This study investigated lipid peroxidation (LPO) changes during intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion with and without deferoxamine or L-arginine treatment. White Wistar rats were allotted into four groups as follows: sham-operated (Group SOP), ischaemia-reperfusion only (Group I/R), I/R with deferoxamine (Group D) or L-arginine (Group A) treatment. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), overall concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-alkenals (LPO586), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of the jejunal homogenates were determined. The same analytes except LPO586 were assayed in RBC haemolysates. Measurements of ferric reducing ability (FRAP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations of plasma samples were also completed. The only significant change observed in the SOP group was an increased SOD activity after the ischaemic period. In the I/R group significant increase of intestinal LPO586 concentration was observed during hypoxia that was followed by similar changes in intestinal and RBC TBARS and plasma FRAP values upon reperfusion. In Group D the intestinal TBARS and LPO586 concentrations were significantly lower while FRAP and NO concentrations were significantly higher compared to the I/R group. At the same time RBC TBARS concentration and GPX activity significantly decreased within Group D. In Group A the intestinal LPO586 concentration was significantly lower than in the I/R group whilst RBC TBARS concentration showed a similar pattern. Plasma FRAP and NO concentration showed similar changes to those seen in Group D. It is concluded that I/R increased the LPO in the intestinal tissue and altered some parameters of plasma and RBCs, too. Deferoxamine treatment prevented these effects, while the usefulness of L-arginine remained doubtful.
Leading a blind or blindfolded person is a complex cooperative task influenced by many factors. The aim of this study was to determine if quality of attachment affects the performance of dog and owner dyads showed on an Obstacle Course. Modified Ainsworth's Strange Situation Test was used for assessing attachment quality. Only one dimension of the attachment, the 'anxiety' factor was found to correlate with behavioural measures of the Obstacle Course (e.g. number of mistakes, initialisation index that reflects which participant initiates more actions in a dyad). We found significant differences of performance between the three groups of dog-owner pairs (pet dog, guide dog and police dog dyads), but we could not show significant differences in the 'attachment' factor among these groups. We concluded that it is not the attachment type that causes the main differences in the leading behaviour of our three study groups. Dogs have an innate ability for cooperation with humans that was enhanced by selective breeding during domestication and this basic ability can be modified by training but seem to be less affected by the relationship with the owner.
Lymphomas of dogs were investigated by molecular genetic methods. Regions of exon 1 and 2 of the N-ras gene, which harbours the mutation hot spots (codons 12, 13 and 61) were screened. A GGT Ţ GAT (glycine Ţ aspartic acid) mutation in codon 13 was present in a multicentric-type lymphoma of a 1-year-old male dog.
A relatively homogeneous group of streptomycete isolates was obtained from netted scab lesions of potato tubers collected from a potato field in Hokkaido, Japan. Based on 55 phenotypic data of 72 Streptomyces strains selected from these isolates together with spectral data on their soluble pigments and with data of a PCR analysis, using species specific primers, these netted scab causing pathogenic organisms were identified as S. acidiscabies. S. acidiscabies had previously been isolated from deep (common) scab lesions in the USA and reported as thaxtomin A producer. In contrast, our S. acidiscabies strains were not able to induce deep scab symptoms on potato minitubers in pot test, did not produce the phytotoxin thaxtomin A and did not contain the pathogenicity related gene, nec-1.
Twenty-nine isolates of Malasseziapachydermatis were recovered from a single farm of 100 pigs in Croatia. In contrast, 290 farm pigs from other locations (northern parts of Croatia and Slovenia) yielded only two non-lipid dependent isolates of M. pachydermatis using the same swabbing procedure. Ten of the 29 isolates from a single farm had their identity confirmed by karyotyping, and were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. All but one of these isolates sub-typed were indistinguishable, one isolate produced a slightly different RFLP profile. Control isolates recovered from dog skin gave RFLP profiles that were easily distinguished from those produced by the pig isolates. These results suggest that a single strain of M. pachydermatis had colonised this pig herd.
Field surveys carried out between 1996 and 1997 in Cote d'Ivoire on weed hosts to detect the occurrence and subsistence of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) in nature show that rice and Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Link) harbour the virus. There was consistent detection of RYMV throughout the sampling period in rice samples mostly from the lowland varieties. It is thus evident that RYMV subsists more on rice in nature. This could serve as a source of inoculum for infection to newly transplanted rice in the field.
As locus-specific co-dominant PCR-based markers that allow semi-automated, high-throughput investigation technologies, microsatellites are ideal tools for genotype identification. Eleven of a set of 114 microsatellite markers available at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center proved to be suitable to distinguish between the parents of at least one of nine sweet pepper hybrid combinations. Markers with the highest information capacity were found to be capable of distinguishing between the parents of four different hybrid combinations and exhibited up to four different alleles in 18 haplotypes.
The use of poor quality water for agriculture is now receiving major attention especially in arid and semi-arid regions. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different irrigation water qualities on the grain yield and nutrient uptake of rice and on the heavy metal concentration in the grains. Six water treatments were applied at intervals of three days, involving either fresh water (FW), drainage water (DW), mixed water (MW), fresh water followed by drainage water (1FW + 1DW), two applications of fresh water followed by one of drainage water (2FW + 1DW) or one application of fresh water followed by two of drainage water (1FW + 2DW). The rice grain yield and the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were determined. The grains were also analysed for the concentration of nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The results showed that the grain yield, the uptake of N, P and K in the plant biomass and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains were significantly affected by the water quality. The rice grain yield exhibited a close correlation with the water quality. The highest grain yield was obtained in the FW treatment and the lowest yield in the DW treatment. The uptake of N, P and K was detrimentally affected by poor quality water. However, the uptake trend for these elements was similar across all the irrigation treatments. The concentrations of heavy metal in the grains were significantly higher in plots irrigated with poor quality water. Among the treatments the cumulative concentrations of heavy metal were in the order of: DW ≯1FW + 2DW ≯ MW ≯ 1FW + 1DW ≯ 2FW + 1DW ≯ FW. This study showed that there is a potential risk of heavy metal contamination in rice crops treated with poor quality water. The lower grain yield after irrigation with poor quality water could be due to the disturbed mineral nutrition or to relatively higher salt toxicity.
The genetic diversity of 116 spring bread wheat cultivars released in Kazakhstan from 1929-2004 was studied by means of a genealogical analysis. The tendency of genetic diversity to change over time was traced by analysing a series of n ´ m matrices, where n is the number of released cultivars and m is the number of landrace ancestors. The pool of landrace ancestors of spring wheat cultivars in 1929-2004 contained a total of 114 landraces and old varieties, including 19 from Kazakhstan and Central Asia and 23 from neighbouring regions of Russia. The original ancestors differ significantly in frequency of presence and hence in their importance in the genepool of spring wheats cultivated in Kazakhstan. Significant differences in the contributions of dominant ancestors to cultivars for various regions have been revealed, showing that those ancestors were specifically adapted to different growing conditions. During the past 75 years, genetic diversity has increased due to the wide use of foreign materials in breeding programmes. A more detailed study has shown that during the period analysed, 15 landraces from Kazakhstan and neighbouring regions of Central Asia and Russia (35% of local germplasm) were lost from the pedigrees. The cluster structure of modern cultivars included in the Kazakhstan Official List (2002) was established. By analysing coefficients of parentage, significant differences in the genetic diversity of cultivars from various growing regions were revealed.