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The description of the plough in the Kṛṣiparāśara has been a puzzle for generations of Sanskrit philologists. What especially pained me was the disfunctional character of this description: among the eight essential parts the ploughshare was missing. The turning up of an until now unknown manuscript from The Library of Congress has brought a basic change: it contains the expected reading phālikā “ploughshare” for pāśikā an otherwise meaningful term “rope” that could have been adjusted to the context only by rather strained explanations.The present paper throws light on the problems concerned in the textual tradition and offers a solution.

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KA II, 11, 28–41 is the earliest extant Sanskrit text on ratnaśāstra ‘gemmology’. It is a branch of traditional science and it reflects a great deal of experimental knowledge of jewellers. The present paper analyses the structure of the established text, seeks for an answer why the passages concerning diamond follow the list of the precious stones proper and why emerald is missing. The readings offered by the manuscripts and commentaries have been rechecked and the Kangle’s text has been revised at places. The revised portions of the text have been retranslated and accompanied with the necessary notes. From our investigations it has become clear that the extant text is very loosely edited and highly problematic; the text presents a mixture of vārttāśāstra (textbook of economy) and ratnaśāstra ; there are terminological inconsistencies; it seems that gemmology had existed before the edition of the KA and the place of birth of this science was South India.

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Sanskrit and Prakrit pāmara

The semantic and social contents of a peculiar word

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Gyula Wojtilla

Sanskrit pāmara and its Prakrit and Modern Indo-Aryan equivalents have a broad semantic field. The meaning of the word ranges from a very negative connotation “a low man”, “an outcast”, “a fool” to a positive term denoting a peasant who is a member of a rural community with full powers. The present paper explores the various shades of meaning of the word and their possible social background. The term first appeared in early mediaeval times and has remained productive in the various Modern Indo-Aryan languages spoken in India. The negative connotations of the word are typical of traditional Sanskrit lexicons, while the positive ones were used by poets and playwrights.

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Gyula Wojtilla
,
Zsolt Barta
, and
Imre Galambos

Mayrhofer, Manfred: Die Personennamen in der Rgveda - Samhitā. Sicheres und Zweifelhaftes.; Dillon, Michael: Xinjiang-China's Muslim Far Northwest.; Huan Guan: Spor o soli i zheleze (Debates on Salt and Iron).

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Sebastian Cwiklinski
,
Gulayhan Aqtay
, and
Gyula Wojtilla
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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Gyula Wojtilla
,
Li Han
, and
Eszter Ótott-Kovács
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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
László Károly
,
Gergő Makó
,
Zsófia Safi
,
Gyula Wojtilla
, and
Dóra Zsom
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