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The transitions between various developmental phases are critical in determining the ecological adaptation and yield of cereals. In order to elaborate a methodology for establishing the timing of the consecutive plant developmental phases from germination to the fully developed plant, regular measurements of changes in developmental components were carried out on one winter (Kompolti Korai) and one spring (Morex) barley cultivar in a model experiment. Under the controlled environmental conditions linear regression was characteristic of the associations between the chronological time and all or most of the time course data of plant height, tiller and leaf numbers. The initial growth of the spring barley was twice as intensive as that of the winter barley. The length of the stem elongation phases was similar for the two varieties, but the winter barley cultivar showed significantly more intensive stem growth compared to the spring barley. The spring barley reached all the plant developmental phases significantly earlier than the winter barley. For both cultivars, tillering continued till after first node appearance and there was a definite delay between first node appearance and the beginning of the stem elongation phase. The determination of the full series of phenophases, together with the evaluation of various yield components on the same plant, provide an excellent way of establishing plant developmental patterns and may make a significant contribution to achieving a better understanding of the associations between plant developmental patterns and the adaptation and yielding ability of cereals.

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Myocardial infarction is responsible for the majority of cardiovascular mortality and the pathogenesis of myocardial damage during and after the infarction involves reactive oxygen species. Serious efforts are under way to modulate the developing ischemia/reperfusion injury and recently the use of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emerged as a new possibility. H2S has been best known for decades as a pungent toxic gas in contaminated environmental atmosphere, but it has now been recognized as a novel gasotransmitter in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, similarly to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). This finding prompted the investigation of the potential of H2S as a cardioprotective agent and various in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that H2S may be of value in cytoprotection during the evolution of myocardial infarction. Although several questions remain to be elucidated about the properties of this new gasotransmitter, increased H2S levels may have therapeutic potential in clinical settings in which ischemia/reperfusion injury is encountered. This review article overviews the current understanding of the effects of this exciting molecule in the setting of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.

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Barley-infecting isolates of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) were collected in the field in the vicinity of the cities Dunakiliti, Heves and Siófok, in Hungary. Viral genomic DNA was amplified by the rolling circle amplification technique, digested with Hind III, cloned into pBSK+ plasmid and sequenced. The clones were of the same size and showed above 99% identity to each other. Based on DNA sequences WDV-D01, WDV-H1 and WDV-H07 isolates showed high identity (94–99%) to isolates of WDV barley strain and Barley dwarf virus and lower identity to Oat dwarf virus (71% identity) and WDV wheat strains (85% identity).

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Barley-infecting isolates of WDV were collected in the field of near Sofia. The complete genomes of two isolates were amplified by PCR, cloned into pGEM-T plasmid and sequenced. The two clones were the same size and showed complete homology. The WDV-Bg17 clone was compared with Barley dwarf virus, Oat dwarf virus and Wheat dwarf virus isolates. Based on DNA sequences WDV-Bg17 isolate shows high homology (95–97%) to Barley dwarf virus isolates and differs from Oat dwarf virus (71% homology) and Wheat dwarf virus (85% homology).

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Dispersal plays a key role in the adaptation of species. It has been suggested that even in a stable and predictable environment, it is essential for any given population to “send” a certain portion of its offspring to disperse (referred as evolutionary stable dispersal rate). Although the literature on the flight behaviour of one of the major maize pests, the western corn rootworm, is rich, relatively little is known about its inter-field movements under field conditions. In the present study, inter-field movement of adult beetles was observed in Central-Europe under quasi-isolated conditions of infested continuous and un-infested first year maize fields, and related to candidate predictor variables. Percent of immigrants (net percent of adults within a given population leaving their natal maize field and arriving in first-year maize) varied greatly across years and locations (0.4–93.3%, mean = 38.7%). Results of the study provided field evidence of the assumption that western corn rootworm performs density dependent inter-field movement. Independent from pest densities, it appeared that about 1/3 of an adult beetle population always leaves its natal maize field, which likely allows the species to find new food sources and oviposition sites. The distance between maize fields and the phenological status of maize influenced inter-field movements but at a much less extent than it could have been expected from laboratory research findings.

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Summary  

Thirty-seven episodes of dust intrusion were observed between February 12, 1991 and August 31, 2000 in the Hungarian atmosphere and found to be of Saharan origin. They have been assigned to typical source areas in Northern Africa selected by systematic investigations related to the Mediterranean Basin. Elemental concentrations and regional signatures deduced from PIXE analysis, total suspended particle mass, and black carbon mass have been measured on dust samples collected in Debrecen, Hungary. These data combined with Aerosol Index data, and dust plume axes obtained from TOMS data from NASA satellites were used for assigning the most probable source areas of the dust transported to the sampling site. Our data and conclusions are in accordance with other published investigations on the predominant role of Saharan dust emission in building up the aerosol load of the global atmosphere.

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The occurrence of a goat disease caused byMycoplasma mycoidessubsp.mycoidesLC in Hungary is reported. The disease occurred in two goat herds in the spring of 1999. In one herd 25% of the 4–12 weeks old kids (10 animals) while in the other herd 33% of the 6–12 weeks old kids (20 animals) became affected. The goat kids developed polyarthritis. The most severe lesions developed in the carpal joints. All animals died after 3–8 days of disease. Four dead kids were necropsied. All of them had serofibrinous and purulent polyarthritis, and in two animals bronchopneumonia, fibrinous pleuritis and meningitis were also found. In the articular exudates the presence of mycoplasmas was detected by PCR using a general mycoplasma primer. Mycoplasmas were cultured from the joints of all animals, from the abdominal parenchymal organs of two kids and from the lungs of one animal. The cultured mycoplasmas grew in strikingly large colonies, proved to be glucose positive, arginine negative and phosphatase positive, and liquefied the coagulated serum. They survived incubation at 45 °C for more than 24 h. Based upon their biochemical properties, the results of the immunofluorescence (IF) and growth inhibition tests and the sequence analysis of the PCR product, the cultured strains were identified asM. mycoidessubsp.mycoidesLC. Animals purchased in the previous autumn had been introduced to both farms. The disease may have been introduced with asymptomatic carrier animals, as earlier no similar disease had been observed at either farm.

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The authors report the first case of bovine neosporosis in Hungary based on investigations made on an aborted fetus. The diagnostic methods included traditional as well as molecular techniques. This record extends further the geographic range of the disease.

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Since genetic recombination is a major factor in the evolution of the cytopathogenic (cp) bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) biotypes, in this study the cytopathogenicity markers were investigated in the genomes of two cp BVDV strains recently isolated from mucosal disease (MD) cases in Hungary. In the genome of strain H4956, a Jiv-like insertion was found similar to those described in reference strain NADL and in other BVDV 1, BVDV 2 and border disease virus (BDV) strains. The 133 amino acid Jiv-like sequence is inserted at nucleotide position 4984 (amino acid position 1533), 9 nucleotides upstream of that of strain NADL. The insertion showed 96% amino acid sequence identity with the cellular Jiv protein. In the genome of cp BVDV strain H115/PCR, an ubiquitin-containing duplication was found. The duplicated sequence started at nucleotide position 7978 (amino acid 2531) in the NS4B gene. The duplication contained a complete ubiquitin monomer of 76 amino acids and the complete NS3 gene starting at nucleotide position 5153 (amino acid 1589), which corresponds to the first N-terminal amino acid of NS3. The duplication was located further downstream of the known ubiquitin-containing genomic regions of cp BVDV strains, and it consisted of the shortest inserted nucleotide sequence. The insertions and duplication of strains H4956 and H115/PCR further confirmed that recombinations occurring at positions A and B are the most common mechanisms leading to the development of BVDV cytopathogenicity.

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Abstract  

The northwestern prevailing wind direction and episodic south-to-north trajectories connect Hungarian atmosphere to the west and middle European as well as Mediterranean and Scandinavian regions that were covered by the 21 sampling sites active in an international collaboration on air quality. Our present set of data collected in Debrecen during the past decade is added to their data for comparison and the outcome is presented in this paper.

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