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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
Á. K. Kiss
,
L. Gy. Szabó
, and
K. Szabó

Komárek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. (2005): Cyanoprokaryota. 2. Teil: Oscillatoriales. - In: Büdel, B., Krienitz, L., Gärtner, G. and Schagerl, M. (eds): Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 19/2. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Elsevier GmbH, München, 759 pp.; Ross, I. A. (2005): Medicinal plants of the world - chemical constituents, traditional and modern medicinal uses. Volume 3. - Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 623 pp. (ISBN 1-59259-887-0); Siver, P. A., Hamilton, P. B., Stachura-Suchoples, K. and Kociolek, J. P. (2005): Diatoms of North America: The freshwater flora of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. - In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (ed.): Iconographia Diatomologica. Annotated Diatom Micrographs. Vol. 14. A. R. G. Gantner Verlag K. G. Ruggel, 463 pp.;

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Commercial sodium caseinate isolate (SCI) was hydrolysed with either protease Subtilisina carlsberg - Alcalase 2.4 FG (purchased from Novo Nordisk), pronase from Streptomyces griseus, and papain EC 3.4.22.2 (both from Sigma) in a two-step process to determine the changes in the immunoreactivity of a-, ß- and ?-casein. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SCI was performed by pH-stat method. Hydrolysates were analysed using IEF, SDS-PAGE, 2D electrophoresis, FPLC-gel permeation chromatography. Immunoreactive properties of peptide fractions separated from the hydrolysates by FPLC were determined using dot-immunobinding and ELISA methods. The two-step process was observed to be effective in reduction of casein fractions immunoreactivity, however, allergenic epitopes were still present in all peptide fractions.

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The authors’ aim is to reveal the reflection of Hungarian political and economic transformation in the public health nutrition during the last two and a half decades. Results of the four representative, nationwide dietary surveys completed in this period have been analysed for macro-, micronutrient intakes and overweight/obesity. The food consumption-related vital statistics provided by Hungarian Central Statistical Office were also analysed and compared. There are certain signs of favourable improvements: slight decrease of energy intake in females, growing share of plant protein, less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, less sugar. These findings are in parallel with some positive general statistical issues: the extension of life expectancy, lesser acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and stomach cancer mortality, more vegetables and fruit, lesser lard, more oil consumption. On the other hand, there are several detrimental nutritional issues that influence the health status of Hungarian population: still high energy, fat and cholesterol intake, low complex carbohydrates, too much sodium (salt), insufficiencies in some vitamin, macro- and microelements intake. The number of overweight/obese people takes up fairly high level. The surveys somewhat revealed the role of nutrition in the health status of population and now a particle of possibility for its improvement is available

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The first steps in studies on the female and male gametophytes of wheat involved the light microscope analysis of semi-thin sections of embryo sacs containing egg-cells developing in planta. The information thus obtained on the development of the egg-cell from its initial formation to maturity contributed to the successful isolation of egg-cells. The morphological and ultrastructural details of egg-cells isolated 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days after emasculation were examined to determine the function of the female gametophyte and its suitability for micromanipulation. A sufficient number of gametoplasts in the right stage of development are required for the successful microinjection and in vitro fusion of egg-cells and male gametes. No data are yet available on the fusiogenicity of wheat egg-cells in various stages of development. Various in vitro fertilisation and microinjection techniques could be of service in gamete fusion experiments aimed at the creation of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids which do not occur in nature due to sporophytic incompatibility. The results acquired in investigations on immature embryos can be used for the study of embryos developing from egg-cells fertilised in vitro.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
M. Kumar Singh
,
L. Balogh
, and
K. Szabó

Sanita di Toppi, L. and Pawlik-Skowronska, B. (eds) (2003): Abiotic stresses in plants. - Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 231 pp. (ISBN 1-4020-1648-4); Weber, E. (2003): Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. - CAB International Publishing, Wallingford, 548 pp. (ISBN 0-85199-695-7); Werum, M. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004): Diatoms in springs from Central Europe and elsewhere under the influence of hydrogeology and anthropogenic impacts. pp. 9-417. Reichardt, E. (2004): Eine bemerkenswerte Diatomeenassoziation in einem Quellhabitat im Grazer Bergland, Österreich. pp. 419-480. - In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (ed.): Iconographia Diatomologica. Annotated Diatom Micrographs. Vol. 13. Ecology-Hydrogeology-Taxonomy. A. R. G. Gantner Verlag K. G. Ruggel, 480 pp.;

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Related to ongoing (re)forestation in the Great Hungarian Plain the short-term influence of changing land cover was studied on the grains of skeletal sandy soils. In three sampling areas with forest and grassy/arable control plots, the 0.1–0.2 mm grain size fraction of samples taken every 20 cm from the 0–100 cm sandy soil layer (totalling 22,509 grains) were separated and described with optical mineralogical microscope. In order to distinguish sand grains of forest-covered and control areas (grassland/arable land), the results of mineralogical and morphological observations were compared. It was revealed that the amount of feldspar grains is 8–9 times less than the amount of the quartz ones. The increase in the quartz/feldspar (q/fp) ratio is tied to the “consumption” of feldspars: the intense consumption of potassium by trees. Under the forest-covered fields, the number of in-situ crushed grains increased. Grains with etch pits are frequent in samples from the grasslands (except in Hajdúsámson). In samples of forest-covered areas a greatly increased number of brown grains with limonite and/or humus films were observed. The gained results can be useful in proving earlier land use in forested fields.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
Á. K. Kiss
,
K. Szabó
,
M. K. Singh
, and
L. Gy. Szabó

Hausmann, K., Hülsmann, N. and Radek, R. (2003): Protistology, 3rd completely revised edition. - E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 379 pp. (With  384 figures and 22 tables); Krammer, K. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004): Achnanthaceae. Kritische Ergänzungen zu Achnanthes s. l., Navicula s. str., Gomphonema. Gesamtliteraturverzeichnis Teil 2/4. Ergänzter Nachdruck. - In: Ettl, et al. (eds) (2004): Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Band 2/4. Bacillariophyceae 4. Teil. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, 468 pp.; Larkum, A. W. D., Douglas, S. E. and Raven, J. A. (eds) (2003): Photosynthesis in algae. - In: Govindjee (ed.): Advances in photosynthesis and respiration. Volume 14. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 479 pp.; Magurran, A. E. (ed.) (2003): Measuring Biological Diversity. - Blackwell Science Ltd., Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 260 pp. (ISBN-632-05633-9); Pena, L. (ed.) (2004): Transgenic plants - methods and protocols (Methods in molecular biology, Vol. 286). - Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 437 pp. (ISBN 1-59259-827-7);

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The sugar composition of the floral nectar was studied in 22 mainly Hungarian local quince cultivars in 2004. The material for investigation was taken from the quince genebank of the Research and Extension Centre for Fruitgrowing, Újfehértó, Hungary. The three main sugar components of the nectar were glucose, fructose and sucrose. Sucrose was present in the greatest amount in the nectar of all investigated quince cultivars. Glucose which is the least sweet among the three main nectar sugars for bees was present in the least amount. The nectar of most cultivars contained more fructose than glucose. The amount of the total nectar sugars was the lowest in cv. 'Pear-shaped Noszvaji' and the highest in cv. 'Kúti'. According to the Baker-quotient (S/F+G), the majority of the quince cultivars belonged to the sucrose dominant category. However, the cultivars 'Mezőkövesdi', 'Apple-shaped Dunabogdány' and 'Váli' had sucrose-rich nectar. The concentration of floral secretory product in all cultivars reached the threshold of bee visitation. The nectar refraction was lower at the end of bloom than in full bloom while flowers contained more nectar at the previous stage. The above results are important from the viewpoint of pollination biology, apiculture and defence against fire blight.

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Vitamin D2 is essential for the human body and mushrooms are proved to be one of the best sources of it. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest white and cream type button mushrooms and oyster mushroom were treated with UVB light in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. UVB lamps (operating on 312 nm) and six time periods of irradiation (15 to 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 analysis. Data showed considerable increase in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in each cultivar.

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