In this work the analysis procedures of fission gas compositions and their isotopic distributions using a gas chromatography
(GC) system and/or a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system were established, and their analysis results were reviewed
in order to evaluate their analytical performance. Also, the accumulated data, up to now, regarding fission gas measurement
were reviewed to discern any irradiation histories of the punctured fuel rods. A simple gas injection apparatus was designed
and fabricated for the quantitative injection of a small volume of fission gas into the GC and the QMS system. With an appropriate
temperature controlling of a molecular sieve 5A column, nitrogen, krypton and xenon of a mixture gas was clearly separated
within 7 min. According to the analysis results, the relative standard deviation in the determination of fission gas compositions,
krypton and xenon, by the GC analysis or by the QMS analysis was about 1%. Based on the review results of the isotopic ratios
of krypton and xenon of the released fission gas, it is likely that no abnormally irradiated rods, i.e. defected rods, were
included among the punctured rods.
It is regarded that the spent resins from the water purification systems of moderator (MOD) and the primary coolant of the
Canada deuterium uranium-pressurized heavy water reactor (CANDU-PHWR) are a unique waste, owing to their high 14C and gamma-emitting nuclides. In this work, 14C and 3H contents, anion and cation fractions and the predominant gamma-emitting nuclides of the spent resins from 4 units of CANDUPHWRs,
were investigated. Also the chemical species of 14C of the spent resins were determined. For a simultaneous separation of 14C and 3H from the spent resins, the wet oxidation-16 wt% H2SO4 stripping process was utilized. The 14C and 3H activity concentration range of the spent resins of the nuclear power plant (NPP), 4 units of all CANDU-PHWR types, was
2.48E5 Bq/g ∼5.33E6 Bq/g, 1.29E5 Bq/g and ∼2.33E5 Bq/g, respectively. Among the analyzed spent resins, the highest 14C and 3H activity concentration was detected in units 4 and 3, respectively. It was found that more than 92% of the 14C activity concentration was retained on the anion resin and the predominant chemical species was inorganic 14C. It was revealed that the anion resin fraction of the spent resins from unit 1 and unit 2, was about 40% and that of unit
3 and unit 4 was around 60%. More than 80% of the total gamma-radioactivity concentration was associated with the cation fraction
of the spent resin. The predominant gamma-emitting nuclide of the spent resin for unit 2 was 137Cs, a fission product, and that for unit 4 was 60Co, a corrosion product.
The calorimetric glass transition and dielectric dynamics of -relaxation in propylene glycol (PG) and its five oligomers (polypropylene glycol, PPG) have been investigated by the modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and the broadband dielectric spectroscopy. From the temperature dependence of heat capacity of PPGs, it is clarified that the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the glass transition region are affected by the heating rate. The kinetic changes of PG and PPGs near Tg strongly depend on the underlying heating rate. With increasing the molecular mass of PPGs, the fragility derived from the relaxation time against temperature also increases. The PG monomer is stronger than its oligomers, PPGs, because of the larger number density of the —OH end group which tends to construct the intermolecular network structure. Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory could still hold for MDSC results due to the fact that the dielectric relaxation time can be related to the configurational entropy.
In the boron neutron capture therapy, an accurate determination of the boron content in a biological sample is very important.
The boron content was investigated with a standard solution of boron which was administered intraperitoneally with a dose
of 750 mg/kg body weight into mice induced cancer cells and tumors. The boron content for two types of a sample was compared
to the boronophenylalanine for the tumor and the ethylamine derivatives for the induced cancer cell, which were also investigated
for their accumulation rate in each organ such as blood, spleen, liver, kidney and brain. An analytical quality control was
carried out by using certified reference materials such as Peach Leaves, Apple Leaves and Spinach Leaves. The relative error
of the measured values was in good agreement within 2% to the certified values.
In order to remove the radiotoxic nuclides, Cs+ and I–, from low-level liquid wastes, the adsorption characteristics have been studied using a mixed adsorbent of chabazite zeolite and activated carbon. The equilibrium data of each nuclide were well correlated with the DA equation in the wide range of equilibrium concentrations. The SEM-EDAX analysis provided precise understanding of the adsorption mechanism of each nuclide. A surface diffusion model was applied to estimate the intraparticle mass transfer and provided prediction results acceptable for practical implementation in the liquid waste treatment.
The electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel requires a characterization of the LiCl-Li2O salt used as a reaction medium. Physical properties, melting and vaporization are important for the application of the salt
and thus they have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Experimental
data suggest LiCl and Li2O compound formations, leading to a melting point depression of the LiCl and a co-vaporization of the LiCl-Li2O salt.
Correction equations of the coincidence-summing effect for efficiencies of HpGe detector based on the decay scheme were developed
by considering the summing up to triple coincidence. The correction equations which do not dependent on the kind of the Ge
detector are very useful for efficiency calibrations of a Ge detector in the energy region from 60 to 400 keV by using75Se radionuclide even with very short source-to-detector distances.
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant.
The sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, was characterized for the
development of the treatment process. The physical properties were measured and chemical compositions and radiological properties
analyzed. The main compounds of the sludge were ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate.
All heavy radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and 226Ra were precipitated and deposited at the bottom, and were not dissolved in the concentrated nitrate solution. A possible
flow-scheme for processing is presented.
It is important to increase a throughput of the salt removal process from uranium deposits which is generated on the solid
cathode of electro-refiner in pyroprocess. In this study, it was proposed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process
by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl–KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits. The
feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined by salt separation experiments on a stainless steel sieve. It was found
that the amount of salt to be distilled could be reduced by the liquid salt separation prior to the salt distillation. The
residual salt remained in the deposits after the liquid salt separation was successfully removed further by the vacuum distillation.
It was concluded that the combination of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation is an effective route for the
achievement of a high throughput performance in the salt separation process.
In order to develop an 125I seed for brachytherapy of prostate cancer, a carrier body consisting of Al2O3 and silver powder was developed. To optimize the adsorption conditions of 125I on the rods, various experiments were performed. The adsorption capacity was more than 95% after 4 hours at a volume of
50 μl containing about 5 mCi of 125I. Dosimetric properties were measured for the radial and longitudinal directions. Variations were below 11% in the longitudinal
distribution and 5% in the radial distribution. This method is effective for the preparation of 125I seeds to be used in brachytherapy treatment.