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Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refers to the injury of alveolar epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells due to various injury factors. Research on the pathogenesis of ARDS has made great progress, but the exact pathogenesis of ARDS has not been fully elucidated. Up to now, the prevention and treatment of ARDS is still an important scientific problem that needs to be solved urgently. In this work, we analyzed the effect of uridine on ARDS. An ARDS model was successfully constructed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Western-blotting, IFA, ELISA, RT-PCT and CLSM were conducted to investigate the effect of uridine on ARDS and insulin resistance, and the results showed that lung histopathological alterations were significantly attenuated by uridine treatment. Further work showed that the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly down-regulated in the lung tissue after treatment with uridine. Additionally, the numbers of total cells and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also decreased in the uridine-treated ARDS mice. We further explored the potential mechanism by which uridine could treat ARDS, and the results indicated that NF-κB signaling was down-regulated by uridine treatment. Next, we studied insulin sensitivity in the ARDS mice, and found that insulin signaling was significantly down-regulated, and uridine could enhance insulin sensitivity in the ARDS mice model. Furthermore, we found that the levels of inflammation and oxidative stress were decreased by uridine treatment, which may be the potential mechanism by which uridine could improve insulin sensitivity. Taken together, the current work provides evidence that uridine can serve as a potential drug to treat ARDS and insulin resistance.

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Abstract  

The liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitric acid with bis(octylsulfinyl)methane (BOSM) has been studied over a wide range of conditions. The extracted species appear to be UO2(NO3)2·2BOSM. It was found that the extraction increased with increasing nitric acid concentration up to 8.5 mol/l and then descreased. Extraction also increased with increasing extractant concentration. The influence of temperature and salting-out agent concentration on the extraction equilibrium has also been investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction was estimated.

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Abstract  

The synergic extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid solution with petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) mixture has been studied. It has been found that maximum synergic extraction effect occurs if the molar ratio of PSO to TBP is two to three. The composition of the complex of synergic extraction is UO2(NO3)2·TBP·PSO. The formation constant of the complex isK PT=8.19. The effect of extractant concentration, nitric acid concentration, salting-out agent concentration and temperature on the extraction equilibrium of uranium(VI) was also studied.

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Abstract

The heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds on Pd/Ce x La1−x O2/monolith catalysts in the temperature range 160–230 °C has been studied, which took toluene combustion as a probe reaction. SEM, ICP-OES, XRD, laser Raman spectra, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) are used to characterize the Pd/Ce x La1−x O2/monolith catalysts. A high activity of the catalyst with respect to the complete oxidation of toluene to carbon dioxide has been observed. The conversion of toluene approaches 100% at about 210 °C.

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Background and aims

Adolescent smartphone addiction has received increased attention in recent years, and peer relationship has been found to be a protective factor in adolescent smartphone. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the mediating role of self-esteem in the association between student–student relationship and smartphone addiction, and (b) the moderating role of the need to belong in the indirect relationship between student–student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction.

Methods

This model was examined with 768 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 16.81 years, SD = 0.73); the participants completed measurements regarding student–student relationship, self-esteem, the need to belong, and smartphone addiction.

Results

The correlation analyses indicated that student–student relationship was significantly negatively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction, and the need to belong was significantly positively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction. Mediation analyses revealed that self-esteem partially mediated the link between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Moderated mediation further indicated that the mediated path was weaker for adolescents with lower levels of the need to belong.

Discussion and conclusion

High self-esteem could be a protective factor against smartphone addiction for adolescents with a strong need to belong as these students appeared to be at elevated risk of developing smartphone addiction.

Open access

Abstract

China's economy and technology have experienced spectacular growth since the Opening-up Policy adopted in 1978. In order to explore the innovation process and development of China, this study examines the inventive activities and the collaboration pattern of university, industry and government (UIG) in China. This study analyzes the Chinese patent data retrieved from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Three models of UIG relations which represent different triple helix configurations are introduced. According to the property of patent assignee, patent ownership can be divided into three types: individuals, enterprises, and universities and research institutes. Furthermore, enterprises can be classified into state-owned enterprise (SOE), private-owned enterprise (POE) and foreign enterprise (FE). The corresponding relationship of patent ownership with UIG is set up. Through analyzing the issued year, it is found that the inventive activities of China have experienced three developmental phases and have been promoted quickly in recent years. The achievement of innovation activities in China primarily falls on the enterprise, especially FEs and POEs. The innovation strengths of the three development phases have shifted from government to university and research institute and then industry. According to co-patent analysis, it is found that the collaboration between university and industry is the strongest and has been intensified in recent years, but other forms of collaboration among UIG have been weak. In addition, an innovation relation model of China was set up. The evolution process of innovation systems was explored, from etatistic model, followed by improved “laissez-faire” model, and then shifting toward triple helix model.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jia Zheng
,
Zhi-Yun Zhao
,
Xu Zhang
,
Dar-Zen Chen
,
Mu-Hsuan Huang
,
Xiao-Ping Lei
,
Ze-Yu Zhang
, and
Yun-Hua Zhao

Abstract

Since China adopted Open-Up and Reformed Policy for global collaboration, China's science and technology have experienced an astounding growth. Papers and patents encompass valuable scientific and technological (S&T) information and collaborative efforts. This article studies China's international S&T collaboration from the perspective of paper and patent analysis. The results show that China's total papers and patents have continuously increased from 2004 to 2008, the papers and patents resulting from China's international collaboration also present a steady growth. However, there is a decline in the share of international collaboration papers and patents with a certain range due to the rapid independent R&D. China's international scientific collaboration (ISC) is broadly distributed over many countries, the USA being the most important ISC partners. China's international technological collaboration (ITC) is mainly carried out with USA and Taiwan, and Taiwan has been the most significant ITC partner of when taking countries’ patent output into account. Besides, ISC shows a continuous raise of Chinese papers’ citation. Even the countries with a small amount of papers and ISC with China, exert a positive influence on the impact of citation of Chinese papers as well. However, ITC does not always play an active role in the improvement of citation impact of Chinese patents.

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Application of microcalorimetry and chemometric analysis

Effects evaluation of angle and nail animal drugs on Bacillus subtilis growth

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Xiaoyan Xing
,
Yanling Zhao
,
Weijun Kong
,
Yanwei Zhong
,
Dan Yan
,
Ping Zhang
,
Yumei Han
,
Lei Jia
,
Cheng Jin
, and
Xiaohe Xiao

Abstract

In this study, microcalorimetry combined with chemometric analysis was used to investigate the effects of angle and nail animal valuable drugs on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) growth. The power–time curves of the growth metabolism of B. subtilis affected by Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum, Cornu Cervi Elaphi, Cornu Saigae Tataricae, cornu caprae hircus, Cornu Bubali, Squama Manis, and Carapax Trionycis were determined using a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter, ampoule mode, at 37 °C. By analyzing these curves and some quantitative parameters using principal component analysis, the effects of the seven animal drugs on B. subtilis could be quickly evaluated from the change of the two main parameters, the maximum heat-flow power P m 2 and total heat output Q t: Cornu Saigae Tataricae, cornu caprae hircus, Cornu Bubali, Squama Manis, and Carapax Trionycis inhibited the growth of B. subtilis, while Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum and Cornu Cervi Elaphi promoted the growth of B. subtilis. Further, the result of hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the drugs which promoted the growth of B. subtilis gathered in one cluster, the other drugs which inhibited the growth of B. subtilis gathered in the other cluster. All these illustrated that the internal characteristics of the seven animal drugs were different though they had similar resources and these drugs could be well clustered according the effects of them on B. subtilis growth with the help of chemometric methods. This study provided an useful idea of the combination of microcalorimetry and chemometric analysis for studying the effects of drugs on organisms.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jia Zheng
,
Zhi-yun Zhao
,
Xu Zhang
,
Dar-zen Chen
,
Mu-hsuan Huang
,
Xiao-ping Lei
,
Ze-yu Zhang
,
Yun-hua Zhao
, and
Run-sheng Liu

Abstract

Patents are the manifestation of the industry's research and development (R&D) endeavor; therefore, this paper studies the industry evolution of and key technologies in China from the perspective of patent analysis. Patents in six types of industries, including Chemical (excluding Drugs), Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics (E&E), Mechanical, and Others are analyzed in this study. Findings from the analysis show a steady increase of US granted utility patents in China as well as percentage of these patents in the world over the period between 2003 and 2008. All the above industries in China have been growing rapidly during this period, which is very different from the global industry development. Despite the rapid development, the citation rates of these patents have been low, reflecting a need for improvement in the quality of patents and R&D performance for these six industries in China in order to exert more influence in the industry world. The analysis on patents also reveals China's industry distribution to be similar to the global industry distribution, with the exception of E&E industry which weights over one third of the total patents in technologies. The E&E industry is also the field with largest economic growth which rises more rapidly after 2006 with a sudden increase of patents in USPC 361. Detailed tracking of the key technology evolution reveals that 90% of the newly issued patents in USPC 361 after 2006 are owned by Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd, pointing to an unbalanced R&D environment in China's E&E industry sector. By providing the insight into the evolution of China's industrial and technological development through the perspective of patent analysis, this paper hopes to provide an objective statistic reference for future policy directions and academic researches.

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Abstract  

The mechanism of solvent extraction of gold(III) in hydrochloric acid media with quaternary ammonium salt octadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride dissolved in chloroform was studied. The influences of temperature, NaCl and HCl concentraction on the extraction equilibrium were also investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic ( H° = -28.53±0.15 kJ/mol) and log K ex = 5.47±0.04.

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