An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric multivariable regression procedure is described for the determination of titanium and
molybdenum in special steels and alloys in the concentration range from 9.41% down to 120 μg/g using Ti Kα1,2 and Mo Kα1,2 analyte lines. In general, better results have been achieved in first order base curve polynomials using LiF (200) crystal
in combination with scintillation counter (SC) or krypton proportional counter (KPC). However, LiF (220)+SC combination also
yields favorable results for Mo. The measured concentrations of Ti and Mo for BAS alloy steel standards agree very well with
their certified values. The automated XRFS method for the determination of Ti and Mo appears to be free from matrix effects
and is suitable for their measurement in special steels and alloys down to 120 μg/g concentration of Ti with a precision of
3.2% and an accuracy of ±2.5% and for Mo down to 350 μg/g with a precision of <1% and an accuracy of ±1.1%. The sensitivities
for these lowest concentrations are calculated to be 5960 counts/mass %/s and 8000 counts/mass %/s for Ti and Mo, respectively.
Thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermal degradation kinetics, FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD)
analysis of synthesized glycine–montmorillonite (Gly–MMT) and montmorillonite bound dipeptide (Gly–Gly–MMT) along with pure
Na–MMT samples have been performed. TG analysis at the temperature range 25–250 °C showed a mass loss for pure Na–MMT, Gly–MMT
and Gly–Gly–MMT of about 8.0%, 4.0% and 2.0%, respectively. DTA curves show the endothermic reaction at 136, 211 and 678 °C
in pure Na–MMT whereas Gly–MMT shows the exothermic reaction at 322 and 404 °C and that of Gly–Gly–MMT at 371 °C. The activation
energies of the first order thermal degradation reaction were found to be 1.64 and 9.78 kJ mol−1 for Gly–MMT and Gly–Gly–MMT, respectively. FTIR analyses indicate that the intercalated compounds decomposed at the temperature
more than 250 °C in Gly–MMT and at 250 °C in Gly–Gly–MMT.
The complexation of uranyl ion with acetate ions was investigated in 20% ethanolic solution by using cyclic voltammetry. The
uranium formed 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with acetate ions. The values of log β1 and log β2 for uranyl acetate complexes were 2.05 ± 0.08 and 5.25 ± 0.06 respectively. The diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous rate
constants for the reduction of uranyl ion at hanging mercury drop electrode in 20% ethanolic solution of acetate ions were
0.43 × 10−5 cm2 s−1 and 2.26 × 10−3 cm s−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated by finding the effect of temperature on the heterogeneous rate
constants. The values of ΔH*, ΔS* and
Production of radioactive scandium by irradiating natural titanium metal in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 was evaluated. The
production rate of 47Sc and other radioactive scandium was estimated. High specific activity 47Sc can be produced by irradiating enriched 47Ti in sufficient quantities needed for therapeutic applications. A new separation technique based on column chromatography
was developed. Neutron irradiated titanium was dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, which was evaporated and taken in distilled
water. The resulting solution was loaded on silica gel column. The radioactive scandium comes out first and the inactive titanium
is removed with 2 M HCl. More than 95% radioactive scandium was recovered, while chemical impurity of titanium determined
by optical emission spectroscopy was less than 0.01 μg/mL in final product.
A diallel cross involving six wheat varieties, namely Sehar 06, Punjab 96, GA 2002, Barani 83, Kohistan 97 and Chakwal 86 was carried out to determine the mode of gene action for some physio-morphological traits under water stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. Additive type of gene action with partial dominance was observed for flag leaf area, stomatal frequency, leaf venation, days to heading and spike density while 100-grain weight was controlled by over dominance. Additive type of gene actions shows the fruitfulness of early selection for the traits while over dominance type of gene action indicates selection in later generations. Epistasis was absent for all the traits studied.
Large columns containing aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or gel (e.g. zirconium molybdate) are needed to prepare 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo→99mTc column chromatographic generators that results in large elution volumes containing relatively high 99Mo impurity and low concentrations of 99mTc. The decrease in radioactive concentration or specific volume concentration of 99mTc places a limitation on some pharmaceutical kits (DTPA, MIBI, ECD, etc.) or clinical procedures. We report on the post elution
concentration of 99mTc using in house prepared lead cation-exchange and alumina columns. Using these columns high bolus volumes (10–60 mL 0.02M
sodium sulfate) of 99mTc can conveniently be concentrated in 1 mL of physiological saline. This approach also works very effectively to prepare
high specific volume solutions of 99mTc-pertechnetate from a fission based 99Mo/99mTc generator in the second week of its normal working life.
Effects of humidity and light conditions /fluoroscent light, sunlight and diffuse sunlight/ on the response of 2 mm thick clear polymethylmethacrylate /PMMA/ dosimeter during irradiation and during postirradiation storage were determined spectrophotometrically at 305 and 314 nm. The results showed that irradiation of dosimeters at 12–97% relative humidity did not result in any change in the response upto 2 weeks of post-irradiation storage. However, there is some decrease in the response at higher humidities />76%/ for longer storage time. Post-irradiation storage and dosimeters at constant relative humidity conditions between 35 and 97% had no effect on the response up-to 3 weeks. Post-irradiation storage at lower relative humidity /12%/ showed some decrease in the response for longer periods. The response of dosimeter is not very sensitive to short time exposure to diffuse sunlight and fluorescent light. However, a significant increase in the optical density was observed during exposure of dosimeters to direct sunlight.