Production of radioactive scandium by irradiating natural titanium metal in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 was evaluated. The
production rate of 47Sc and other radioactive scandium was estimated. High specific activity 47Sc can be produced by irradiating enriched 47Ti in sufficient quantities needed for therapeutic applications. A new separation technique based on column chromatography
was developed. Neutron irradiated titanium was dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, which was evaporated and taken in distilled
water. The resulting solution was loaded on silica gel column. The radioactive scandium comes out first and the inactive titanium
is removed with 2 M HCl. More than 95% radioactive scandium was recovered, while chemical impurity of titanium determined
by optical emission spectroscopy was less than 0.01 μg/mL in final product.
The lyophilized MIBI kit was dissolved in 1 ml sterile saline or 250mg/ml
ascorbic acid and dispensed into 0.2 ml fractions, which were stored at -20 °C for 12 days. The solution was prepared by using
two different protection methods. In the first method evacuated vials were used for storage of fractionated solution while
in the second method an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid was employed. The radiochemical impurity of 99mTc-MIBI in the unprotected fractions rises with time. Exclusion of air as well addition of ascorbic acid in fractionated solutions
gave very good results. The labeling efficiency and biodistribution of fractionated solutions was the same as the lyophilized
kit even after 12 days.
Large columns containing aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or gel (e.g. zirconium molybdate) are needed to prepare 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo→99mTc column chromatographic generators that results in large elution volumes containing relatively high 99Mo impurity and low concentrations of 99mTc. The decrease in radioactive concentration or specific volume concentration of 99mTc places a limitation on some pharmaceutical kits (DTPA, MIBI, ECD, etc.) or clinical procedures. We report on the post elution
concentration of 99mTc using in house prepared lead cation-exchange and alumina columns. Using these columns high bolus volumes (10–60 mL 0.02M
sodium sulfate) of 99mTc can conveniently be concentrated in 1 mL of physiological saline. This approach also works very effectively to prepare
high specific volume solutions of 99mTc-pertechnetate from a fission based 99Mo/99mTc generator in the second week of its normal working life.
The synthesis of 188Re-MAG3 is described using 188Re, which was obtained from the alumina based 188W/188Re generator. Dependence of the radiolabeling yields of 188Re-MAG3 on reducing agent concentration, Bz-MAG3 concentration, pH, temperature and incubation time was examined. In the case of optimum conditions the yield of 188Re-MAG3 was 98%. TLC and HPLC techniques were employed to monitor the different species formed. Biodistribution study of 188Re-MAG3 was carried out in rats and compared with behavior of 99mTc-MAG3.
Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross-sections were measured for the reactions64Zn(n, p)64Cu,67Zn(n, p)67Cu and68Zn(n, )65Ni by the activation technique, using radiochemical separations and -spectroscopy. The preparation of64Cu and67Cu in a nuclear reactor was studied. The64, 67Cu was separated from zinc matrix activity using anion exchange column technique.
Production of Copper-64 (64Cu) by irradiating copper and zinc metals in a reactor was evaluated. Low specific activity 64Cu can be easily produced using thermal neutrons via 63Cu (n,γ) 64Cu reaction, while use of fast neutrons are mandatory for high specific activity 64Cu via 64Zn (n,p) 64Cu reaction. Natural copper and zinc targets were irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1. Radionuclidic impurities produced
by thermal and fast neutrons were determined. Commonly available organic anion exchange resin (AG 1-X8) was used for the separation
of no-carrier-added radiocopper from neutron irradiated zinc. More than 95% 64,67Cu was recovered. The radionuclidic and chemical purity of 64Cu was determined. The specific activity of 64Cu produced by 63Cu (n,γ) and 64Zn (n,p) was compared.
Technetium-99m is the short-lived daughter product of the parent molybdenum-99, which is mainly produced by the fission of
uranium-235. Management of radioactive waste is an integral part of fission 99Mo production and has high priority during the planning, design, construction and operational phase of a molybdenum-99 production
facility. Within the licensing procedure the strategy of waste management, including the route for the spent targets and long
lived fission products has to be described and approved by the responsible authorities. Waste will be generated as solids,
liquids, and gases, and will include material in the low, intermediate and even highly radioactive categories. Initial treatment
of waste streams is usually required at the production site, prior to short or long term storage. This technology is established
and generally available in countries with an existing nuclear industry, such as Pakistan. In some instances storage facilities
may need to be constructed. On site, treatment of gaseous waste will be carried out in the production facility while off-site
treatment will be performed for solids and liquid radioactive waste.
Effect of various amounts of reagents on the quality of99mTc–Sn-colloid has been studied, and a simple and reproducible method for its preparation particularly suitable for hospital pharmacy has been developed. PVP has been used as a stabilizing agent. A quick method of its bio-distribution has also been described.
Kanamycin is an antibiotic used for treatment of infections when penicillin or other less toxic drugs cannot be used. Kanamycin
was labeled with technetium-99m pertechnetate using SnCl2. 2H2O as reducing agent. The labeling efficiency depends on the ligand/reductant ratio, pH, and volume of reaction mixture. Radiochemical
purity and stability of 99mTc-Kanamycin was determined by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution studies of 99mTc-Kanamycin were performed in rats and rabbits. A significantly higher accumulation of 99mTc-Kanamycin was seen at sites of S. aureusinfected animals (rat/rabbit).
99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid [99mTc(V) DMSA], a useful agent for imaging thyroid medullary carcinoma and other tumors can be reliably prepared by addition of Na99mTcO4 to a freeze-dried mixture of DMSA and Sn (2:1 molar ratio). The radiochemical purity, stability and animal bio-distribution behaviour is similar to that of the agent made by addition of NaHCO3 to DMSA (III) renal imaging freeze-dried kit.