Gamma exposure rate and radon levels were measured in 75 single-family dwellings in Mexico City in order to correlate them with local environment. Radon monitoring was performed both indoors and outdoors using a continuous working level monitor for short-lived radon decay products; the gamma exposure rate was measured using CaSO4: Dy+PTFE. The results obtained show a log-normal distribution. The mean indoor radon concentration is lower than 45 Bq/m3 and the mean indoor gamma exposure rate was 11.29 R/h.
Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. In recent years there have been federal mandates requiring us to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. As a result, substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users.
We have quantified the evolution during 1994 of the impact on the Tagus river of liquid releases of3H (51.3 TBq in the cited year), originating from the functioning of the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant, and conditioned by the management of the cooling reservoir water. Taking into account, on the one hand, that tritiated water is hydrodynamically indistinguishable from untritiated water when both form part of the same mass of liquid, and, on the other, the practically null stratification and forced circulation of the water in the cited cooling reservoir, together with the hydrological fluxes interchanged between the said reservoir and the Tagus river (which is entirely regulated in the section under study and, because of prolonged drought, had a relatively small flow during the study period), we were able to model satisfactorily the temporal evolution of the3H activity in the cooling reservoir.
In order to study the dissolution behavior of a highly burnt LWR fuel, a fuel pin irradiated in the DR3 test reactor in Risoe National Laboratory, has been characterized by microstructural examination and then dissolved under PUREX type conditions. The dissolution behavior was investigated and the residues analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and by ICP-MS and IDMS after dissolution.
Forest conversion to anthropogenic uses is a generalized phenomenon throughout tropical Latin America. We evaluated whether patches of secondary forest, which develop relatively rapidly after field abandonment, contribute to conservation of phyllostomid bat assemblages. Our objective was to compare patterns of phyllostomid bat abundance and the structure and composition of phyllostomid bat assemblages across three forest types in the northern neotropics of eastern Mexico. We studied phyllostomid bats within secondary evergreen, primary semi-deciduous, and primary evergreen forests. For each forest type, three representative sites were sampled with mist nets once during the dry season and once during the rainy season for a total of nine sites. Richness, diversity, and assemblage composition patterns were compared among forest types for all phyllostomid species, and for three groups of sensitivity to habitat fragmentation. Abundance of individual species was also compared among forest types. A total of 646 individual bats from 15 species, 11 of which were phyllostomids, were registered. Combining both seasons, more than 250 captures were accomplished at both the primary evergreen and secondary evergreen forests, and only 81 individuals were caught at primary semi-deciduous forests. Overall richness and diversity of species and sensitivity groups were greater in the rainy than the dry season. Richness was greater in secondary evergreen than in primary semi-deciduous forests, and diversity was greatest in the primary evergreen, intermediate in the secondary evergreen, and lowest in the primary semi-deciduous forest. Some overlap in composition was also evident, although there was separation between forest types and seasons. Mean abundances were higher for some species at primary evergreen and secondary evergreen forests, but were threefold lower (though not significantly) in secondary evergreen forests in the dry season for some other species. We also found that primary evergreen forests have the greatest importance for phyllostomids during the dry season. These results suggest that maintenance of secondary evergreen forests, which cover a large proportion of the northeastern Mexican neotropics, would contribute to the conservation of diverse tropical bat communities. Therefore, large areas of this forest type should necessarily be incorporated in the landscape.
The effect of sequential treatments of pressure (50–150 MPa, 10 ºC, 5 min) and temperature (57 ºC, 15 min) on the survival and bacteriocin production of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2 cells in the exponential growth phase was assessed. The growth curves were fitted with the modified Gompertz model, and the estimated maximum specific growth rate was considered to be pressure dependent. A delay in the maximum value of bacteriocin production was registered for more severe pressure conditions, but it was found more notorious for pressure followed by temperature treatments. At lower pressure intensity treatment, regardless of the application order, there was an enhancement of bacteriocin production per cell when compared to the control while maintaining the maximum production value. Bacteriocin production after the treatments can be described by an exponential model.
Excoecaria lucida Sw. is an evergreen shrub widely distributed in Cuba and throughout the Caribbean region. In spite of its extended traditional use as antiasthmatic and antimicrobial by the local population, scientific reports on the species are almost nonexistent. This paper focuses on the isolation and characterization of compounds present in the crude extract of E. lucida Sw. leaves through the combined use of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (medium pressure liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance 1H, and mass spectrometry). A total of 15 nonpolar substances were identified in the four main fractions obtained; some of these substances could be related with the antimicrobial properties attributed to the species.
Tomato is rich in different bioactive compounds, especially the carotenoid lycopene, which intake is associated with various health benefits. Post-harvest use of ultraviolet light (UV) and light-emitting diode (LED) has been shown to increase the concentration of tomato bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (A and C) and red-blue LED light on the concentration of carotenoids during a 7-days storage trial of mature green tomatoes. Exposure to combined UV and LED light nearly doubled the total carotenoid concentration and had no negative impact on sensory attributes.
The analysis of polymorphic markers within or closely linked to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene is useful as a molecular tool for carrier detection of known and unknown mutations. To establish the association between mutations in the CFTR gene in western Mexican cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, the distribution of XV2c/KM19 haplotypes was analyzed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in 384 chromosomes from 74 CF patients, their unaffected parents, and normal subjects.The haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype B was present in 71.9% of CF chromosomes compared to 0% of non-CF chromosomes. The F508del and G542X mutations were strongly associated with haplotype B (96.7% and 100% of chromosomes, respectively). The haplotype distribution of the CF chromosomes carrying other CFTR mutations had a more heterogeneous background.Our results show that haplotype B is associated with CFTR mutations. Therefore, haplotype analysis is a suitable alternate strategy for screening CF patients with a heterogeneous clinical picture from populations with a high molecular heterogeneity where carrier detection programs are not available. In addition, it may be a helpful diagnostic tool for genetic counseling and carrier detection in the relatives of CF patients and in couples who are planning to have children.
Five elite blue maize hybrids and two blue maize landraces were evaluated for various quality characteristics. Hybrids showed physical characteristics demanded by dry-millers and tortilla processors: above 290 g in one hundred-kernel weight test, higher test weight (76.1–78.5 kg hl−1) and lower flotation index (22–61%). Hybrid maize 613 × 27 (9.9%) and 611 × 8 (9.5%) contained the highest protein. Potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc contents of hybrid maize were higher than landraces by 15, 30, 55 and 41%, respectively. Nutrimental profile showed linoleic acid contents above 50% in 503 × 67, 613 × 27 and 611 × 8 hybrid samples. Lysine levels of landraces and hybrids 503 × 67 (33.9 g kg−1 protein) and 631 × 27 (31.7 g kg−1 protein) were higher than reported for regular white corn (27 g kg−1 protein), as well as the highest tryptophan levels for Chalqueno (6.0 g kg−1 protein) and hybrid 503 × 67 (6.9 g kg−1 protein). Highest protein quality based on its digestibility was found in hybrid 503 × 67. Results indicated that elite blue maize hybrids could be an important source of nutrimental compounds with potential for functional food industries.