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Summary

An isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatograpic assay method was developed for the quantitative determination of atorvastatin and aspirin (ASP) in combined dosage form. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5-μm column with mobile phase containing 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (30:30:40, v/v/v) adjusted to pH 3 using o-phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min−1 and effluents were monitored at 240 nm. The retention times (RTs) of atorvastatin calcium (ATV) and ASP were 10.5 and 3.8 min, respectively. ATV and ASP stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, and dry heat degradation. The degraded product peaks were well resolved from the pure drug peak with significant difference in their RT values. Stressed samples were assayed using developed LC method. The proposed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of ATV and ASP in combined capsule dosage forms.

Open access

Summary  

A method for solvent extraction, separation and recovery of uranium was developed using a new reagent, N-phenylbenzo-18-crown-6-hydroxamic (PBCHA) in the presence of cerium, thorium and lanthanides. Uranium was extracted with a dichloromethane solution of PBCHA producing an orange coloured complex at l max = 400 nm with a molar absorptivity of 5.0 . 104 l . mol-1 . cm-1 and which obeyed Beer's Law in the range of 0.48-5.76 ppm. For ICP-AES the extract was directly introduced into the plasma to enhance the sensitivity several folds with a detection limit of 0.5 ppb. The extraction constants of uranium crown hydroxamic acid complexes were also determined. The selectivity factors K uranyl(b 2 K/K or b 2 K'e/K) for uranium crown hydroxamate were evaluated by comparing the K uranyl with the stability constants of competing metal cations (K) and anions (K) and were found remarkably large. Uranium was recovered in 99.95% purity from monazite sand and phosphate rocks. It could be also preconcentrated and determined in environmental samples.

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Abstract  

A simple, specific and sensitive Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the measurement of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in serum samples.125I-labelled HGH has been used as a tracer and dextran coated charcoal system employed to separate antibody bound hormone from the unbound one. The assay offers sensitivity of 0.16 ng/ml with a reproductibility of 7% intrassay and inter-assay variations. Serum HGH levels were measured at fasting-resting state and during insulin stimulation test in (1) 15 normal subjects (controls and (2) 31 patients with stunted growth, whereas (3) in 7 acromegalic patients the same were measured at fasting-resting state and after oral glucose administration. This procedure has been used to distinguish dwarfs due to growth hormone deficiency from other conditions unrelated to pituitary disease and to confirm acromegaly.

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Abstract  

A rapid method for simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine in radioactive liquid wastes with ion chromatography after pyrohydrolysis separation was proposed for routine analysis. The elements were separated from radioactive liquid wastes by pyrohydrolysis and were subsequently determined with ion chromatograpy. Total time taken to determine these elements is about 45 min including 30 min for the pyrohydrolysis and 15 min for ion chromatography. The results of recovery tests ranged 95% or above. The limits of detection for F and Cl are 0.5 and 0.8 mg kg−1, respectively.

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Abstract  

PbO based phosphate glasses having composition 40P2O5�12Al2O3�6B2O3�9PbO�xNa2O�(33−x)K2O (x=0−33) [F=Na/(Na+K)] have been prepared using conventional melt quench technique. Density, morphology, thermal expansion coefficient (α) and glass transition temperature (T g) were studied as a function of Na/(Na+K) ratio. Formation of transparent, bubble free and clear glass was observed up to x=18 mol%. Density was found to vary from 2.70 to 3.69 g cm−3. The significant changes were noticed in external morphologies at temperatures corresponding to softening, half ball and melting points under high temperature microscope for three compositions (x=0, 10 and 15 mol%). These glasses recorded the softening and half ball temperatures in the range 454–470�C and 523–576�C respectively and melting temperatures agree well with DTA studies within the experimental limits. Glass transition temperature showed a broad maxima while thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) a broad minima around Na/(Na+K)=0.54. This behaviour is explained on the basis of bond formation/phase separation.

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Maize, a moderately salt sensitive crop, first experiences osmotic stress that cause reduction in plant growth under salt stress. Fluctuation in cell wall elongation is one of the reasons of this reduction. Along with others, two important proteins expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase are involved in regulation of cell wall elasticity, but the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating the cell wall related genes is still elusive. The present study was conducted with the aim of understanding the role of DNA methylation in regulating ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes. One salt sensitive and one salt tolerant maize cultivar was grown under hydroponic conditions at different levels of salt stress: T1 = 1 mM (control), T2 = 100 mM and T3 = 200 mM in three replicates. DNA and RNA were extracted from roots. After bisulfite treatment, Methyl Sensitive PCR was used for the DNA methylation analysis. It was revealed that fragment in promoter of ZmEXPB2 gene showed high level of DNA methylation under T1 in both varieties. Comparison of different stress treatments revealed decrease in DNA methylation with the increase in salt stress, significantly lower methylation appearing in T3. Similarly, the fragment in promoter of ZmXET1 gene also showed high levels of DNA methylation in T1. When different treatments were analysed, this gene significantly hypomethylated at T2 which continued to decrease in T3 in sensitive variety but remain stable in tolerant variety. Although, further in-depth analysis is required, our results demonstrate region-specific and genotype-specific methylation shift in the promoter of the ZmEXPB2 and ZmXET1 genes when subjected to the salt stress confirming the epigenetic regulation of these genes under stress conditions.

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Stomatal conductance is an important heat avoidance mechanism and its association with higher yield and heat resistance has been established in Pima cotton. Experiments were carried out on upland cotton under heat-stressed and non-stressed greenhouse and field regimes, to understand the impact of heat-stressed and non-stressed environments on the genetic and combining ability variations for stomatal conductance. The experimental material comprised 8 upland cotton cultivars and their 15 F 1 cross combinations obtained in a line × tester mating arrangement. The results showed high genetic variability for stomatal conductance in a single environment, but low genetic variability across environments, due to the higher magnitude of the environmental interaction, especially that caused by temperature regimes. The interaction effect of temperature regimes also substantially modified general and specific combining ability variations for stomatal conductance. The relative contributions of general and specific combining abilities to total phenotypic variation for stomatal conductance also underwent a great change across field temperature regimes. The non-stressed regime favoured the expression of genes causing the additive type of genetic variability. The heat-stressed field regime, however, favoured the expression of both additive and non-additive types of genetic variation for stomatal conductance in upland cotton. Recurrent selection for the accumulation of favourable genes for general combining ability under non-stressed conditions was suggested for improving stomatal conductance in applied cotton breeding programmes.

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Two simple, accurate, specific, and precise chromatographic methods, reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and highperformance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), have been developed and validated for the determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and difluprednate in ophthalmic dosage form according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The separation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and difluprednate in HPLC was performed on reverse phase (C18, 5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) column using isocratic condition, with acetonitrile, 5 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 5, and methanol (50:25:25, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The flow rate for analysis was 1.0 mL min−1, and the selected chromatographic conditions effectively separated moxifloxacin hydrochloride and difluprednate with retention time of 3.6 and 6.6 min, respectively, at a detection wavelength of 254 nm. Chromatographic development in HPTLC was performed on precoated silica gel 60F254 aluminium plates with n-hexane, 6 M ammonia, and acetone (5:1.8:2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The detection wavelength for simultaneous estimation of both drugs was 232 nm in HPTLC, and the Rf values for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and difluprednate were 2.2 and 7.1, respectively. The linear concentration range for HPLC method was 5 to 50 μg mL−1 and 1 to 10 μg mL−1; and for HPTLC method was 1200 to 2200 ng band−1 and 200 to 1200 ng band−1 for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and difluprednate, respectively. Moreover, Bartlett's test applied on the calibration peak areas revealed homoscedasticity of variance for both the methods. Both methods were validated with respect to system suitability, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The mean percentage recoveries for marketed formulation in terms of accuracy were found to be 100.53 and 100.58 for HPLC; and 100.56 and 100.30 for HPTLC for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and difluprednate, respectively. The pooled percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) value for repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, and robustness studies for both the methods were found to be less than 2. Result of paired t-test at 95% confidence level reveals that there is no significant difference between recoveries of drugs, using both methods. The results of the developed chromatographic methods were acceptable assuring that these methods can be successfully applied for routine quality control testing of both bulk and ophthalmic dosage forms, without any interference from the excipients.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Abdul Malik Tareen
,
M. Rafique
,
A. Wadood
,
M. Qasim
,
H. Rahman
,
S. H. Shah
,
K. Khan
, and
G. S. Pirkani

Abstract

Malaria is a serious global health challenge, which is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. Malarial infection is more prevalent in developing countries including Pakistan. Significant efforts have been made to control malaria; however, due to socio-environmental factors, it remains a frequent problem in Quetta. The present study was undertaken to determine the malarial incidence, species prevalence, and its demographic evaluation in human population of Quetta, Pakistan. A total of 1831 subjects, comprising 1072 male and 759 female presenting symptoms of malaria, were included in this study. Blood samples from clinically suspected individuals were subjected to the standard immunochromatographic and malaria parasite smear analysis for malaria diagnosis. Out of 1831 subjects, 338 (18.45%) patients were positive for malarial parasite while the species prevalence was found as 276 (81.66%) and 62 (18.34%) for Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Furthermore, seasonal variations gradual increase in the prevalence rate. The age group of 21–30 years (30.47%) was found more prone to malaria. The suspected malaria cases were found more frequent in rural (72.1%) as compared to urban (27.9%). In addition, the malaria burden was high in urban area (22.89%) population as compared to the rural area (16.74%) population. It was observed that the highest disease occurrence was caused by P. vivax, which reflects a serious threat for public health. The current findings will be helpful to plan effective strategies to prevent and control malaria in this area.

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