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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K. Szentmihályi, A. Blázovics, I. Kocsis, Edit Fehér, B. Lakatos, and Péter Vinkler

The metabolic alteration of fatty liver causes significant changes in the composition of bile fluid secreted by epithelial liver cells. These processes include both organic molecular and inorganic ion content changes in bile juice as well. In this work ion concentration differences of bile fluid in experimental hyperlipidemic rats compared to normal ones were monitored. Fatty liver in young male Wistar albino rats was induced by 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to the normal food and 3% alcoholic water was administered to rats for 9 days. The development of hyperlipidemy was detected by measuring serum parameters and fatty liver was proved by morphological investigations. The ion concentrations of bile fluid samples were determined by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The bile fluid samples were digested with a mixture of HNO3 and H2 O2 . The results show that the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in bile juice increased significantly in hyperlipidemic rats compared to the control. Significant concentration changes have also been detected for chromium and manganese. The changes in metal ion metabolism also point to the damage of liver cells owing to metal complex evacuation.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: É. Sárdi, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, I. Kocsis, M. Takács-Hájos, H. Fébel, and A. Blázovics

Of the twenty table beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta convar. crassa provar. conditiva ALEF.) cultivars investigated for several nutritionally important components (betaine, betanin, phenol, glucose, fructose, sucrose) formerly (Hájos et al., 2004), cultivar Ditroit having average quality parameters was chosen for in vitro animal experiments. The hyperlipidemic rat model is suitable to study the physiological effect of table beet on the metabolic alterations and the redox homeostasis in the liver. In fatty liver, as a consequence of hyperlipidemy, the redox homeostasis is strongly injured. General biologically active compounds of table beet have indirect lipid lowering effect and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the effect of lyophilised table beet powder was studied on altered lipid metabolism and redox parameters in hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemy was induced by a fat-rich diet, and both in the control group and in the hyperlipidemic group, animals were treated with the lyophilised table beet powder (2 g bwkg −1 ) added into rat chow for 10 days parallel with the feeding. Significant antioxidant activity of table beet was recorded in the hyperlipidemic liver. This phenomenon was expected because of the significant amount of betanin and the high total polyphenol content of the beet. Significant beneficial changes were also observed in the serum cholesterol level, alkaline phosphatase and alanine-aminotransferase activities, although a non-expected elevation was observed in the serum bilirubin level in hyperlipidemy. Non-specific H-donor activity was not changed, but protein related free SH-group concentration was decreased in the plasma. Serum triglyceride level was better after table beet treatment in normolipidemy, only. Change of redox-homeostasis was more favourable in the liver during the treatment. Diene conjugate content and the level of induced free radicals decreased during the table beet treatment in case of fatty liver. These changes were due to the bioactive components of the commercially available table beet. Consequently, table beet due to its specific qualities beneficially influences several metabolic pathways, therefore it can be considered as a functional food.

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Free radical production and disturbance in the redox status may modulate the expression of a variety of immune and inflammatory molecules. Antioxidants could inhibit the proliferation of T lymphocytes induced by mitogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the infusion of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on T-cell-mediated immune response. We examined the effect of the infusion on spontaneous and mitogen-induced blast transformation of human lymphocytes in vitro. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from heparinised venous blood of healthy subjects (n=17) were examined. Five and 10 mg ml-1 phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 5 mg ml-1 pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were added. Depending on the concentration, calyx infusion of H. sabdariffa decreased mitogen-induced blastogenesis in normal subjects. It did not affect, however, the level of spontaneous proliferation of human lymphocytes in vitro. The infusion of hibisci flos may alleviate over-stimulated condition of the immune system in hypersensitivity conditions.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Blázovics, H. Fébel, G. Bekő, D. Kleiner, K. Szentmihályi, and É. Sárdi

The effect of polyphenolic bioactive substances, especially resveratrol (12.03 mg l−1), of an often consumed Hungarian red wine was investigated in a short term rat experiment. Male young Wistar albino rats were treated with high volumes of red wine (matching one bottle of wine/day for a 85 kg man) (N=5) and another alcoholic drink of the same alcohol concentration (N=5), corresponding to the circumstances of alcoholism, and 5 rats were in the control group. A total of 7 routine laboratory parameters were measured from the sera by kits.

The changes of redox homeostasis (H-donor activity, induced chemiluminescence, diene-conjugates, GSHPx) were studied in blood plasma and/or in liver homogenates by spectrophotometric and luminometric methods. Transmethylation property of the liver was measured by overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) technique. It was proven with in vitro OPLC analytical study that resveratrol reacted with methyl groups, and resveratrol was demonstrated to influence transmethylation processes as well as redox homeostasis. Red wine compounds do not protect from the harmful effects of alcohol, and even by high doses of resveratrol, the liver further deteriorates and the negative effect of alcohol increases. It has been confirmed that high doses of resveratrol do not provide protection against liver damage in those suffering from alcoholism.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Blázovics, E. Fehér, I. Kocsis, E. Rapavi, E. Székely, L. Váli, and K. Szentmihályi

In general, biologically active polyphenolic compounds have indirect lipid lowering effects, antioxidant properties and they can also eliminate the accumulated toxic metal elements in the liver in cases of hyperlipidemy. Because of all these, we studied the effect of Beiqishen tea on altered lipid metabolisms, redox parameters and on liver metal contents. Although it was expected, there was not any liver protecting activity of the Beiqishen tea extract in the hyperlipidemic rat model, which was proved by biochemical and morphological studies. The reason for our expectation was the significant polyphenol content of Beiqishen tea. Although, the detoxifying activity of tea polyphenols could be observed in hyperlipidemy, at the same time toxic metal element content (As, Mo, Ni, Pb and Cr) of the tea infusion accumulated in the liver in both normo- and hyperlipidemic rats.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: T. Ábel, A. Blázovics, A. Wimmer, G. Bekő, B. Gaál, B. Blazics, M. Eldin, J. Fehér, I. Szabolcs, and G. Lengyel

The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity is actually a topic of intense research nowadays. In this study we investigated the effect of moderate consumption of white wine in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two patients with metabolic syndrome participated in this prospective, randomised, double-blind study. The subjects received either Müller-Thurgau (n=14) or Pintes (n=18) sort of wine for 4 weeks. Male and female subjects consumed 300 ml wine (30 g alcohol) and 200 ml wine (20 g alcohol) per day, respectively. Clinical and laboratory parameters were determined before and after the period of wine consumption. The HOMA-IR showed a significant decrease upon the consumption of both sorts of wine as compared to the baseline (Müller-Thurgau group: 1.85±2.1 vs. 1.06±0.6; P=0.03; Pintes group: 2.28±2.04 vs. 1.08±0.6; P=0.002). Four weeks of wine consumption lead to significant decreased of ALT (alanine aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.002) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.02). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels increased significantly in both groups (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.004; Pintes group: P=0.001). The plasma reducing capacity increased significantly upon the consumption of both sorts of wine (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.002; Pintes group: P=0.001). In patients consuming Müller-Thurgau there was a significant decrease of total cholesterol (5.4±1.4 vs. 4.9±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.006) and LDL-cholesterol (3.9±1.1 vs. 3.6±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.04) levels. In the Pintes group we found no significant difference either in total cholesterol (5.1±0.6 vs. 5.0±0.7 mmol l−1; P=0.25) or LDL-cholesterol (3.6±0.6 vs. 3.6±0.6 mmol l−1; P=0.5) concentrations. The results of our study confirm that moderate consumption of white wine increases insulin sensitivity and EGF levels in persons with metabolic syndrome.

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