A neutron induced prompt γ -ray spectrometry (NIPS) facility has been developed at the Nuclear Chemistry Research Division,
of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) with the aim of analyzing the major components of various elements in
aqueous samples. The facility is equipped with a 252Cf neutron source and a γ-γ coincidence setup with two n-type coaxial HPGe detectors based on NIM spectrometric modules in
association with data acquisition and spectral analysis systems. The development of the system, its set-up and the calibration
of detection efficiency up to 8 MeV using a set of radionuclides and the (n,γ) reactions of chlorine are described in the
In this work the analysis procedures of fission gas compositions and their isotopic distributions using a gas chromatography
(GC) system and/or a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system were established, and their analysis results were reviewed
in order to evaluate their analytical performance. Also, the accumulated data, up to now, regarding fission gas measurement
were reviewed to discern any irradiation histories of the punctured fuel rods. A simple gas injection apparatus was designed
and fabricated for the quantitative injection of a small volume of fission gas into the GC and the QMS system. With an appropriate
temperature controlling of a molecular sieve 5A column, nitrogen, krypton and xenon of a mixture gas was clearly separated
within 7 min. According to the analysis results, the relative standard deviation in the determination of fission gas compositions,
krypton and xenon, by the GC analysis or by the QMS analysis was about 1%. Based on the review results of the isotopic ratios
of krypton and xenon of the released fission gas, it is likely that no abnormally irradiated rods, i.e. defected rods, were
included among the punctured rods.
The calorimetric glass transition and dielectric dynamics of -relaxation in propylene glycol (PG) and its five oligomers (polypropylene glycol, PPG) have been investigated by the modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and the broadband dielectric spectroscopy. From the temperature dependence of heat capacity of PPGs, it is clarified that the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the glass transition region are affected by the heating rate. The kinetic changes of PG and PPGs near Tg strongly depend on the underlying heating rate. With increasing the molecular mass of PPGs, the fragility derived from the relaxation time against temperature also increases. The PG monomer is stronger than its oligomers, PPGs, because of the larger number density of the —OH end group which tends to construct the intermolecular network structure. Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory could still hold for MDSC results due to the fact that the dielectric relaxation time can be related to the configurational entropy.
In the boron neutron capture therapy, an accurate determination of the boron content in a biological sample is very important.
The boron content was investigated with a standard solution of boron which was administered intraperitoneally with a dose
of 750 mg/kg body weight into mice induced cancer cells and tumors. The boron content for two types of a sample was compared
to the boronophenylalanine for the tumor and the ethylamine derivatives for the induced cancer cell, which were also investigated
for their accumulation rate in each organ such as blood, spleen, liver, kidney and brain. An analytical quality control was
carried out by using certified reference materials such as Peach Leaves, Apple Leaves and Spinach Leaves. The relative error
of the measured values was in good agreement within 2% to the certified values.
In order to remove the radiotoxic nuclides, Cs+ and I–, from low-level liquid wastes, the adsorption characteristics have been studied using a mixed adsorbent of chabazite zeolite and activated carbon. The equilibrium data of each nuclide were well correlated with the DA equation in the wide range of equilibrium concentrations. The SEM-EDAX analysis provided precise understanding of the adsorption mechanism of each nuclide. A surface diffusion model was applied to estimate the intraparticle mass transfer and provided prediction results acceptable for practical implementation in the liquid waste treatment.
The electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel requires a characterization of the LiCl-Li2O salt used as a reaction medium. Physical properties, melting and vaporization are important for the application of the salt
and thus they have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Experimental
data suggest LiCl and Li2O compound formations, leading to a melting point depression of the LiCl and a co-vaporization of the LiCl-Li2O salt.
In order to develop an 125I seed for brachytherapy of prostate cancer, a carrier body consisting of Al2O3 and silver powder was developed. To optimize the adsorption conditions of 125I on the rods, various experiments were performed. The adsorption capacity was more than 95% after 4 hours at a volume of
50 μl containing about 5 mCi of 125I. Dosimetric properties were measured for the radial and longitudinal directions. Variations were below 11% in the longitudinal
distribution and 5% in the radial distribution. This method is effective for the preparation of 125I seeds to be used in brachytherapy treatment.
In order to reduce the toxicity of both raw wastewater and effluent from a rubber products factory, γ-ray treatment was applied
at different dose levels. The γ-ray treatment did not completely removed the toxicity, suggesting that there were major toxicants
other than destroyable organic compounds. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE phase 1) was conducted to characterize major
toxicants using Daphnia magna. The suspected toxicants in both raw wastewater and effluent were mostly filterable materials and EDTA chelatable metals
and, to some degree, non-polar organic compounds. Anion-exchange removable compounds, most likely organics, were found only
in raw wastewater. Metal analyses showed that zinc and copper concentrations were above levels causing toxicity to D. magna. After 20 kGy γ-ray treatment of raw wastewater, filtrations both at pH 3 and at the initial pH (pH 3.6) showed dramatic
change (9 to 77% and 29 to 85%, respectively) in toxicity reduction, suggesting the formation of toxic filterable materials
which are stable even at acidic conditions. Unlike raw wastewater, there was no significant change in TIE results after γ-ray
treatment at 20 kGy for rubber effluent.
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant.
The sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, was characterized for the
development of the treatment process. The physical properties were measured and chemical compositions and radiological properties
analyzed. The main compounds of the sludge were ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate.
All heavy radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and 226Ra were precipitated and deposited at the bottom, and were not dissolved in the concentrated nitrate solution. A possible
flow-scheme for processing is presented.
Correction equations of the coincidence-summing effect for efficiencies of HpGe detector based on the decay scheme were developed
by considering the summing up to triple coincidence. The correction equations which do not dependent on the kind of the Ge
detector are very useful for efficiency calibrations of a Ge detector in the energy region from 60 to 400 keV by using75Se radionuclide even with very short source-to-detector distances.