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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
H. Dang
,
H. Desai
,
S. Kayasth
,
D. Jaiswal
,
C. Wadhwani
, and
S. Somasundaram

Abstract  

The daily intakes of trace elements by infants showing optimal pattern of growth are used as the basis to estimate the requirements of Fe, Co and Se during infancy. Since milk is the only food and source of nutrition in the first few months of life, the requirements of these elements are calculated from their average concentrations in human milk and the volume of milk required to supply sufficient amount of energy for maintenance and healthy growth of infants. The concentrations of the three elements in human milk were determined, using the technique of neutron activation followed by radiochemical separation.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been developed for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in duplicate diets and individual food items. These include a cyclic instrumental NAA (CINAA) method for measuring Se content through its short-lived nuclide77mSe; epithermal INAA (EINAA) for I and As; conventional INAA for Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn and Zn; combination of EINAA and INAA for Al; radiochemical NAA (RNAA) for As, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se and Zn; and preconcentration NAA (PNAA) for U and Th. Accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of biological and diet reference materials. Multielement concentrations of diets and foods have been measured by these methods.

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Abstract  

This paper compares the urinary excretion levels of Th obtained in bio-assay monitoring using the neutron activation technique with those predicted by applying the ICRP metabolic model to the measured Th activity in chest and total body of a group of Thorium plant workers. The results indicated much lower urinary Th excretion as compared to what was expected on the basis of the ICRP model. Lower urinary excretion in occupational subjects is explained in terms of negligible contribution of skeleton and soft tissue to the activity excreted in urine. It is suggested that the existing model should be modified to enable it to be applicable to the bio-assay monitoring of occupational workers.

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Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental illness. Cognitive and emotional illness representations affect coping and health outcomes. Very little is known about such perceptions related to IGD, in both general and diseased populations. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for IGD in a general population that included mostly non-cases while a small proportion of the sample was IGD cases.

Methods

An anonymous cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of 1,501 Chinese community-dwelling adults (41.3% male; mean age = 40.42, SD = 16.85) in Macao, China.

Results

The confirmatory factor analysis identified a modified 6-factor model (i.e., timeline cyclical, consequences, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, and emotional representations) of 26 items that showed satisfactory model fit and internal consistency. Criterion-related validity was supported by the constructs' significant correlations with stigma (positive correlations: timeline cyclical, consequence, emotional representations; negative correlations: illness coherence). Ever-gamers, compared to never-gamers, reported higher mean scores in the subscales of personal control and illness coherence, and lower mean scores in time cyclical, consequence, and emotional representations. Among the sampled gamers, probable IGD cases were more likely than non-IGD cases to perceive IGD as cyclical and involved more negative emotions.

Conclusions

This study shows that the revised 26-item version of IPQ-R is a valid instrument for assessing illness representation regarding IGD in a general population of Chinese adults. It can be used in future research that examines factors of incidence and prevention related to IGD.

Open access