Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 44 items for

  • Author or Editor: C. Garcia x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary  

The feasibility of measuring picogram levels of actinides in a urine matrix using ion chromatography coupled on-line to an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (IC-Q-ICPMS) was investigated. A chelation column for separation of matrix ions and preconcentration of the actinides was combined with a cation-exchange column for separation of the actinides. Sample preparation required simple addition of ammonium acetate to adjust the pH of the urine matrix. Spike solutions containing 232 Th, 237Np, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am were added to undiluted urine, diluted urine (1 : 9) and water. Results showed that this approach enhanced the signal sensitivities of all the tested actinides over two orders of magnitude in the water matrix, while certain elements (especially Am) can still be effectively concentrated in undiluted urine.

Restricted access

Abstract  

In the present work a study was made for determining colour intensities using as luminous non-monochromatic source the Cherenkov emission produced in the walls of a glass capillary which acts as luminous source itself inside of a coloured solution to be evaluated. The reproducibility of this method has been compared with the spectrophotometric assay; the relative errors of both analytical methods have been calculated for different concentrations of congo red solution in the range of minimal error, according to Ringbom's criterion. The sensitivity of this analytical method has been studied for the two β-emitters employed:90Sr/90Y and204Tl.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Hydration of zirconium diphosphate (ZrP2O7) conduced to formation of active sites in solid/liquid interface. In ZrP2O7/NaClO4 0.5 M suspensions, active sites and their acidity constants are quite determined but the presence of some impurities is now studied. This work was conducted to determine the surface properties changes produced by oxalic and citric acid during the hydration process. Moreover the presence of organic acids with ZrP2O7 modified reveals an increase in uranium sorption constants. The zirconium diphosphate has been characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Particle induced X-ray emission and Neutron (PIXE). Furthermore, the specific surface area, measured by the BET method, was 3.5 m2/g. The pH corresponding to the isoelectric point, determined by Zeta Potential measurements and mass titration was 3.6. The sites density calculated using titration curves was around of 5.37 s/nm2 for NaClO4 0.5 M, 13.71 s/nm2 for NaClO4 0.5 M/citric acid 0.1 M and 7.33 s/nm2 NaClO4 0.5 M/oxalic acid 0.1 M. The surface acidity constants and species distribution in surface were calculated by means of simulation of the titration curves with the FITEQL code (constant capacitance model), for ZrO and PO amphoteric sites of ZrP2O7. The uranyl sorption edge was determined for NaClO4 0.5 M. It spreads between pH 3 and 4.5 for complete sorption according to the previously published results. In the ZrP2O7–citrate modified surface, the uranyl sorption edge begin at pH 2 and was almost complete at pH 3.2 while ZrP2O7–oxalate modified surface edge started at 50% of sorption at pH of 1.5 and was complete at pH 3.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Radium isotopes were measured in groundwater near a radioactive storage facility with contained pasty residues from monazite and industrial processing sealed in concerete reserouirs. The concentration of radium isotopes in the water was slightly higher than found in the normal drinking water. The measured228Ra to225Ra ratio in the groundwater is not compatible with calculations of radium isotopes ingrow and docay in cake II for different elapsed times, leaving mesothorium cake as the most likely source of contamination.

Restricted access

Abstract  

An extensive study on the distribution of natural radionuclides in an estuarine ecosystem located in Southwestern Spain is presented. This environment is highly affected by the wastes released by a phosphoric acid industry which uses phosphate rocks as raw material for fertilizer production. This rock has generally high concentrations of U and its daughters. The estuary is formed by two rivers, Odiel and Tinto, which have a common mouth into the Atlanic Ocean and a salt marsh (Odiel marsh) affected by the income of Odiel riverwaters. This river receives directly the liquid and part of the solid (gypsum) wastes released from the industries. Besides that, most of the phosphogypsum wastes are stored in uncovered piles at the right margin of the Tinto river. The study has concluded that the wastes from such industries are the cause of the enhanced concentrations found at the bed of both river channels as well as the enhancement found in surface soils in certain zones of the Odiel wet marshland. Indeed, the Northern marsh and the Mojarrera channel at the Odiel marsh seem to be the main sinks of the contaminant released by the phosphoric acid industry.

Restricted access

Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which can be obtained by fermentation and may stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the colon representing a strategy to manipulate the intestinal microbiota acting as a prebiotic compound. The present study focuses on the ability of Lactobacillus ssp. strains to utilize FOS as a sole energy source. The results showed that FOS was equally good as glucose to provide energy source. The highest prebiotic activity score was obtained with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 grown on FOS (0.526), followed by Lactobacillus casei (LC-1) (0.222). The lowest score was for Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 27092 (−0.051). The results suggests that specific combinations of probiotic (L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and L. casei (LC-1)) and prebiotic (FOS) could be used as synbiotics in dairy and other foods.

Restricted access
Physiology International
Authors:
Xabier Zarranz-Domench
,
Ibai Garcia-Tabar
,
Juan C. Lizarazu
,
Maite Ruesta
, and
Esteban M. Gorostiaga

Abstract

Objectives

To examine 1) the contribution of physiological performance variables to Olympic-distance (OD) triathlon performance, and 2) the links between an 8-wk intensified training plus competition preceding the main OD triathlon race and the changes in the physiological status in triathletes.

Study Design

An observational longitudinal study.

Methods

Endurance performance variables during maximal incremental running and cycling tests, and average velocity during an all-out 400-m swimming performance test (V400) were assessed before (T1) and after (T2) the intensified training in 7 recreational-level triathletes.

Results

Overall main OD triathlon time was extremely largely (r = −0.94; P = 0.01) correlated with peak running velocity (PRV). Best correlation magnitude between exercise modes' partial race times and the corresponding specific physiological criterion tests was observed for swimming (r = −0.97; P < 0.001). Improvement in V400 (2.9%), PRV (1.5%) and submaximal running blood lactate concentration (17%) was observed along the training period, whereas no changes were observed in the cycling endurance performance variables. Higher volume of training plus competition at high intensity zones during cycling, running and swimming were associated with lower improvements or declines in their corresponding exercise mode-specific criterion performance variables (r = 0.81–0.90; P = 0.005–0.037).

Conclusion

Results indicate that: 1) PRV is highly associated with overall OD triathlon performance, and 2) spending much time at high relative intensities during swimming, cycling or running may lead, in a dose-response manner, to lower improvements or decreases on those exercise-specific physiological performance variables. This may favor the emergence of overreaching or diminished performance.

Restricted access
Community Ecology
Authors:
A.F.S. Garcia
,
A.M. Garcia
,
S.R. Vollrath
,
F. Schneck
,
C.F.M. Silva
,
Í.J. Marchetti
, and
J.P. Vieira

Food partitioning among coexisting species in different habitats remains an important research topic in trophic ecology. In this work, we combined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and stomach content analyses to investigate differences in diet and niche overlap of two congeneric juvenile mullet species (Mugil curema and Mugil liza) coexisting in a marine surf-zone and an estuarine zone in southern Brazil (29oS). These habitats have contrasting levels of food availability, especially in terms of prey diversity, with higher microalgae diversity in the estuary than in the marine surf-zone. In these contrasting conditions, we predicted that both mullet species will have (a) higher niche overlap and smaller niche breadth at the marine surf-zone due to the common exploration of highly abundant surf-zone diatoms and (b) lower niche overlap and higher niche breadth inside the estuary due to selective feeding on more diverse food resources. Isotope niche areas (measured as standard ellipse areas) were higher in the estuary (6.10 and 6.18) than in the marine surf-zone (3.68 and 3.37) for both M. curema and M. liza, respectively. We observed an overlap of 52% in isotopic niches of both species in the marine surf-zone and none in the estuary. We also found contrasting patterns in the diet composition between species according to the habitat. At the marine surfzone, diatoms of the classes Bacillariophyceae and Coscinodiscophyceae dominated (> 99%) the food content of both mullet species. In contrast, green algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and flagellates comprised the diet of both species in the estuary. These results could be explained by spatial differences in food availability (especially regarding diversity of microalgae) between both habitats. At the marine site, both species explored the most abundant microalgae available (mostly the surf-zone diatom Asterionellopsis cf. guyunusae and fragments of Coscinodiscus), whereas in the estuary both species shifted their diets to explore the greater diversity of microalgae resources. Overall, our findings revealed that niche partitioning theory could not fully predict changes in breadth and overlap of food niches of estuarine dependent fish species with complex life cycles encompassing marine to estuarine systems with contrasting food availabilities.

Open access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
J. Murillo-Hernández
,
S. López-Ramírez
,
J. Domínguez
,
C. Duran-Valencia
,
I. García-Cruz
, and
J. González-Guevara

Abstract  

A survey on the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) over the thermal stability of a heavy Mexican oil was performed. ILs used were based on [Cnim]+ and [Cnpyr]+ organic cations with FeCl4 metal anion. Mixtures of heavy crude oil (HCO) with ILs show three oxidation zones: low temperature oxidation (LTO), full deposition (FD) and high temperature oxidation (HTO). Thermal stability and mass loss decrease in the LTO zone but increase in the FD and HTO zones for every ILs used. The activation energy of the oxidation is influenced by the ILs in the HTO zone. It decreases when increasing the size of the organic radical substitute in the cation of the ILs while it increases with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The influence of electronic structure and reactivity indexes are rationalized to understand the variations of activation energy obtained of the reaction systems. Among all cations used, cation-3 (IL-3) shows the greater value of HOMO-LUMO gap as well as the lower activation energy.

Restricted access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
N. Barros
,
S. Feijóo
,
J. Simoni
,
C. Airoldi
,
B. Ramajo
,
A. Espina
, and
J. García

Abstract  

The control on the CO2 coming from soil handling, makes necessary the introduction of new methodologies that inform about the capacity of the soil as a carbon sink and about the carbon decay. It can be performed through the microbial growth yield efficiency concept by calorimetry and enthalpy balances. Here it is examined the sensitivity of these indicators to two metal layering phosphates, AZP [(NH)4Zn2(PO)4(HPO)4] and AIP [(NH)4Fe(PO)4H2O] to assess about their soil impact. Both compounds caused metabolic changes on soil microbial biomass when compared to appropriated references indicating that the proposed methodology is sensitive to different inorganic sources of microbial growth.

Restricted access