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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
A. Souza
,
H. Danta
,
M. Silva
,
I. Santos
,
V. Fernandes
,
F. Sinfrônio
,
L. Teixeira
, and
Cs. Novák

Abstract  

The biodiesel obtained by transesterification by reaction between ester and an alcohol in the presence of catalyst. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the thermal and kinetic behavior of the methanol biodiesel derived from cotton oil. The quality analysis was done by gas chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H NMR) in order to examine if the product meets with the requirements of the European Standard EN 1403. The thermogravimetric profile of the cotton biodiesel indicated that the decomposition steps are associated to the volatilization and/or decomposition of the methyl esters. Kinetic data was also obtained by thermal analysis.

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Abstract  

This paper studies the effect of molecular mass on the melting temperature, enthalpy and entropy of hydroxy-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). It aims to correlate the thermal behaviour of PEO polymers and their variation of molecular mass (MW). Samples ranging from 1500 to 200,000 isothermally treated at 373 K during 10 min, were investigated using DSC and Hot Stage Microscopy (HSM). On the basis of DSC and HSM results, melting temperatures were determined, and melting enthalpies and entropies were calculated. Considering the melting temperatures, it was found that the maximum or critical value of MW was found around 4000, and then these remain almost constant. This behaviour was interpreted assuming that lower MW fractions (MW<4000) crystallize in the form of extended chains and higher MW fractions (MW>4000), as folded chains. The melting enthalpies showed a scattering effect at least up to MW 35,000. It was difficult to obtain any relationship between melting enthalpies in J g–1 and MW. These variations seem to be of statistical nature. Corrected enthalpy data on a molar basis (kJ mol–1) exhibited a linear relationship with MW. Considering the solid—liquid equilibrium, the melting entropies (in kJ mol–1) were calculated. These values were more negative as compared with molar enthalpy increases. It was explained because the changes in melting temperatures are much smaller than those observed in the enthalpy values. Linear relationship between enthalpies andentropies as a function of MW was deduced.

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Abstract  

A number of 30 [Co(en)3 ]Y3 , [Co(en)2 X2 ]Y and [Co(en)2 X(amine)]Y2 type complexes (X =Cl, Br; Y =Cl, Br, I, NCO, NCS, NO3 , ClO4 , etc.; amine =aromatic and alkylamines) were obtained from trans-[Co(en)2 Cl2 ]Cl by double decomposition and by substitution reactions, respectively. The structure of the complexes was proved by means of far and middle FTIR spectra. The thermal decomposition was studied by TG, DTA and DSC measurements. Mass spectra were also recorded. In the case of [Co(en)3 ]Y3 complexes the nitrate, perchlorate and dimesoperiodates decompose suddenly, frequently explosion like. The halides and thiocyanates seem to substitute an ethylenediamine ligand, yielding a rather unstable intermediate. The pyrolysis of [Co(en)2 X2 ]Y type derivatives yields no relatively stable intermediates, but the decomposition temperatures may be correlated with the nature of Y and with the cis or trans configuration of the compound. With the [Co(en)2 X(amine)]Y2 type complexes one observes the formation of [Co(en)2 XY]Y as intermediate product. From the TG curves kinetic parameters were derived for some dehydration and deamination processes, by using the nomogram method. The validity of a non-linear kinetic compensation law was observed.

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Abstract  

The paper presents a thermogravimetric study of some aromatic poly- and copolyethers, using mass spectrometry technique combined with thermogravimetric analysis. The polymers were synthesized by phase transfer catalysis technique, using bis(2-chloroethyl)-ether or 1,6-dichlorohexane as flexible spacers and various bisphenols (4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl, 4,4'-dihydroxyazobenzene and bisphenol A). The presence of azobenzenic moieties in the chain induces a liquid crystalline behavior, but, due to the high values of the transition temperature, some precautions during the thermal characterisation are necessary. In the case of azobenzenic samples, the degradation reactions begin, as a function of the chemical structure, around 230-250C. A degradation mechanism based on chain transfer reactions was proposed. The chain flexibility influences the thermal degradation mechanism, in the case of rigid polymers the chain transfer reactions being less probable. For the flexible chains, the thermal stability is not essentially influenced by the copolymerisation ratio between the two aromatic bisphenols.

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Abstract  

The extents of the protective effects of coating films on the surface of crystals were determined. Three different samples were made with different quantities of coating fluid (Sepifilm LP 010 in 10% aqueous solution). Since the atomizing rate was constant, the coating time increased in parallel with the volume of coating fluid applied. The direct measurement of film thickness and smoothness is very difficult, and therefore indirect methods were used. Dimenhydrinate was chosen as model drug; this is a heat-sensitive antihistamine with a low melting point. This temperature can be reached during the tableting process. The behaviour of samples on exposure to heat was examined by differential scanning calorimetry. The water uptakes of the samples were determined with an Enslin apparatus. Plasticity was studied with an instrumented tablet machine. These indirect methods (thermal conductivity, water uptake and plasticity measurements) revealed connections between the results of the various experiments. An overlong coating time decreased the protective effect of the coating film.

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Abstract  

The formation of crystalline inclusion complex of triamterene with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was studied, evaluating the thermal behaviour and dispersion state of this drug in different types of binary systems. Spray-drying and co-grinding (oscillating mill) mixtures of triameterene with β-CD were prepared in 1∶1 molar ratio. The changes of crystalline properties of original (untreated) triamterene, β-CD, and composites obtained by co-grinding and spray-drying were investigated in comparison with those produced in simple physical mixtures. The thermal behaviour of the different samples was investigated using DTA. X-ray diffraction was applied as a complementary technique. The results have been explained by formation of amorphous drug particles on spray-drying samples and co-grinding or alternatively by means of a solid dispersion formation or a combination of these two. A contamination effect by grinding media was also observed as increasing grinding time.

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In the present study, the effect of the molecular weight and thermal treatments on commercial polyethylene glycols (PEG) samples used in the pharmaceutical processing technology, has been analyzed using DSC and HSM. The molecular weight of these polymers range from 1500 to 200000. Thermal investigations on the melting behavior of original PEG samples (as received from the manufacturer) showed only one single melting DSC endotherm effect before 373 K. This fact was associated to the presence of only one type of polymeric chain. Using standard conditions, PEG samples were solidified from the melt at 373 K, either by flash cooling (using liquid nitrogen and an ice bath) and by slow cooling, soaked and by slow cooling at room temperature. They were further studied by DSC. It was found that after cooling, PEG with molecular weight 1500 and 15000 showed DSC thermograms with a single endothermic peak. However, thermograms for PEG 4000 and 6000 produced a splitted melting endotherm. This fact was attributed to the presence of two types of chains, that are the folded and extended chains.

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