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  • Author or Editor: K. Kobayashi x
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Abstract  

A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the determination of 17 elements as impurities in high-purity optical glasses. The substoichiometric extraction of platinum with dithizone was studied and a simple procedure was proposed for the determination of platinum. Copper and manganese were also determined substoichiometrically by the extractions with dithizone and with thenoyltrifluoracetone, respectively. The non-destructive γ-ray spectrometry using a Ge(Li) detector has been applied for the determination of the other 14 elements (Ag, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Ir, Sc, Zn, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta and Tb). Impurity elements at the ppb level were analysed by the proposed method and it is shown that the method is reliable for the determination of trace impurities in high-purity optical glasses.

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Abstract  

A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the determination of chromium. It is based on the substoichiometric extraction of chromium diethyldithio-carbamate into methyl-isobutyl-ketone from acetate buffer solution in the presence of EDTA and potassium cyanide. The method has been applied for the determination of chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate and NBS glasses as standard reference materials.

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Abstract  

The synergistic effect on the extraction of thorium(IV) was found by the combination of 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dpp) as a neutral bidentate ligand. Especially in the presence of dpp (1·10–3M) in benzene, the distribution ratio of thorium(IV) increased by a factor of about 300. Such synergistic enhancement of the extraction was ascribed to the formation of the adduct complex of Th(tta)4(phen) and Th(tta)4(dpp) in the organic phase. The extraction constant and the adduct formation constant were determined and discussed.

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Abstract  

The paper deseribes the determination of indium in metallic tin and cadmium metals by the direct method, which is a variant of substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. It is based on substoichiometric extraction of indium diethyldithiocarbamate into carbon tetrachloride. Indium in tin metal was determined by116mIn (T=54 min), while115mIn (T=4.5 h), formed by the reaction114Cd(n, γ)115Cd was used for cadmium samples. The irradiated sample was dissolved and the radioactivity of116mIn or115mIn, A, was measured. After the separation of indium from the matrix, a known amount of indium, m, was separated substoichiometrically and the radioactivity, a, was measured. Indium was calculated as Mx=m A/a. If a known amount of the element, M, is added to the irradiated sample in advance, the equation for calculation is given as Mx-m A/a−M. By this method, indium can be determined without any consideration of self-shielding and secondary nuclear reaction of the matrix.

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Abstract  

The growing up of the fine particles in a sapphire crystal was simulated with a computer and the expected Mössbauer spectra were calculated by considering the influence of the nearest neighbors and next-nearest neighbors to the magnetic hyperfine field of the iron atoms. The simulated spectra were compared with the Mössbauer spectra observed with a Fe-implanted sapphire and the agreement between them was satisfactory on the whole. It is also revealed that an iron atom implanted into a sapphire crystal may interact, before coming to rest, with the iron fine particles situated within 2–3 nm in the crystal.

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Abstract  

Elemental concentration in each tissue of Japanese morning-glory (Pharbitis nil) during the growth was analyzed by INAA. Plants were grown in water culture for 4 days under 12-hour light and 12-hour dark condition. During the growth, 10 plants in the same developmental stage were periodically harvested. Then the plants were separated into 9 tissues to determine elemental concentration and water content. There was an elemental specific profile within the plant tissue, for example, Na and K concentrations were high in root whereas Mg and Ca concentrations were high at the upper part of the plants. Among the elements studied, Ca and Mg showed rhythmical change in concentration, increased during the day and decreased during the night. This tendency was especially noted at shoot apex. However, water content in all of the tissue was increased about 6 hours prior to the light period and showed maximum in the middle of the light period. About 6 hour difference of water content movement to those of Ca and Mg concentration suggested that water movement drives more dynamic change of each elemental concentration within a plant.

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Abstract  

A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the substoichiometric determination of cobalt, copper and manganese in glass and glass-making materials. The substoichiometric extraction of cobalt with α-nitroso-β-naphthol was studied and simple procedures are suggested for the determination of the three elements. Cobalt is extracted substoichiometrically as α-nitroso-β-naphtholate into chloroform from solution of pH 6.2, copper as dithizonate in carbon tetrachloride from weak acidic solution, and manganese as tetraphenylarsonium permanganate into chloroform after oxidation to permanganate. Contents from 2 ppm to 3 ppb of cobalt, copper and managanese were analysed in glass-making materials, and it is shown that the method for their determination is reliable and superior in accuracy and reproducibility.

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Abstract  

Uranium and thorium in LSI materials were determined by INAA and α-particles in these materials were also measured. The contents of uranium and thorium and the α-activity in ceramics and zirconia samples were very high. Calculation of α-flux from uranium and thorium contents and analysis of α-spectra were carried out for the ceramics and zirconia samples. The calculated values of α-flux in these samples agreed with the α-flux measured.

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Abstract  

Diffusion coefficients of positronium (Ps) in polycarbonate (PC) have been determined at temperatures between 20 and 300 K by means of positron lifetime spectroscopy. 2,2-dinitrobiphenyl (DNB) was added to the polymer as a Ps quencher and the diffusion coefficients were determined from measured Ps quenching rate constants, assuming that the reaction between Ps and DNB is completely diffusion-controlled.

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