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The effect of irrigation water on the yield and on individual yield components was examined for 19 durum wheat varieties by continually recording weather data and carrying out measurements on the moisture content, temperature, electrical conductivity and tension of the soil. Dry (rain-fed) and irrigated treatments were included in the experiment, which was carried out in the framework of the EU FP7-244374 DROPS project.During the rainless spring of 2011 the soil moisture content of the non-irrigated area dropped to 21–22 vol% and the effect of drought stress was still felt at harvest. The quantity of irrigation water applied during the growing season ensured normal conditions for generative development and a significant difference could be detected between the yield components in the two treatments. The thousand-kernel weight of the varieties was identical in the dry and irrigated plots, but in response to irrigation there was an increase in the number of grains per ear and the grain weight, and an improvement in fertilisation, resulting in higher yields.

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Abstract  

A non-ionic polymer (poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)) has been incorporated into the inorganic layers of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) during precipitation of quasicrystalline C–S–H from aqueous solution. C–S–H and a C–S–H-polymer nanocomposite (C–S–HPN) material were synthesized and characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS NMR) and 13C cross-polarization nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP NMR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal conductivity of PVA, C–S–H and C–S–HPN material was studied in the temperature range 25–50°C. C–S–HPN materials exhibited the highest thermal conductivity at 25 and 50°C. The thermal conductivity increases from 25 to 50°C are 7.03, 17.46 and 14.85% for PVA, C–S–H and C–S–HPN material, respectively. Three significant decomposition temperature ranges were observed on the TG curve of C–S–HPN material.

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A total of 266 Martonvásár (Mv) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions, including varieties and advanced lines, were examined using the “Perfect” molecular markers to detect the Rht-B1b (formerly Rht1) and Rht-D1b (formerly Rht2) semi-dwarfing genes. The gene Rht-B1b was detected in a total of 221 (83.5%) accessions. The Rht-D1b allele was found in fewer accessions. Overall 24 genotypes (9%) contained this allele. The analysis of the development date of the genotypes revealed that the introduction of the dwarfing genes into Martonvásár breeding programmes started in the early 1970s, and they were widely utilized from the 1980s. The Rht-B1b allele was the main source for reducing plant height, while the Rht-D1b allele played only a minor role in the Martonvásár breeding programme.Characterizing accessions using various molecular markers allows us to create a database offering relevant marker information about genotypes. Such a database could be very helpful for selection, allowing breeders to include varieties giving positive results in specific breeding programmes.

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Genebanks are storage facilities designed to maintain the plant genetic resources of crop varieties (and their wild relatives) and to ensure that they are made available and distributed for use by plant breeders, researchers and farmers. The Martonvásár Cereal Genebank (MV-CGB) collection evolved from the working collections of local breeders and consists predominantly of local and regional materials. Established in 1992 by the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Bedő, 2009), MVCGB with its over 10,000 accessions of the major species (Triticum, Aegilops, Agropyron, Elymus, Thinopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Secale, Hordeum, Avena, Zea mays), became one of the approx. 80 cereal germplasm collections that exist globally. In Martonvásár breeding is underway on a number of cereal species, and large numbers of genotypes are tested each year in the field and under laboratory conditions. The increasing size of the research programmes assisted by a modern genebank background involve an enormous increase in the quantity of data that must be handled during research activities such as traditional breeding, pre-breeding and organic breeding. A computerized system is of primary importance to synchronize breeding and genebank activities, to monitor the quality and quantity of seed accessions in cold storage, to assist the registration of samples, and to facilitate characterization, regeneration and germplasm distribution.

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The genetic diversity of cultivated spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) presently is narrow. Evaluation of germplasm collections of spelt on quality level supplemented with DNA analysis is, therefore, of great importance. This study was designed to help the evaluation process for the selection of new spelt varieties with a support of molecular characterization. A total of 30 genotypes, including two common wheat varieties, were included in the evaluation of genetic diversity on quality and DNA levels. According to the quality attributes, spelt flours exhibited medium rheological parameters and many of them had average gluten quality. AFLP analysis was conducted to evaluate phylogenetic relationships and the genetic diversity present in the accessions. A high level of genetic diversity was revealed by the very high PIC values. Two main clusters could be separated on the dendrogram: a cluster with genotypes that have common wheat in their pedigree and another cluster consisting of pure spelt accessions. The extent of genetic diversity in the spelt germplasm collections was confirmed not only by molecular markers but on the basis of quality assessment.

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Abstract  

Electrochemical measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to study a rapidly quenched Ni80 57Fe1P19 amorphous alloy solution treated between 920 and 1500 °C. Different short range orderings were shown in amorphous alloys solution treated at different temperatures. This finding can be associated with phase separation occurring in the liquid state. This phase separation can be inherited in slightly relaxed amorphous state.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Kučera
,
J. Novák
,
K. Kranda
,
J. Poncar
,
I. Krausová
,
L. Soukal
,
O. Cunin
, and
M. Lang

Abstract  

We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple.

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Abstract  

The influence of aqueous silica of two different physical forms (dissolved ions and SiO2 colloid) on the dissolution of UO2 nuclear fuel material was investigated at 95 °C temperature in autoclaves. It was tested that SiO2 colloids can contribute to the surface degradation or act as carrier for uranium ions during a near field geochemical dissolution process. In the presence of colloids, well-crystallized secondary phases containing U and Si were formed on the surfaces, the latter attacked by the treatment. This was not the case when dissolved Si was used. SiO2 colloids were partly found in their original form on the surfaces after 1000 hours at 95 °C. A surface charge model suggests that this different effects are due to the development of electrostatic interactions between the UO2 and SiO2 surfaces.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
J. Bányai
,
P. Szűcs
,
I. Karsai
,
K. Mészáros
,
Cs. Kuti
,
L. Láng
, and
Z. Bedő

A total of 96 winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.

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In recent years an information system has been elaborated and constantly improved in Martonvásár, making it possible to handle the 3–4 million identification, observation, measurement, pedigree and other data generated for a total of almost 100,000 experimental plots each year. The extremely rapid development of biotechnology has made breeders interested in integrating molecular breeding methods into the conventional phenotype-pedigree system. The aim is to improve the competitiveness of breeding programmes through the intensive use of this new technology, with particular emphasis on determining how marker-assisted selection can be utilised. The present paper outlines not only a new data structure introduced to accommodate the new data elements of data categories such as gene sources, primer bank, primer combinations, markers, genes and alleles, but also data management tools and a standalone software interface to combine both molecular and phenotypic data. The integration of the molecular genomic data (GENETECH) with the information from the existing databases: pedigree (PEDIGREE), gene bank (GENEBANK) and germplasm exchange (GERMPEXCHG), ensures that biotechnological data generated at no little cost can be harnessed in ways that are important for breeders in decision-making. This is achieved through: (i) identification and centralization in uniform sources of the molecular data, and their matching with specific phenotypes, with special regard to those of importance for marker-assisted selection, (ii) integration and compliance with existing information system data, (iii) facilitation of decision-making based on the above (e.g. grouping of selection/crossing partners).

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