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Scientometrics
Authors:
Julie Callaert
,
Bart Van Looy
,
Arnold Verbeek
,
Koenraad Debackere
, and
Bart Thijs

Summary  

The recent developments towards more systemic conceptualizations of innovation dynamics and related policies highlight the need for indicators that mirror the dynamics involved. In this contribution, we assess the role that 'non-patent references', found in patent documents, can play in this respect. After examining the occurrence of these references in the USPTO and EPO patent systems, their precise nature is delineated by means of a content analysis of two samples of nonpatent references (n=10,000). Our findings reveal that citations in patents allow developing nontrivial and robust indicators. The majority of all non-patent references are journal references, which provide ample possibilities for large-scale analyses focusing on the extent to which technological developments are situated within the vicinity of scientific knowledge. Application areas, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

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Summary  

Today's theories and models on innovation stress the importance of scientific capabilities and science-technology proximity, especially in new emerging fields of economic activity. Inthis contribution we examine the relationship between national scientific capabilities, the science intensity of technology and technological performance within six emergent industrial fields. Our findings reveal that national technological performance is positively associated with scientific capabilities. Countries performing better on a technological level are characterized both by larger numbers of publications and by numbers of involved institutions that exceed average expected values. The latter observation holds for both companies and knowledge generating institutes actively involved in scientific activities. As such, our findings seem to suggest beneficial effects of scientific capabilities shouldered by a multitude of organizations. In addition, higher numbers of patent activity coincide with higher levels of science intensity pointing out the relevance of science 'proximity' when developing technology in newer, emerging fields. Limitations and directions for further research are discussed.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Bart Looy
,
Edwin Zimmermann
,
Reinhilde Veugelers
,
Arnold Verbeek
,
Johanna Mello
, and
Koenraad Debackere

Abstract  

We investigate the relationship between the science intensity of technology domains and country's performance within these domains. The number of references in patents to scientific articles is considered as an approximation of the science intensity of a technology domain whereas a country's technological performance is measured in terms of its technological productivity (i.e. number of patents per capita). We use USPTO patent-data for eight European countries in ten technological domains. A variance analysis (ANOVA) is applied. Country as an independent variable does not explain a significant portion of the observed variance in science intensity (p=0.25). Technology domain, however, explains a significant portion of the observed variance (p<0.001). Moreover, in science intensive fields we find a positive relation between the science linkage intensity of these fields and the technological productivity of the respective countries involved. These findings seem to suggest the relevancy of designing innovation policies, aimed at fostering interaction between knowledge generating actors and technology producers, in a field specific manner.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Arnold Verbeek
,
Koenraad Debackere
,
Marc Luwel
,
Petra Andries
,
Edwin Zimmermann
, and
Filip Deleus
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Scientometrics
Authors:
Juan Gorraiz
,
Christian Gumpenberger
,
Wolfgang Glänzel
,
Koenraad Debackere
,
Stefan Hornbostel
, and
Sybille Hinze
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Scientometrics
Authors:
Juan Gorraiz
,
Christian Gumpenberger
,
Stefan Hornbostel
,
Sybille Hinze
,
Wolfgang Glänzel
, and
Koenraad Debackere
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