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The anthocyanin pattern of 18 grape cultivars grown under the same conditions during several years, and also the anthocyanin pattern of wines made from them, using the same winemaking technology, has been studied by HPLC. Chromatographic data indicate that every grape cultivar present a characteristic anthocyanin pattern, that is reflected in wines made from them. Two-way ANOVA and variance component analysis point out that the anthocyanin pattern of grapes and wines is mostly affected by the genetic characteristics of grape cultivars. Moreover, the use of multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis) allows the classification of grapes and wines into several groups on the basis of their anthocyanin pattern, and shows that the anthocyanin pattern of young single-cultivar wines is related to the anthocyanin pattern of grapes used for winemaking. Results may be relevant for using the anthocyanin pattern of young single-cultivar wines as an analytical tool to determine the grape cultivar used to make them.

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Community Ecology
Authors: A.F.S. Garcia, A.M. Garcia, S.R. Vollrath, F. Schneck, C.F.M. Silva, Í.J. Marchetti, and J.P. Vieira

Food partitioning among coexisting species in different habitats remains an important research topic in trophic ecology. In this work, we combined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and stomach content analyses to investigate differences in diet and niche overlap of two congeneric juvenile mullet species (Mugil curema and Mugil liza) coexisting in a marine surf-zone and an estuarine zone in southern Brazil (29oS). These habitats have contrasting levels of food availability, especially in terms of prey diversity, with higher microalgae diversity in the estuary than in the marine surf-zone. In these contrasting conditions, we predicted that both mullet species will have (a) higher niche overlap and smaller niche breadth at the marine surf-zone due to the common exploration of highly abundant surf-zone diatoms and (b) lower niche overlap and higher niche breadth inside the estuary due to selective feeding on more diverse food resources. Isotope niche areas (measured as standard ellipse areas) were higher in the estuary (6.10 and 6.18) than in the marine surf-zone (3.68 and 3.37) for both M. curema and M. liza, respectively. We observed an overlap of 52% in isotopic niches of both species in the marine surf-zone and none in the estuary. We also found contrasting patterns in the diet composition between species according to the habitat. At the marine surfzone, diatoms of the classes Bacillariophyceae and Coscinodiscophyceae dominated (> 99%) the food content of both mullet species. In contrast, green algae, cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and flagellates comprised the diet of both species in the estuary. These results could be explained by spatial differences in food availability (especially regarding diversity of microalgae) between both habitats. At the marine site, both species explored the most abundant microalgae available (mostly the surf-zone diatom Asterionellopsis cf. guyunusae and fragments of Coscinodiscus), whereas in the estuary both species shifted their diets to explore the greater diversity of microalgae resources. Overall, our findings revealed that niche partitioning theory could not fully predict changes in breadth and overlap of food niches of estuarine dependent fish species with complex life cycles encompassing marine to estuarine systems with contrasting food availabilities.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Maria Pinto, José Luis Alonso Berrocal, José Antonio Cordón García, Viviana Fernández Marcial, Carlos García Figuerola, Javier García Marco, Camarero Carmen Gómez, and Rodríguez Ángel F. Zazo

Summary This work has analyzed and evaluated the dissemination of research done at Spanish universities through the World Wide Web (WWW) in order to obtain a map of the visibility of the information available on this research and to propose measures for improving the quality of this diffusion, all within the social and institutional context of the European Area for Higher Education. The methodology applied in the study has used both qualitative and quantitative research methods to obtain some quality indicators on the dissemination of university research. The object of study consists of a sample of 19 Spanish universities, chosen according to their representativeness by Autonomous Community and their administrative and scientific weight. The process of defining indicators, both qualitative and quantitative, as well as the collection and analysis of data, are explained. The results give us a detailed panorama of the state of the art of the visibility of information on research in the web pages of selected universities. This has allowed us to make certain proposals for improvement that can contribute to the excellence of its dissemination.

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Abstract  

A new method is proposed for the separation of gadolinium(III) and lanthanum(III) in aqueous medium by nanofiltration combined with a complexation step. First DTPA was chosen as ligand for a selective Gd(III)/La(III) complexation. Having investigated the influence of three factors (pH, temperature and amount of ligand) for the selective complexation of DTPA towards Gd(III) and La(III), the system is then combined with a nanofiltration separation process to remove 92% of initial Gd(III) and only 12% of initial La.

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The best alternative for reducing citrus production costs is mechanization. Machine vision is a reliable technology for the automatic inspection of fresh fruits and vegetables that can be adapted to harvesting machines. In these, fruits can be inspected before sending them to the packinghouse and machine vision provides important information for subsequent processing and avoids spending further resources in non-marketable fruit. The present work describes a computer vision system installed on a harvesting machine developed jointly by IVIA and a Spanish enterprise. In this machine, hand pickers directly drop the fruit as they collect it, which results in an important increase of productivity. The machine vision system is placed over rollers in order to inspect the produce, and separate those that can be directly sent to the fresh market from those that do not meet minimal quality requirements but can be used by the processing industry, based on color, size and the presence of surface damages. The system was tested under field conditions.

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The aim of this research was to assess the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of lipophilic (Lextr) and hydrophilic (Hextr) tomato extracts using in vitro chemical tests and cell-based assays, focusing on possible synergistic actions between tomato antioxidants. Both Hextr and Lextr were HPLC analysed for their carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid contents. For the evaluation of TAA, extracts were assayed alone or in combination using in vitro chemical tests (TEAC, FRAP) and cell-based (CAA) assays using human hepatoma (HepG2) and human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) cells. The only carotenoid detected in Lextr was lycopene, while a mixture of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin) was identified in Hextr. Ascorbic acid was not found either in Hextr or in Lextr. Upon extract combination (1:1, v/v), the FRAP assay revealed additive action between Lextr and Hextr, whilst a slight synergistic action was observed in TAA as measured by the TEAC assay. Synergistic action was better revealed when TAA was analysed using either U937 or HepG2 cells. This could be explained by the presence of a multiphase media (cell membrane and extra- and intracellular media) that might facilitate the distribution and interaction of antioxidants with different polarities and different mechanisms of action.

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Summary  

Ceramic samples found in San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico, were analyzed by means of NAA, PIXE, SEM and XRD. Statistical treatments such as bivariate cluster and principal-components analysis were applied to the data set. The origins of these ceramic samples were classified as local, regional and foreign.

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Abstract  

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymers are used as precursors for carbon fiber production. This process requires an oxidative stabilization step, which can be studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this sense, thermal behavior of PAN based terpolymers by different polymerization processes, compositions and itaconic acid concentrations in the reaction media were investigated. The obtained results showed that the addition of itaconic acid and methyl acrylate as comonomers resulted a lower heat flow during the process comparing to the PAN homopolymer. It suggested that these comonomers aid the oxidative stabilization stage for all studied process. The redox system polymerization at 40C resulted in a lower heat flow. Itaconic acid decreases slightly initial and peak temperatures of the terpolymer and heat flow until concentration of 3y. The cyclization temperature decreases when MAis incorporated into the terpolymer compared to the MMA terpolymer and increases when MAA is the acidic monomer. Among terpolymers the AN/MA/AA polymer showed the best thermal behavior for carbon fiber producing.

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Abstract

This article reports the thermodynamic changes of lipid nanoparticles (LN) upon delivery of lipophilic vitamin E derivatives to the skin. Skin penetration of α-tocopherol (α-T) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-Ta) into and across porcine ear skin was investigated in vitro using tape-stripping test in modified Franz diffusion cells. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to characterize the polymorphism of the solid matrix of LN before and after in vitro skin penetration assay. Cetyl palmitate LN with a loading capacity of 20% of vitamin E derivatives (with regard to the lipid matrix) have shown the typical β’ modification of waxes, with a crystallinity index (%CI) between 30 and 40%. Mean particle size and shelf life stability was assessed by static (laser diffractometry, LD) and dynamic (photon correlation spectroscopy, PCS) light scattering techniques. Submicron-sized LN were produced, i.e., 99% of LN showed a size below 600 nm immediately after production. A mean size between 180 and 350 nm (polydispersity index < 0.25) was obtained for LN stored at both 8 and 22 °C, and this size range was kept constant for at least 20 days of shelf life. Quantification of α-T and α-Ta in the skin using tape-stripping provided a 3.4-fold increase in the level of actives within the stratum corneum (SC) and 1.3-fold increase in the viable epidermis (VE). LN increased skin penetration of both actives, following a cumulative release during 8 h in modified Franz diffusion cells. The differences in the distribution levels observed between α-T and α-Ta when delivered via LN was due to the different thermodynamic activity of both actives, i.e., following increased partition coefficient of α-Ta into SC and VE, in comparison to α-T.

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