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Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a new disease in Hungary, was recognized in a swine herd located in Southeast Hungary, during the early winter of 1999. The first clinical signs of paleness, anaemia, and leanness appeared immediately after weaning, at the age of 40-50 days. Pustules were frequently observed on the skin of the trunk, and signs of necrotic dermatitis were also visible. A syndrome of poor growth and wasting was characteristic of the affected pigs. A porcine circovirus (PCV), the suspected causative agent, was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing data and restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis of the PCR products suggested that the virus belonged to the PCV-II group where all the causative agents of PMWS are also grouped.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters.
Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line.
Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender.
There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.
The authors investigated the possibility of the presence of VTEC strains in improperly pasteurized milk samples. A total of 64 Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 135 pasteurized milk samples originating from the same producer. The examined isolates contained 29 haemolysin-, 9 colicin- and 5 aerobactin-producing strains, but the investigations concerning heat-resistant and heat-sensitive toxins gave negative results.Six O128-type E. coli strains exerted a cytotoxic effect on the VERO cell line; 5 of them contained H12 antigen, while one could not be typed. Four of the 6 verocytotoxin-producing strains belonged in phage group 20, one in phage group (2)3(7), and one in phage group 4; four strains were of B3, one of A1, and one of A1(A2) phage type.Because of a technical failure the milk was pasteurized at 69 °C for 15 s, which is 2 °C less than required. The results underline the importance of the appropriate pasteurization temperature, as otherwise the milk may contain verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, which is a potentially great hazard for public health.
As DNA methylation patterns are inherited (‘epigenetic memory’) gsh I transgenic poplar ( Populus × canescens ) clones (11 ggs and 6 Lgl ) were treated with the DNA demethylating drug DHAC (5,6-dihydro-5′-azacytidine hydrochloride) at 10 −4 M for 7 days in order to study acquired plant molecular defense mechanisms in novel plant sources. In this study, the response of relative gene expression levels of transgene gsh I and poplar gene gsh 1 to DHAC treatment were analyzed by qRT-PCR ( q uantitative r everse t ranscriptase PCR). High expression levels of transgene gsh I were observed in the 6 Lgl clone (13.5-fold increase) compared to 11 ggs (1.0) sample. The expression level doubled (1.8-fold increase) in the DHAC-treated 6 Lgl samples but not in the 11 ggs clone (0.4-fold). Contrary to this, the relative copy number of transgene gsh I in the 6 Lgl clone was found to be 60% less (1.0) than in the 11 ggs sample (1.6). Relative expression level of endogenous poplar gene gsh 1 showed significantly higher responsiveness to DHAC-induced demethylation than the transgene gsh I with the highest expression level in the untransformed WT poplar (19.7-fold increase) compared to transformed clones of 6 Lgl (8.7-fold increase) and 11 ggs (2.5-fold increase), respectively. Competition in the reactivation capacity between transgene gsh I and poplar gsh 1 of 6 Lgl clone was also observed as the relative gene expression level of transgene gsh I increased from a high relative expression level (13.5) up by about twofold (1.8 times) rate (to 23.7) compared to poplar gsh 1 gene that increased by an 8.7 increment from a lower level (1.6 rel. expression) to 13.9.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that has two molecular forms with 38 and 27 amino acid residues. The aim of the present study was to develop a new, highly specific PACAP-27 assay to investigate the quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 in the central nervous system of various vertebrate species applying the same technical and experimental conditions. Our results show that the antiserum used turned to be PACAP-27 specific. The average ID50 value was 51.5±3.6 fmol/ml and the detection limit was 2 fmol/ml. PACAP-27 immunoreactivity was present in the examined brain areas, with highest concentration in the rat diencephalon and telencephalon. Swine and pigeon brain also contained significant amount of PACAP-27. Our results confirm the previously described data showing that PACAP-38 is the dominant form of PACAP in vertebrates, since PACAP-38 levels exceeded those of PACAP-27 in all examined brain areas. Furthermore, our study describes for the first time, the comparative quantitative distribution of PACAP-27 and-38 in the swine and pigeon brain.
Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) could contribute to tissue regeneration through the ability to form somatic cells. CD34 positivity is regarded as stem cell (SC) or endothelial progenitor cell (EP) marker. According to literature natural substances could increase the release of CD34 positive (CD34+) cells. In this study we investigated the basic rate of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of CBA/Ca (H-2k haplotype) and BALB/c inbred mice by flow cytometry. Then we treated the mice with a new mixture of medical herbs, and we measured the level of CD34+ cells at 1, 3, 6, 18 and 24 hours after the treatment. A biological rhythm in the untreated blood was detected. Moreover the used herbal compounds increased the number of CD34+ cells.Although SC number is individually and highly variable in peripheral blood, the fluctuation could be used as a biomarker like the other compounds of peripheral blood in different aspects in risk assessment.
Prompt gamma-activation analysis (PGAA) is an important complementary technique to conventional instrumental activation analysis that can be successfully used in a number of cases when INAA is not applicable. Therefore, a PGAA facility has been constructed at the recently refurbished and upgraded Budapest Research Reactor. It occupies the end position of a new curved themal guide of 30 m length and 2.5×10 cm2 cross section which provides a clean beam of low energy neutrons. The sophisticated HPGe-BGO -ray spectrometer system can be operated in Compton-suppression and pair-spectrometer modes simultaneously. The octal splitting of the main BGO improves efficient pair mode operation when coincidences between pairs of opposite segments and the HPGe detector are required separately. Gamma-gamma coincidence measurements will also be possible when the new multiparameter data acquisition system is completed. One of the main tasks at the new facility will be the accumulation of new spectroscopic data for detector calibration and standardisation, as well as for the construction of a more accurate prompt -ray library for the chemical elements. Various applications are planned, such as the determination of hydrogen in fullerenes and of toxic trace elements in environmental samples.
Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.
Among the factors which determine yield reliability an important role is played by disease resistance. One of the breeding aims in the Martonvásár institute is to develop wheat varieties with resistance to major diseases. The winter wheat varieties bred in Martonvásár are examined in artificially inoculated nurseries and greenhouses for resistance to economically important pathogens. The effectiveness of designated genes for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust has been monitored over a period of several decades. None of the designated major resistance genes examined in greenhouse tests is able to provide complete resistance to powdery mildew; however, a number of leaf rust resistance genes provide full protection against pathogen attack (Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr35). In the course of marker-assisted selection, efficient resistance genes (Lr9, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29) have been incorporated into Martonvásár wheat varieties. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 in the Martonvásár gene pool was identified using molecular markers. New sources carrying alien genetic material have been tested for powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. Valuable Fusarium head blight resistance sources have been identified in populations of old Hungarian wheat varieties. Species causing leaf spots (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) have gradually become more frequent over the last two decades. Tests on the resistance of the host plant were begun in Martonvásár four years ago and regular greenhouse tests on seedlings have also been initiated.
Seeds ensure the survival and dispersal of the majority of vascular plant species. Seeds require species-specific germination conditions and display very different germination capacities using different germination methods. Despite the importance of plant generative reproduction, little is known about the germination capacity of the seeds of the Pannonian flora, particularly under field conditions. Our aim was to reduce this knowledge gap by providing original data on the germination capacity of 75 herbaceous species. We reported the germination capacity of 8 species for the first time. We also highlighted the year-to-year differences in the germination capacity of 11 species which could be highly variable between years. The data regarding the germination capacity of target species, as well as weeds and invasive species, can be informative for nature conservation and restoration projects. Our findings support the composition of proper seed mixtures for ecological restoration and also highlight the importance of testing seed germination capacity before sowing.