Authors:Sh. Enomoto, M. Yanaga, R. Hirunuma, K. Endo, Sh. Ambe, and F. Ambe
Multitracer, a new tracer technique developed by us, can analyze metabolism and behavior of different elements in the living bodies simultaneously. We were able to reproduce completely the results on the behavior of various elements obtained by individual experiments of our precursors only by a single run of this technique. At the same time, we could also show the behavior and interaction of many other trace elements which past researchers did not pay attention to. For example, our results on the behavior of rare-earth elements suggested that there is a correlation between their uptakes and ion radii. We also discovered that affinities of platinum and iridium for their binding proteins were changed, the latter being increased, in the case of zinc deficiency. In this article, we discuss the usefulness of the multitracer technique in the studies of trace elements in living bodies.
Authors:R. Hirunuma, N. Sotogaku, K. Endo, S. Enomoto, S. Ambe, and F. Ambe
The uptake and the distribution of radioactive trace elements in Se-deficient rats were examined by the multitracer technique,
which can be used to evaluate the behavior of many elements under the same experimental conditions. The uptake of Se was larger
in the brain, spleen, and testicles of the Se-deficient rats than in those of the normal ones. The uptake of As, Fe, and Sc
was larger in the liver of Se-deficient rats than in that of normal ones. In the bone, the uptake of Zr of Se-deficient rats
was larger than that of normal ones. Selenium is known to be in a competitive or synergetic relationship with several metals.
From the present results on Sc and Zr, it was newly cleared up that there is also some interaction between those elements
Authors:N. Sotogaku, K. Endo, R. Hirunuma, S. Enomoto, S. Ambe, and F. Ambe
The multitracer technique was applied to the simultaneous evaluation of the behavior of a large number of radioactive nuclides.
The binding affinity of various trace elements with blood components and the pH-dependence of binding affinity of the elements
with serum proteins were examined using the multitracer technique. Each element showed characteristic binding to each blood
component and serum protein. The results are discussed in terms of chelating ability of metal ions and the nature of the serum
Authors:T. Ozaki, S. Enomoto, Y. Minai, S. Ambe, F. Ambe, and Y. Makide
The influence of Al on the absorption of various elements by a carrot (U.S. harumakigosun) was investigated using a multitracer
technique. An uptake experiment was conducted within the range of 0.0–2.0 ppm AlCl3 in culture solution. By the addition of AlCl3, uptake of elements such as Be, V, Zn and rare earth elements (REE) into roots was increased. For Be and V an approximately
three-fold increase was observed. The degree of uptake enhancement of nonessential elements by AlCl3 was generally very high, whereas some of the essential or beneficial elements exhibited a decrease in uptake with the increase
of AlCl3 concentration. This suggests that the uptake of nonessential elements might be increased through transporters with decreased
selectivity due to Al. From the viewpoint of the acid rain problem, it is suggested that one of the detrimental effects of
Al on plants is the imbalanced elemental absorption.
Authors:S. Ambe, K. Yashiki, H. Maeda, S. Enomoto, T. Ozaki, and F. Ambe
Separation by means of supported liquid membranes is a useful method for the preparation and preconcentration of radioactive
nuclides. The permeation of rare earth elements through a bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate-decalin membrane supported
on a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene sheet was studied using a multitracer containing radioactive nuclides of Sc, Zr,
Nb, Hf, Ce, Pm, Gd, Yb, and Lu. Permeation rates of these elements from feed solutions of various acidity to receiving solutions
of 0.5 mol·dm−3 HCl were determined simultaneously. The feed solution at pH 1.4 gave the highest permeation rate for Ce, Pm, and Gd, amounting
to about 95% of permeation for Ce and Pm, 80% for Gd, and 10% for Yb in 21 h. Scandium, Zr, Nb, Hf, and Lu were not transported
at all from the feed solution. Permeation rates of Yb and Lu from the feed solution at pH 1.4 to receiving solutions of 0.75,
1.0, 2.3, and 4.0 mol·dm−3 HCl increased with the concentration. The results obtained indicate that the light rare earth elements can be separated from
the heavy ones by this method.
Authors:R. Weginwar, B. Liu, S. Ambe, S. Enomoto, H. Maeda, and F. Ambe
The solvent extraction of Zr and Hf was studied using 444-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (TTA) from a multitracer solution containing carrier-free radioisotopes of Zr, Hf, and other elements. The multitracer was prepared from Au foil irradiated with high-energy heavy-ion beams. Effects of HCl and HNO3 concentrations and organic solvent on the extraction and coextraction of other radionuclides have been studied. It was found that decalin (decahydronaphthalene) was the best solvent among 14 solvents studied and the optimum aqueous phase was 2 mol·dm–3 HCl or HNO3. About 2–10% of Sr, Rb, Sc and Nb were coextracted with Zr and Hf. The reversed phase extraction of Zr and Hf was also developed by using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution at pH range of 8.5–10.
Authors:R. Weginwar, Y. Kobayashi, S. Ambe, B. Liu, S. Enomoto, and F. Ambe
Separation of Au(III) and various carrier-free radionuclides by solvent extraction was investigated using an Au target irradiated by an energetic heavy-ion beam. Percentage extraction of Au(III) and coextraction of the radionuclides were determined with varying parameters such as kinds of solvent, molarity of HCl or pH, and Au concentration. Under the conditions where Au(III) was effectively extracted, namely extraction with ethyl acetate or isobutyl methyl ketone from 3 mol·dm–3 HCl, carrier-free radionuclides of many elements were found to be more or less coextracted. Coextraction of radionuclides of some elements was found to increase with an increase in the concentration of Au(III). This finding is ascribed to the formation of strong association of the complex of these elements with chloroauric acid. In order to avoid serious loss of these elements by the extraction, lowering of the Au(III) concentration or the use of a masking agent such as sodium citrate is necessary. Gold(III) was shown to be effectively back extracted with a 0.1 mol·dm–3 aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol. Thus, a radiochemical procedure has been established for preparing a carrier-free multitracer and an Au tracer with carrier form from an Au target irradiated with a heavy-ion beam. Both tracers are now used individually for chemical and biological experiments.
Authors:T. Sato, F. Ambe, K. Endo, M. Katada, and H. Sano
The crystal structures of oxo-centered trineclear cobalt-iron chloroacetate complex [CoIIFe
O(CH2ClCO2)6(H2O)3]·3H2O (1) was compared with that of previously reported trinuclear iron complex [FeIIFe
O(CH2ClCO2)6(H2O)3]·3H2O (2) which has an isomorphous structure to 1. Compound 1 crystallizes in space group P21/n with Z=4 in a unit cell of a=14.826 (4) Å, b=4.536 (8) Å, c=14.000 (4) Å, =100.32 (2)0 and V=2968 (11) Å3. The structure was refined to R=0.75 and Rw=0.82. The coordination geometries of the three iron atoms are observed equivalent in 1 indicating a static disorder of the position among cobalt and iron atoms. Two distinct FeIII doublets observed in Mössbauer spectra of 1 become an indistinguishable broad doublet by dehydration of crystal water. On the other hand, no significant line-broadening is observed after the dehydration in complex 2. The results indicate that the dehydration in 2 induces a local environmental change reordering of an electronic configuration around iron atoms, whereas the remaining disordering is reflected in Mössbauer spectrum after the dehydration in 1.
Authors:S. Oishi, R. Amano, A. Ando, S. Enomoto, and F. Ambe
The radioactive multitracer technique was applied to a study on the uptake of trace elements in normal C57BL/6N mice. Comparative
uptake behavior of46Sc,54Mn,59Fe,58Co,65Se,83Rb and88Zr tracers was examined among 11 organs (brain, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, bone, muscle, eyeballs
and testes) and blood, and evaluated in terms of the “tissue uptake rate (the radioactivity percentage of injected dose per
gram of tissue, %dose/g)”. The multitracer technique revealed reliable data demonstrating characteristic uptake of the 8 trace
elements, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Rb and Zr by the brain and other organs, as well as the distinctive features of the accumulation
and retention of each element in the brain.