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Summary This paper reports excess molar enthalpies of the binary systems hexane+ethyl benzene, hexane+o-xylene, hexane+m-xylene and hexane+p-xylene at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, over the whole composition range. The data was measured directly using a Calvet microcalorimeter. The excess magnitude was correlated to a Redlich-Kister type equation for each mixture. Also, we will discuss the results for the four mixtures studied here and by comparison with the same binary systems but containing propyl propanoate as first component. Finally, we will correlate our results with the Nitta-Chao and the three UNIFAC theoretical approximations.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
S. Freire
,
L. Segade
,
S. García-Garabal
,
J. Jiménez de Llano
,
M. Domínguez
, and
E. Jiménez

Abstract  

Excess molar enthalpies for the ternary mixture {propyl propanoate + hexane + chlorobenzene} and the binary mixtures {propyl propanoate + chlorobenzene} and {hexane + chlorobenzene} were determined at the temperature 298.15 K and normal atmospheric pressure. The experimental values were measured using a Calvet microcalorimeter. Excess molar enthalpies obtained were also used to test empirical expressions for estimating ternary properties from binary results.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. V. Alonso
,
M. Oliet
,
J. C. Domínguez
,
E. Rojo
, and
F. Rodríguez

Abstract

Resol resins are used in many industrial applications as adhesives and coatings, but few studies have examined their thermal degradation. In this work, the thermal stability and thermal degradation kinetics of phenol–formaldehyde (PF) and lignin–phenol–formaldehyde (LPF) resol resins were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG) in air and nitrogen atmospheres in order to understand the steps of degradation and to improve their stabilities in industrial applications. The thermal stability of samples was estimated by measuring the degradation temperature (T d), which was calculated according to the maximum reaction rate criterion. In addition, the ash content was determined at 800 °C in order to compare the thermal stability of the resol resin samples. The results indicate that 30 wt% ammonium lignin sulfonate (lignin derivative) as filler in the formulation of LPF resin improves the thermal stability in comparison with PF commercial resin. The activation energies of degradation of two resol resins show a difference in dependence on mass loss, which allows these resins to be distinguished. In addition, the structural changes of both resins during thermal degradation were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), with the results indicating that PF resin collapses at 300 °C whereas the LPF resin collapses at 500 °C.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Itzel Y. Rangel-Sánchez
,
Daniel Salas-Treviño
,
Adolfo Soto-Domínguez
,
Oscar I. Garza-Rodríguez
,
Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas
,
Pablo Zapata-Benavides
,
Juan J. Zarate-Ramos
,
Sibilina Cedillo-Rosales
, and
Diana E. Zamora-Ávila

Abstract

The Wilms’ tumour gene (WT1) has previously been described as an oncogene in several neoplasms of humans, including melanoma, and its expression increases cancer cell proliferation. Recent reports associate the expression of the PPARβ/δ gene (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta) with the downregulation of WT1 in human melanoma and murine melanoma cell lines. The aim of this work was to analyse the expression of WT1 and its association with PPARβ/δ in samples of healthy and melanoma-affected skin of horses by immunohistochemistry. WT1 protein expression was detected in healthy skin, mainly in the epidermis, hair follicle, sebaceous gland and sweat gland, while no expression was observed in equine melanoma tissues. Moreover, it was observed that PPARβ/δ has a basal expression in healthy skin and that it is overexpressed in melanoma. These results were confirmed by a densitometric analysis, where a significant increase of the WT1-positive area was observed in healthy skin (128.66 ± 19.84 pixels 106) compared with that observed in melanoma (1.94 ± 0.04 pixels 106). On the other hand, a positive area with an expression of PPARβ/δ in healthy skin (214.94 ± 11.85 pixels 106) was significantly decreased compared to melanoma (624.86 ± 181.93 pixels 106). These data suggest that there could be a regulation between WT1 and PPARβ/δ in this disease in horses.

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