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Summary

The illustrated genealogy of the Esterházys was published in 1700 on behalf of Pál Esterházy (1635–1713) the first Prince of the Family. By constructing a genealogical series going back in the past they used beside the Mausoleum of 1664 a lot of different models. In this paper copies from the Ducum Brabantiae Chronica (1600) and from the late 17th century portraits of the Ancestors' Gallery (Burg Forchtenstein) are identified. The main source of the portrait paintings was the Theatrum Pictoricum by David Teniers, a series of graphic reproductions of famous paintings in the imperial collection.

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Tiroler Maler in der Ungarischen Nationalgalerie: Neu bestimmte Werke von Paul Troger, Joseph Mages und Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer

Painters of Tyrol in the Hungarian National Gallery: recent attributions to Paul Troger, Joseph Mages and Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Enikő Buzási

Abstract

A recently purchased painting with the history of Esther before Ahasuerus can be identified as a pendant to Paul Trogers The child Moses before Pharaoh (Residenzgalerie, Salzburg). As the figure of Esther in the Budapest painting is evidently related to the Panitent Magdalen in a private collection in Trento from the Late 1720-s, even the datation of the Salzburg piece (1739/40) can be reconsidered. The ceiling sketch showing the Stoning of St. Stephen and St. John the Evangelist in the oil kettle can be identified on the base of a monogram as a work by Joseph Mages and identified as a preparatory sketch for his fresco in the nave of the parish church in Häder near to Augsburg. According to its provenance a retable painting with the Ascension of the Virgin which can be attributed to Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer could be made for a chapel in West Hungary. Its probably commissioners are the Dukes or the Counts Esterházy or the Town of Sopron. It shows a close relations mainly to the dome fresco in the castle chapel of Eszterháza (Fertőd, 1764), so it can be dated around 1765.

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The paper reviews the historical development of the portrait in Hungary in light of the early data on artists and works, changes in social demand, the emergence of diverse portrait functions and the changes in portrait iconography over the 17th century. The author concludes from the sources (inventories, last wills) that until the end of the 17th century the portrait was not a valued property but a fairly insignificant element of furnishing, except in a few art collecting aristocrats’ homes. In the second half of the 16th century, the portrait was often the document of social contacts. The earliest known painted portraits from the mid-16th century show members of the Hungarian upper nobility who belonged to the “supranational” aristocracy of the Habsburg Empire via some family relationship. Of these, the author devotes separate attention to portraits of a member each of the Thurzó, Zrínyi, Pálffy families, and to the one-time collection of portraits that probably passed from the wife of Ferdinand I., Anne of Hungary, to the wife of Count Ferenc Blagay and served as the model for several depictions in the portrait-book of Hieronymus Beck. There is mention again of the portrait of the Lord Steward of the Hungarian king’s household, János Krusics attributed to Giuseppe Arcimboldo by the author in 2008. Data in the inventories of several aristocratic households reveal that large, full-length portraits were painted from the second third of the 17th century. They were also specified by the occasion they were painted for, e.g. depiction of the deceased (31 catafalque portraits or their mentions are known from the 17th century), engagement, donation. Family series and ancestors’ galleries began to be formed in the last third of the 17th century under the inspiration of two sets of engravings, Elias Widemann’s portraits of 100 Hungarian noblemen (Vienna, 1652) and the “Mausoleum” of Hunnish-Hungarian leaders and kings (Nuremberg, 1664) ordered by Lord Chief Justice Ferenc Nádasdy. Both had a great influence on the development of 17th century Hungarian portraiture, first of all in terms of iconography. Finally, the paper discusses the alternative portrait representations of Hungarian aristocrats integrated in the court elite through the interpretation of inventories in Ferenc Nádasdy’s residences, pointing out the “double representation” they demonstrate one the one hand, and analyzing court portraits ordered with the aim of winning some political position or court dignity, on the other hand.

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A pécsi püspökség festészeti gyűjteménye. Művek a 16–19. századból

Painting collection of the Pécs bishopric. Works from the 16–19th centuries

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Enikő Buzási

The author presents some findings of the first inventorization of the painting collection in the episcopal palace in Pécs carried out in 2012: out of the inventoried 238 paintings, she publishes 134 in catalogue form until the end of the 19th century. These are the works of the collection that have adequate artistic quality, art historical significance or historical implications (awaiting further research as well). A great part of the collection has so far been unpublished, lacking name of painter, date of making, and often even accurate definition of the theme. The present publication arranging the items into historical and thematic units wishes to stop this gap, with the provenance of the pictures also given or suggested where there are sufficient clues for research. A considerable portion of works in the Pécs palace do not belong to the 18th, early 19th century furnishings of a bishop’s residence (Pécs, Mecseknádasd, Mohács). There are very many paintings removed from ecclesiastical function; they derive from the 19th century equipment of the church prior to the 1882 reconstruction, from the old chapel of the bishop’s palace, from the seminary chapel, and the monasteries of Franciscans, Sisters of Mercy or the nuns of Notre Dame. Several works were bequests or deposits from secular loci after World War II. A few were purchased from the art trade in the late 19th-early 20th century, first of all to decorate the palace. In addition to the inventorization of the stock and the dates of individual works, these conclusions could be inferred from three inventories of the equipment of the episcopal palace taken in 1777 and 1778 (after bishop György Klimó’s death) and in 1838 (after bishop Ignác Szepesy’s death), also used for the processing of the stock. In general it can be concluded that when issuing a commission, the choice was evidently the artists’ circle of the Viennese court from the baroque period and later of the Academy, and the acquisitions from the art trade later were also mostly of Viennese origin.

The catalogue is divided as follows: I. Portraits of ecclesiastic persons; II. Acquisitions and commissioned works of bishop György Klimó; III. Acquisitions and commissioned works of bishop Pál László Esterházy; IV. Commissioned works of bishop János Scitovszky and works from the 19th century equipment of the cathedral; V. Acquisitions and commissioned works of bishop Nándor Dulánszky; VI. Works that came into the episcopal palace after World War II; VII. Works of unknown provenance; VIII. Copies of pictures with miraculous powers; IX. Variants of copies from the 18th century and artistic replicas from the 19th century.

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A Magyar korona eddig ismert legkorábbi autentikus ábrázolásának keletkezéséről

A Szent Korona a Habsburg Ehrenspiegelben

The origin of the earliest known authentic representation of the Hungarian crown

The Holy Crown of Hungary in the Habsburg Ehrenspiegel
Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Authors:
Enikő Buzási
and
Géza Pálffy

In the past 35 years or so, scores of theories, some bordering on legend, have emerged about the origin of the earliest known authentic representation of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Systematic historical and art historical research, however, has reconstructed convincingly the circumstances of its creation. Contrary to the majority of assumptions proposed until now, it can now be safely declared that the earliest representation of the Hungarian crown jewel has nothing to do with the – actually fictitious – possession of the crown by the Fugger family in the mid-15th century. The handwritten work namely, in which the image survived, is not a Fuggerchronik of Munich but the history of the Habsburg dynasty (Ehrenspiegel des Hauses Österreich) written for the family of the great merchant banker, Johann Jakob Fugger (1516–1575) by the self-taught town historian, genealogist and heraldist Clemens Jäger from Augsburg (c. 1500–1561).

The two-tome manuscript of nearly 800 folios with thousands of coats of arms and hundreds of illuminations is preserved in the Bavarian State Library in Munich. The earliest known depiction of the crown was made replicas of which were unknown until recently but were identified by the authors in three richly illuminated handwritten copies of the Ehrenspiegel. All were made in Innsbruck as the outcome of the court art and art patronage of the archdukes Ferdinand and Maximilian of Tyrol in the late 16th and early 17th century. By dating the manuscripts kept today in Munich, Vienna and Dresden more accurately and analysing the crown depictions in them, the – until recently – controversial chronology of the Ehrenspiegel copies could be clarified reassuringly. A revised version commissioned by Emperor Leopold I was completed by 1668 and was also released in print by the Endter press in Nuremberg with “updated” text by the German poet Sigmund von Birken. This version also included the image of the Hungarian crown, but the publisher replaced the 16th century depiction with a more up-to-date one. It adopted the crown representation on the title-page of Mausoleum (printed in Nuremberg 1664), a series of Hungarian ruler portraits completed a little earlier upon commission from a Hungarian aristocrat and art patron, Chief Justice of Hungary (1655–1671), Count Ferenc Nádasdy. It must be attributed to the publisher’s demand for authenticity that added to the crown from the Mausoleum, which in basic forms emulated the crown image illustrating the famous tract of guardian of the crown Péter Révay published in Augsburg 1613 (De Sacrae Coronae regni Hungariae ortu... Commentarius) and reformulated several times later, he also enclosed the title-page of the politics historical work by Martin Schödel (Respublica et status Regni Hungariae, Leiden 1634) for the purpose of providing more accurate material details.

A German handwritten petition by Clemens Jäger, the author of the Habsburg family history, for a coat of arms and crown representation has been recovered in the Austrian National Library in Vienna. In it he was inquiring about the Holy Crown with reference to the work (Rerum Ungaricarum decades) of the Italian historiographer of Matthias Corvinus, the noted humanist Antonio Bonfini. This source permits us to declare: the earliest authentic representation of the Hungarian crown was made in Augsburg between April 1553 (the terminus post quem for the sending of the petition from Augsburg to Vienna) and November 1561 (the death of Jäger). Confuting earlier presumptions we can contend that instead of some mid-15th or early 16th century model, Jäger used a wholly contemporary reproduction. It showed the crown kept in the Habsburg court in Vienna from the beginning of September 1551 depicted – if we are not mistaken – by the copperplate engraver and draughtsman of antiquities (Antiquitetabconterfetter) Hans Sebald Lautensack served in Vienna from August 1554, who was in close contact with the famous Vienna court historiographer who also knew Jäger, Wolfgang Lazius. Lautensack also engraved a portrait of Lazius in 1554. Some data suggest that our safe dating (1553–1561) can be reduced to the interval between the late summer of 1554 and 1556, between the beginning of Lautensack’s service in Vienna and the publication of the historian Lazius’s great map of Hungary (1556), the latter adorned with a Holy Crown with pendants. To conclude, the earliest detailed and authentic representation of the Hungarian crown was the outcome of the collaboration of Central European historiographers, first of all historians of Augsburg and Vienna, genealogists, heraldists and engravers, without the involvement of Hungarians, as far as we know. Not that this fact would reduce in any way its outstanding significance or peculiar value.

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Szemle

Review

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Authors:
Béla Zsolt Szakács
,
Enikő Buzási
, and
Péter Rostás
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