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A study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes activity, proximate and nutritional composition of four medicinal plants, which may contribute to folk pharmacological use in the treatment of different diseases. Plant samples were extracted and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxide (APX) activity were estimated. Medicinal plants were also analysed for moisture, ash, protein, fibre, carbohydrate, and fats contents. Plant samples were wet digested and mineral composition in terms of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na) was determined. The results revealed that antioxidant activity, proximate and nutritional composition differs significantly among tested medicinal plants extract. The leaves of medicinal plants showed more proximate composition (moisture contents, crude protein, fats contents), nutrient accumulation (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na), and antioxidant enzymes (POD, PPO, and APX activity). Among medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris L. showed the highest amount of crude protein, crude fibre, gross energy, and N and Ca contents. Maximum K, Mg, Na contents, POD, PPO and APX activity was observed in Cenchrus ciliaris L. The ash, fats, phosphorus and SOD activity was more in Euphorbia hirta L. While, Cyperus rotundus L. produced maximum carbohydrates concentration among the tested plants. It is concluded that the target medicinal species had emerged as a good source of the antioxidant and nutritive source, which could play an important role in human nutrition. The extracts of these plants parts can be used in the synthesis of mineral and antioxidant-containing drugs and medicines. This study will provide a baseline for the pharmacology industry.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
S. K. Durrani
,
K. Saeed
,
A. H. Qureshi
,
M. Ahmad
,
M. Arif
,
N. Hussain
, and
T. Mohammad

Abstract

Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) nano-crystalline powders were successfully grown using cost effective sol spray process without the addition of any chelating agent or organic templates. Thermal decomposition behavior was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Results revealed that crystallization of YAG started around 920 °C. The shrinkage/expansion behavior of synthesized powder was examined by dilatometer and revealing that sintering kinetics of these materials can be related to the evaporation of binder and formation of crystalline phases. Nano-crystallinity and garnet structure of YAG and Nd-YAG specimens were analyzed by Raman, fourier transform infra red (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD patterns were indexed using Rietveld refinement method. Smaller lattice parameter and a small change in atomic position of oxygen were found in Nd-YAG when compared with YAG structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results indicated that particle size of Nd-YAG was <150 nm. The morphology of Nd-YAG nanosized powder was rounded in shape.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Azazahemad A. Kureshi
,
Chirag Dholakiya
,
Tabaruk Hussain
,
Amit Mirgal
,
Siddhesh P. Salvi
,
Pritam C. Barua
,
Madhumita Talukdar
,
C. Beena
,
Ashish Kar
,
T. John Zachariah
,
Premlata Kumari
,
Tushar Dhanani
,
Raghuraj Singh
, and
Satyanshu Kumar

Xanthones are well recognized as chemotaxonomic markers for the plants belonging to the genus Garcinia. Xanthones have many interesting pharmacological properties. Efficient extraction and rapid liquid chromatography methods are essentially required for qualitative and quantitative determination of xanthones in their natural sources. In the present investigation, fruit rinds extracts of 8 Garcinia species from India, were prepared with solvents of varying polarity. Identification and quantification of 3 xanthones, namely, α-mangostin, β-mangostin, and γ-mangostin in these extracts were carried out using a rapid and validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection (UHPLC–PDA) method at 254 nm. γ-Mangostin (3.97 ± 0.05 min) was first eluted, and it was followed by α-mangostin (4.68 ± 0.03 min) and β-mangostin (5.60 ± 0.04 min). The calibration curve for α-mangostin, β-mangostin, and γ- mangostin was linear in the concentration range 0.781–100 μg/mL. α-Mangostin was quantified in all 4 extracts of Garcinia mangostana. Its content (%) in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of G. mangostana was 10.36 ± 0.10, 4.88 ± 0.01, 3.98 ± 0.004, and 0.044 ± 0.002, respectively. However, the content of α-mangostin was below the limit of detection or limit of quantification in the extracts of other Garcinia species. Similarly, β-mangostin was quantified only in hexane (1.17 ± 0.01%), chloroform (0.39 ± 0.07%), and ethyl acetate (0.28 ± 0.03%) extracts of G. mangostana. γ-Mangostin was quantified in all 4 extracts of G. mangostana. Its content (%) in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of G. mangostana was 0.84 ± 0.01, 1.04 ± 0.01, 0.63 ± 0.04, and 0.15 ± 0.01, respectively. γ-Mangostin was also quantified in hexane (0.09 ± 0.01), chloroform (0.05 ± 0.01), and ethyl acetate (0.03 ± 0.01) extracts of G. cowa, ethyl acetate extract of G. cambogia (0.02 ± 0.01), G. indica (0.03 ± 0.01), and G. loniceroides (0.07 ± 0.01). Similarly, γ-mangostin was quantified in 3 extracts of G. morella, namely, hexane (0.03 ± 0.01), chloroform (0.04 ± 0.01), and methanol (0.03 ± 0.01). In the case of G. xanthochymus, γ-mangostin was quantified in chloroform (0.03 ± 0.001) extract only. α-Mangostin and β-mangostin were not detected in any of 4 extracts of G. pedunculata.

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