Authors:J. Parus, J. Kierzek, W. Raab, and D. Donohue
A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of 137Cs and 60Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.
Authors:D. Pawlak, J. Parus, I. Sasinowska, and R. Mikolajczak
We describe an analytical procedure with the use of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the determination of about 20 elements in solutions of 177LuCl3 following the dissolution of the irradiated lutetium nitrate or oxide. The aliquots containing amounts of lutetium ranging from 1 to 100 µg in 1 ml volume were analyzed. It corresponded to the activity of 177Lu ranging from 5 to 100 mCi. The detection limits of the elements concerned were in the range of 1 to 100 ng·ml–1. The activity of 177Lu and other radionuclides was measured using a high-resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The developed procedures are to be used for routine quality control of 177Lu produced for synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals.
Authors:J. Parus, W. Ratyński, T. Żóŀtowski, J. Tys, J. Kierzek, E. Cieślak, and J. Kownacki
The selection of exciting source both from the point of view of excitation efficiency and elimination of matrix effects using
incoherently scattered radiation from the analyzed sample is discussed. Samples of materials from the flotation process of
copper ore have been used and copper, iron and lead were the elements sought. For the excitation of fluorescence X-rays, sealed
radioisotopic sources of238Pu,241Am,244Cm,109Cd and a molybdenum X-ray tube were used. For X-ray analysis a Si(Li) spectrometer was applied. The processing of X-ray spectra
based on the application of the Gaussian peak representation gives results equivalent to the total peak area method. From
the intensities of fluorescence and scattered radiation, the contents of elements were calculated using empirical formulae
and the results were compared with those of the Heinrich-Rasberry method. A statistical analysis of the results has been carried
out and the criteria of optimal regression formula selection are given.
Authors:R. Mikolajczak, J. Parus, D. Pawlak, E. Zakrzewska, W. Michalak, and I. Sasinowska
Four production methods of 177Lu, e.g. from natural and enriched Lu and from natural and enriched Yb were considered and experimentally evaluated. The samples of all 4 materials were irradiated in a nuclear reactor, the activity of 177Lu measured and compared with a computed one. In the case of 177Lu produced from enriched Lu target the amount of activity obtained is 40 to 70% higher than calculated. The results achieved will be applied for the optimization of 177Lu production for medical applications.
Authors:J. Kierzek, B. Małożewska-Bućko, P. Bukowski, J. Parus, A. Ciurapiński, S. Zaraś, B. Kunach, and K. Wiland
Gamma-ray spectrometry (GS), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis methods and wavelength dispersive X-ray
fluorescence (WDXRF) were applied for the studies of some coal components, e.g., sulphur, light and heavy metal element concentrations
and naturally occurring radioactive isotope contents. Hundred fifty coal samples originating mostly from eight different coal
mines from Upper Silesian Coal Basin and 150 samples of ash obtained from these coal samples in laboratory by total combustion
at final temperature of 820°C, were analyzed. Such comparitive analyses can be helpful in selection of most suitable kind
of coal for burning in electrical power and heat plants to minimize the environmental pollution.