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  • Author or Editor: G. J. Yang x
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Knowledge of the chromosomal distribution of long terminal repeats (LTR) is important for understanding plant chromosome structure, genomic organization and evolution, as well as providing chromosomal landmarks that are useful for chromosome engineering. The aim of this study is to investigate the genomic distribution of Sabrina -like LTR pDbH12, which was first isolated from Dasypyrum breviaristatum (V b genome), on Triticeae species in relation to the genomic evolution and chromosome identification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that pDbH12 is present on Dasypyrum (V genome) and Hordeum (H genome) species with the hybridized signals covering the entire chromosomes. However, clone pDbH12 did not hybridize to the genomes of Secale, Triticum, Lophopyrum, Pseduoroengeria, Aegilops, Agropyron desertorum and Elymus. Thinopyrum intermedium displayed fourteen chromosomes that hybridized with pDbH12. Sequential FISH identified these chromosomes as belonging to the J s genome. Results from sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker and dot blot both support the FISH results, and the integrative results suggest that amplification of Sabrina -like LTR retrotransposons is an important factor which involved in the speciation process. Clone pDbH12 could serve as a cytogenetic marker for tracing chromatin from V or V b , H and J s genomes in wheat-alien introgression lines.

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Rye (Secale cereale) plays an important role in wheat improvement. Here we report a new triticale, named Fenzhi-1, derived from the wide cross MY11 (Triticum aestivum) × Jingzhou (Secale cereale) after the in vitro rye pollen has been irradiated by He-Ne laser. Morphologically, Fenzhi-1 is characterized by branched-spikes. Genetically, Fenzhi-1 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust. In situ hybridization (FISH) and seed storage protein electrophoresis revealed that Fenzhi-1 is a new primary hexaploid triticale (AABBRR). The present study not only provides a new method to synthesize an artificial species, but also shows that Fenzhi-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement.

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Abstract  

Photoinitiating behaviors of oligo(α-aminoketones) (OAK) macrophotoinitiator containing aminoalkylphenone group on free-radical photopolymerization had been investigated by differential photo-calorimetry (DPC). The macrophotoinitiator showed comparative performance with those commercial photoinitiators with lower molecular mass. The effect of photoinitiator concentrations and UV intensity on the polymerization rate was investigated, and the value of exponential factor was found to be 0.5 at the beginning of polymerization, suggesting that the photopolymerization initiated by OAK followed biradical termination mechanism. Photosensitizer isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX) and oxygen severely restricted the polymerization in these systems. Photoinitiators with lower molecular mass showed higher reactivity than those with higher molecular mass.

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Abstract  

A new model has been deduced by assumed autocatalytic reactions. It includes two rate constants, k 1 and k 2, two reaction orders, m and n, and the initial concentration of [OH]. The model proposed has been applied to the curing reaction of a system of bisphenol-S epoxy resin (BPSER), with4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as a curing agent. The curing reactions were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analysis of DSC data indicated that an autocatalytic behavior showed in the curing reaction. The new model was found to fit to the experimental data exactly. Rate constants, k 1 and k 2 were observed to be greater when curing temperature increased. The activation energies for k 1 and k 2 were 95.28 and 39.69 kJ mol–1, respectively. Diffusion control was incorporated to describe the cure in the latter stages.

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Abstract  

Neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were measured by fast neutron activation method at neutron energies from 1 to 2 MeV. Monoenergetic fast neutrons were produced by 3H(p,n)3He reaction. Neutron energy spread by target thickness, which was assumed to be the main factor of neutron energy spread, was estimated to be 1.5% at neutron energy of 2.077 MeV. Neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were calculated by reference comparison method on those of 197Au(n,γ). Not only statistical errors of gamma-counts from samples but also systematic errors in the counting efficiency for HP Ge detector and the uncertainty of areal density of samples were considered in calculating neutron capture cross section. Estimated neutron capture cross sections on 63Cu and 186W were also compared with ENDF-6 data.

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Abstract  

Structure activity relationship (SAR) has been playing a more and more important role in medicine design. We presented here a preliminary investigation on the relationship between the structure of different phosphonates and the preparation of corresponding complexes labeled with 153Sm. By study of seven complexes, it was found that the number of -PO3H2 groups, the stereoscopic distance between them and the existence of strong electron-providing groups in the ligand molecule affected the preparation of 153Sm-complex.

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Summary

Silica-gel column chromatography and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were sequentially employed for the isolation of two antioxidants including gallic acid and methyl gallate from Folium Toonea Sinensis. An RP-HPLC-UV method was then developed and validated to rapidly determine their content in this herb with ethyl gallate as internal standard. The quantitation was performed on an XBridge Shield RP18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) under 40°C. The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution was driven at 1.0 mL min−1 under gradient elution, and 270 nm was selected to monitor the separation. To evaluate the fitness for purpose of the method and to investigate the difference in the content of analytes among different samples, the leaves collected from five production sites were analyzed. The newly established method is suitable for routine analysis of gallic acid and methyl gallate in the herb and, hence, can assist in its quality assessment. It was also found that not only the content of two antioxidants but also the ratio varied significantly among different geographical origins. In addition, three samples from Yantai, Zumadian, and Zhenjiang were distinguished as they have a much higher content ratio than the other two.

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Physiology International
Authors:
P. L. Latchman
,
G. Gates
,
J. Pereira
,
R. Axtell R
,
K. Gardner
,
J. Schlie
,
Q. Yang
,
T. Yue
,
A. Morin-Viall
, and
R. DeMeersman

Abstract

Purpose

High central blood pressure is more predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) versus high peripheral blood pressure. Measures of central pressures (CPs) include, central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) and central diastolic blood pressure. Measures of central pressures augmentation (CPsA) include augmentation pressure (AP) and the augmentation index @ 75 beats·min−1 (AIx@75). Increased sympathetic tone (ST) is also associated with CVD. The low to high frequency ratio (LF/HF) is often used to determine sympatho-vagal balance. Given the association between ST, CPs, CPsA and CVD there is a need to understand the association between these predictors of CVD. The aims of this study were to examine the association between the LF/HF ratio, CPs, and CPsA in men and women collectively and based on gender.

Methods

We measured the LF/HF ratio, CSBP, AP, and AIx@75 in 102 participants (41F/61M). The LF/HF ratio was determined via power spectral density analysis. CSBP, AP, and AIx@75 were determined via applanation tonometry.

Results

The LF/HF ratio was inversely associated with AP (r = –0.26) and AIx @75 (r = –0.29) in the combined group of men and women. The LF/HF ratio was inversely associated with CSBP (r = –0.27), AP (r = –0.28), and AIx@75 (r = –0.32) in men, but not in women.

Conclusion

There is an inverse association between the LF/HF ratio, AP, and AIx@75 in men and women combined. The association between the LF/HF ratio, CSBP, AP, and AIx@75, differs based on gender.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
H. Yu
,
Y. Yang
,
X.Y. Chen
,
G.X. Lin
,
J.Y. Sheng
,
J.Y. Nie
,
Q.J. Wang
,
E.J. Zhang
,
X.R. Yu
,
Z. Wang
, and
F. Xiong

The waxy wheat shows special starch quality due to high amylopectin content. However, little information is available concerning the development and degradation of amyloplast from waxy wheat endosperm. To address this problem, waxy wheat variety, Yangnuo 1, and a non-waxy wheat variety, Yangmai 13, were chosen to investigate the development and degradation of endosperm amyloplast during wheat caryopsis development and germination stage respectively using histochemical staining and light microscopy. Changes of morphology, the soluble sugar and total starch content were indistinguishable in the process of caryopsis development of two wheat varieties. The developing endosperm of non-waxy was stained blue-black by I2-KI while the endosperm of waxy wheat was stained reddish-brown, but the pericarp of waxy and non-waxy wheat was stained blue-black. In contrast to nonwaxy wheat, endosperm amyloplast of waxy wheat had better development status and higher proportion of small amyloplast. During seed germination many small dissolution pores appeared on the surface of endosperm amyloplast and the pores became bigger and deeper until amyloplast disintegrated. The rate of degradation of waxy wheat endosperm amyloplast was faster than non-waxy wheat. Our results may also be helpful to the use of waxy starch in food and nonfood industry.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
H. J. Ding
,
Y. N. Niu
,
Y. B. Xu
,
W. F. Yang
,
S. G. Yuan
,
Z. Qin
, and
X. H. Zhou

Summary  

The extraction of protactinium with Aliquat 336 (methyl-tri-caprylyl ammonium chloride) in toluene, cyclohexane and chloroform from HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HF and mixed HCl-HF media was investigated by radioactive tracer technique. Distribution ratios of protactinium between the aqueous solution and the organic phase were determined as a function of shaking time, concentrations of acid in aqueous solution phase, extractant concentration and type of diluents in the organic phase. Aliquat 336 can almost quantitatively extract protactinium from strong HCl solution. At the same time, small amounts of HF in HCl solutions have a strong effect on Pa distribution.

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