numerous marine sediments studies
carried out in Mexico, more are needed to better understand the sea floor formation. Crystallographic, morphologic, physical,
chemical and gamma ray activity analysis were carried out on the samples. The analysis results showed a decrease in organic
matter content as a function of sea depth; this value is related to the specific surface area. Some hazardous materials as
Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Hg were also identified by PIXE in some samples, probably due to anthropogenic activity. The presence of
uranium a naturally occurring element was found in all the samples, suggesting a migration through all materials of strata,
radioactive elements such as 226Ra, 235U, 212Pb, 214Pb, 228Ac, 208Ti, 214Bi, 228Ac and 40K were detected.
Twenty six elements was studied preliminary in the superficial sediments of Havana Bay using gamma activation analysis by
the electron accelerator microtron MT-25 at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. Samples from five zones of Havana
Bay including the three coves were analyzed. The obtained results show a close relation between the concentration levels of
the studied elements and the pollution sources. Some elements (As, Ba, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Mn) have high concentration
levels compared to the values for other environmental marine sediments reported in the literature.
A certified reference material designed for the determination of 129I in seawater, IAEA-418 (Mediterranean Sea water) is described and the results of certification are presented. The median
of 129I concentration with 95% confidence interval was chosen as the most reliable estimates of the true value. The median, given
as the certified value, is 2.28 × 108 atom L−1 (95% confidence interval is (2.16–2.73) 108 atom L−1), or 3.19 × 10−7 Bq L−1 (95% confidence interval is (3.02–3.82) × 10−7 Bq L−1). The material is intended to be used for standardization procedures applied in accelerator mass spectrometric laboratories.
It is available in 1 L units and may be ordered via IAEA web side (www.iaea.org).
A simple non-solid multimonitor HAV-1 for the systematic evaluation of reactor neutron flux parameters fork0 neutron activation analysis is presented. Solutions of Au, Zr, Co, Zn, Sn, U and Th (deposited in filter paper) are used to study the parameters andf. Dissolved Lu is used to neutron temperature (Tn) determination, according to the Wescott's formalism. A multipurpose multimonitor HAV-1 preparation, certification and evaluation is presented.
An epiphytic lichen (Physcia alba sp.) grown over Roystonea regia tree was used as biomonitor of air quality in the Havana City west side. During the survey, 81 sampling sites were selected
according to traffic and industry conditions. The concentration for 14 elements (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn,
Sr, Cd and Pb) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Contents
of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb obtained by both techniques were compared. Several biological reference materials (RM's) were analyzed
in order to assure the quality of analytical results. Some pollution sources were identified using principal component analysis.
A total of 5 factors were achieved, of which 4 could be interpreted in terms of anthropogenic pollution sources. However,
the expected correlation between traffic influence and lead concentration in lichen could not be demonstrated. The factor
values patterns are presented.