Authors:P. Cai, H. Long, J. Liang, C. Wang, G. Deng, Z. Pan, Z. Peng, and M. Yu
Based on the known GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) cDNAs of barley and wheat, oligonucleotide primers were designed to isolate GA20ox genes from genomic DNA of Dasypyrum villosum. A total of 19 clones were obtained. Each of them contained an open reading frame encoding a putative 40-KDa protein of 359 amino acid residues. Twenty-one SNPs and 4 InDels were found and could divide the 19 sequences into 2 classes, designated as DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2, respectively. Q-PCR analyses showed that both DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 were in leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem, eustipes, root and developing spike. Similar expression levels were found between DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 in three stages. The total expression levels of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 presented downtrend in leaf blade and ascend in stem, eustipes and developing spike along with the development of plants, respectively. However, they were firstly increased and then decreased in root from seeding stage to heading stage. These results revealed that the gene expression profile of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 closely related to the growth and development of D. villosum.
Authors:Genowefa Kotwica, Anita Franczak, S. Okrasa, and J. Kotwica
The role of oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ) secretion during luteolysis in gilts was studied using a highly specific OT antagonist (CAP-581). In Experiment 1 gilts on Days 14 to 19 of the oestrous cycle in Latin square design were used, to determine the dose and time of application of OT and CAP. In Group I (n = 6) gilts were treated intravenously with saline or with 10, 20 and 30 IU of OT. Concentrations of the main PGF2α metabolite i.e. 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prosta-glandin F2α (PGFM) were measured in blood samples as uterine response to the treatment. Twenty IU of OT was the most effective to stimulate PGFM release and this dose was used after CAP treatment in gilts of Groups II, III and IV. Gilts of Group II (n = 3) were injected into the uterine horns (UH) with saline (5 ml/horn) or CAP (2 mg, 3 mg and 4 mg; half dose/horn) and OT was injected (i.v.) 30 min thereafter. Any of the CAP doses given into the UH affected PGFM plasma concentrations stimulated by OT. In Group III (n = 4) gilts were infused (i.v.) for 30 min with CAP (9 mg, 14 mg and 18 mg/gilt) followed by 20 IU of OT. All doses of CAP effectively inhibited OT-stimulated PGF2α release, therefore 9 mg was selected for the further studies. Gilts of Group IV (n = 4) received OT 4, 6 and 8 h after CAP to define how long CAP blocks the OT receptors. Concentrations of PGFM increased after any of this period of time. Thus, we concluded that 9 mg of CAP infused every 4 h will effectively block OT receptors. In Experiment 2, gilts (n = 4) received CAP as a 30-min infusion every 4 h on Days 12-20 of the oestrous cycle. Control gilts (n = 3) were infused with saline. CAP infusions diminished the height of PGFM peaks (P < 0.05). Frequency of the PGFM (P < 0.057) and OT (P < 0.082) peaks only tended to be lower in the CAP-treated gilts. Peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and oestradiol-17β (E2) and the time of luteolysis initiation as measured by the decrease of P4 concentration were the same in CAP-and saline-treated gilts. The macroscopic studies of the ovaries in gilts revealed lack of differences between groups. We conclude that OT is involved in the secretion of luteolytic PGF2α peaks but its role is limited to controlling their height and frequency. Blocking of OT receptors did not prevent luteolysis in sows.
Authors:H. Li, X. Yang, W. Tomes, Wei-Ping Pan, and J. T. Riley
The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TG interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.
Authors:X. Li, J. Xu, Y. Jiang, L. Chen, Y. Xu, and C. Pan
High-performance liquid chromatography with a hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) column has been successfully used to retain and separate the polar phosphonic herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. Online electrospray tandem ion-trap mass spectrometric and DAD detection were used. The effects on the separation of mobile phase acetonitrile content, buffer concentration, and flow rate, and of column temperature, were investigated. With UV-visible detection at 195 nm, LOQ were <850 mg kg−1, showing the method is suitable for product quality control of these herbicides alone or in combination. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were optimized for ion-trap detection. Quantification was by use of selected reaction monitoring transitions m/z 168 → 150 in negative-ion mode for glyphosate and m/z 182 → 136 in positive-ion mode for glufosinate. Limits of detection (LOD; S/N > 3) were 0.20 and 0.16 ng for glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, and the respective limits of quantification (LOQ; S/N = 10) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg kg−1. Sample derivatization was not necessary to achieve low detection limits in residue analysis in this study. Recovery from watermelon, spinach, potato, tomato, radish-root, and water fortified with the herbicides ranged from 63.6 to 107.3% and relative standard deviations were <15.3%.
Authors:Q. Qian, W. Feng, J. Chen, P. Zhang, C. Chai, J. Pan, Y. Wu, S. Zheng, X. Liu, and Z. Chao
The iron contents in the hair and blood samples of 37 juvenile athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/day, respectively, in the food of ferrous gluconatecontaining chocolate for 3 months were determined before and after the supplementation by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results showed that after supplementation of the iron-fortified food, the normal ferritin level in the blood of the male athletes was attained and the iron content in the hair was increased with supplementation, but both are not in the positive proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplementation of 8 mg iron/day to juvenile athletes may be desirable.
Authors:N. Zhang, R.Q. Pan, J.J. Liu, X.L. Zhang, Q.N. Su, F. Cui, C.H. Zhao, L.Q. Song, J. Ji, and J.M. Li
Plants with deficiency in Gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis pathway are sensitive to exogenous GA3, while those with deficiency in GAs signaling pathway are insensitive to exogenous GA3. Thus, exogenous GA3 test is often used to verify whether the reduced height (Rht) gene is involved in GAs biosynthesis or signaling pathway. In the present study, we identified the genetic factors responsive to exogenous GA3 at the seedling stage of common wheat and analyzed the response of the plant height related quantitative trait loci (QTL) to GA3 to understand the GAs pathways the Rht participated in. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between KN9204 and J411 with different response to exogenous GA3 were used to screen QTL for the sensitivity of coleoptile length (SCL) and the sensitivity of seedling plant height (SSPH) to exogenous GA3. Two additive QTL and two pairs of epistatic QTL for SCL were identified, meanwhile, two additive QTL and three pairs of epistatic QTL for SSPH were detected. For the adult plant height (PH) investigated in two environments, six additive QTL were identified. Three QTL qScl-4B, qSsph-4B and qPh-4B were mapped in one cluster near the functional marker Rht-B1b. When PH were conditional on SSPH, the absolute additive effect value of qPh-4B and qPh-6B were reduced, suggesting that the Rhts in both two QTL were insensitive to exogenous GA3, while the additive effect values of qPh-2B, qPh-3A, qPh-3D and qPh-5A were not significantly changed, indicating that the Rhts in these QTL were sensitive to exogenous GA3, or they were not expressed at the seedling stage.