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Abstract

Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a severe and transmissible disease of snakes worldwide. Reptarenaviruses have been identified as the aetiological agents of BIBD. We determined the almost complete genome sequence of an arenavirus detected in a female red-tailed boa that had succumbed in a private collection in Hungary. We used a combination of next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing methods. Based on the analysis of the obtained sequence data, the virus, tentatively named Coldvalley virus, seemed to belong to the Reptarenavirus genus of the Arenaviridae family. This classification was confirmed by the genome structure (bisegmented single-stranded RNA) characteristic of the genera Mammarenavirus and Reptarenavirus. The pairwise comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as the topology of the maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees, suggested that the newly-characterised Coldvalley virus can be classified into the species Rotterdam reptarenavirus.

Open access
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
János Gál
,
Míra Mándoki
,
Endre Sós
,
Péter Kertész
,
Viktória Koroknai
,
Krisztián Bányai
, and
Szilvia L. Farkas

A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
J. Bányai
,
P. Szűcs
,
I. Karsai
,
K. Mészáros
,
Cs. Kuti
,
L. Láng
, and
Z. Bedő

A total of 96 winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.

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The effect of irrigation water on the yield and on individual yield components was examined for 19 durum wheat varieties by continually recording weather data and carrying out measurements on the moisture content, temperature, electrical conductivity and tension of the soil. Dry (rain-fed) and irrigated treatments were included in the experiment, which was carried out in the framework of the EU FP7-244374 DROPS project.During the rainless spring of 2011 the soil moisture content of the non-irrigated area dropped to 21–22 vol% and the effect of drought stress was still felt at harvest. The quantity of irrigation water applied during the growing season ensured normal conditions for generative development and a significant difference could be detected between the yield components in the two treatments. The thousand-kernel weight of the varieties was identical in the dry and irrigated plots, but in response to irrigation there was an increase in the number of grains per ear and the grain weight, and an improvement in fertilisation, resulting in higher yields.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Anna Blázovics
,
Éva Sárdi
,
Klára Szentmihályi
,
L. Váli
,
Mária Takács-Hájos
, and
Éva Stefanovits-Bányai

Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 ± 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b. w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Váli
,
H. Fébel
,
É. Stefanovits-Bányai
,
É. Sárdi
,
A. Lugasi
,
K. Szentmihályi
, and
A. Blázovics

Dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may have beneficial effect on survival of the patients. Table beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra) contains bioactive agents, which have a wide range of different physiologic effects. These agents have beneficial antioxidant properties. The aim in the present study was to determine the gut protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the rat liver. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power and free SH-group concentracion were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry in duodenum and plasma. Lyophilized table beet increased significantly the free radical scavenging property of the plasma measured by chemiluminometry. Other antioxidant parameters of the plasma increased in rats fed table beet diet, and change in reducing power was significant. Beneficial effect of the treatment was found in changes of total scavenger capacity of the duodenum during ischaemia-reperfusion injury. H-donating ability and reducing power of the gut decreased in the table beet-fed group during ischaemia-reperfusion compared to normal group with ischaemia-reperfusion. Based on these data, it can be concluded that table beet can protect the entire body from the oxidative damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion of the liver, but the effect of table beet treatment on gut mucosa needs further investigation.

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In the present study, heat treatment was carried out in five different phenological phases, from the first node detectable (DEV31) growth stage to 20 days after flowering, on four wheat genotypes with very different adaptation strategies. They were grown in a controlled environment in a phytotron chamber and exposed to a night temperature of 20°C and a day temperature of either 30°C, at DEV31, or 35°C at all the later developmental phases, for an interval of 14 days. Plant height, leaf number, number of tillers, grain number and grain weight per main and side spikes, TKW per main and side spikes, length of the main and side spikes, and spikelet number per main and side spikes were recorded. High temperature enhanced the stem growth intensity, plant height and tiller number. In contrast, the length of side spikes, spikelet no./side spike, grain no./main and side spike, grain weight/main and side spike and TKW/main and side spike were significantly decreased. The stress response depended strongly on the developmental phase in which the heat stress was applied. Fleischmann 481 and Soissons showed definitely contrasting tendencies both in grain number and grain weight. In the case of the Plainsman V and Mv Magma pair, the higher heat stress tolerance of Magma compared to Plainsman V was evident also from the grain number and weight of the main spike at each developmental phase.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
N. Regéczy
,
L. Kormos
,
Cs. M. Szigetvári
,
É. Torbágyi
,
M. Hajdu
,
L. Gopcsa
,
A. Bányai
, and
K. Pálóczi

Reaction patterns of the 7th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop blind panel adhesion molecules were studied on CD3/CD4, CD3/CD8, CD3/TCRγδ double positive T cells from peripheral blood of patients with chronic graft versus host disease (n=8) and healthy controls (n=4). Reactivity of 14 adhesion antibodies was tested by threecolour immunophenotyping. The mean proportion of CD3+ T cells (69±19%), CD3/CD8++ (31±13%) and CD3/TCRγδ++ (4±2%) T sub-populations of patients were comparable with the healthy controls. However, the mean percentage of CD3/CD4++ T cell subset in patients (14±12%) proved to be significantly decreased in comparison with the normal control value (34±16%) presumably due to secondary immunodeficiency. The workshop antibodies proved to be reactive with three T cell subsets expressing the examined antigens. Based on the results of the adhesion molecule workshop new CD categories have been introduced: CD156b as a transmembrane protein, CD167a as an epithelial tyrosin kinase receptor, CD168 as a receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) and CD171 as a co-stimulatory adhesion molecule. There were significant differences in the expression of the CD167a and CD156b antigens on the CD3/CD4++ subset between the samples of patients compared with the controls characterizing the CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulation in chronic graft versus host disease.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Orsolya Király
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Daniel L. King
,
Hae-Kook Lee
,
Seung-Yup Lee
,
Fanni Bányai
,
Ágnes Zsila
,
Zsofia K. Takacs
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Background and aims

Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming.

Methods

After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review.

Results

Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

Open access