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  • Author or Editor: Loet Leydesdorff x
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Abstract  

The Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations provides a neo-evolutionary model of the process of innovation that is amenable to measurement. Economic exchange, intellectual organization, and geographical constraints can be considered as different dynamics that interact in a knowledge-based economy as a complex system. Differentiation spans the systems of innovation, while performative integration enables organizations to retain wealth from knowledge. Because of the systematic organization of interfaces among the subsystems under study, different perspectives can be expected in the reflection. Consequences for the heuristics, the research design, and normative implications are specified and the organization of the issue is further explained.

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The paper addresses the potential of Internet mailing lists to enhance academic research with respect to Gibbons' distinction between Mode I and Mode II knowledge production (Gibbons et al., 1994). We examine threaded email messages in a selection of Self-Organization and Science & Technology Studies oriented Internet mailing lists to illustrate the internal dynamics involved in the electronic production of knowledge. Of particular interest is the EuroCon-Knowflow mailing list which houses the electronic communication of the Self-Organization of the European Information Society (SOEIS) research group.

The research focuses upon the discussion threads of mailing lists. The use of threaded messages as our hermeneutic units of analysis provides the basis for a reflection upon three key theoretical positions: Medium Theory, Actor-Network Theory, and Self-Organization Theory. With respect to the latter, we measure for self-organized criticality by comparing the frequency and size of threaded messages. Using this and other methods as operationalized modes of theorizing we reveal network dynamics particular to the Internet mailing list.

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Abstract  

This research analyzes a “who cites whom” matrix in terms of aggregated journal-journal citations to determine the location of communication studies on the academic spectrum. Using the Journal of Communication as the seed journal, the 2006 data in the Journal Citation Reports are used to map communication studies. The results show that social and experimental psychology journals are the most frequently used sources of information in this field. In addition, several journals devoted to the use and effects of media and advertising are weakly integrated into the larger communication research community, whereas communication studies are dominated by American journals.

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Abstract  

Based on the citation data of journals covered by the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database (CSTPCD), we obtained aggregated journal-journal citation environments by applying routines developed specifically for this purpose. Local citation impact of journals is defined as the share of the total citations in a local citation environment, which is expressed as a ratio and can be visualized by the size of the nodes. The vertical size of the nodes varies proportionally to a journal’s total citation share, while the horizontal size of the nodes is used to provide citation information after correction for the within-journal (self-) citations. In the “citing” environment, the equivalent of the local citation performance can also be considered as a citation activity index. Using the “citing” patterns as variables one is able to map how the relevant journal environments are perceived by the collective of authors of a journal, while the “cited” environment reflects the impact of journals in a local environment. In this study, we analyze citation impacts of three Chinese journals in mathematics and compare local citation impacts with impact factors. Local citation impacts reflect a journal’s status and function better than (global) impact factors. We also found that authors in Chinese journals prefer international instead of domestic ones as sources for their citations.

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Abstract  

Based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded web-version, the USA is still by far the strongest nation in terms of scientific performance. Its relative decline in percentage share of publications is largely due to the emergence of China and other Asian nations. In 2006, China has become the second largest nation in terms of the number of publications within this database. In terms of citations, the competitive advantage of the American “domestic market” is diminished, while the European Union (EU) is profiting more from the enlargement of the database over time than the USA. However, the USA is still outperforming all other countries in terms of highly cited papers and citation/publication ratios, and it is more successful than the EU in coordinating its research efforts in strategic priority areas like nanotechnology. In this field, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has become second largest nation in both numbers of papers published and citations behind the USA.

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Abstract  

We distinguish between an internal differentiation of science and technology that focuses on instrumentalities and an external differentiation in terms of the relations of the knowledge production process to other social domains, notably governance and industry. The external contexts bring into play indicators and statistical techniques other than publications, patents, and citations. Using regression analysis, for example, one can examine the importance of knowledge and knowledge spill-over for economic development. The relations can be expected to vary among nations and regions. The field-specificity of changes is emphasized as a major driver of the research agenda. In a knowledge-based economy, institutional arrangements can be considered as support structures for cognitive developments.

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Abstract  

Seismology has several features that suggest it is a highly internationalized field: the subject matter is global, the tools used to analyse seismic waves are dependent upon information technologies, and governments are interested in funding cooperative research. We explore whether an emerging field like seismology has a more internationalised structure than the older, related field of geophysics. Using aggregated journal-journal citations, we first show that, within the citing environment, seismology emerged from within geophysics as its own field in the 1990s. The bibliographic analysis, however, does not show that seismology is more internationalised than geophysics: in 2000, seismology had a lower percentage of all articles co-authored on an international basis. Nevertheless, social network analysis shows that the core group of cooperating countries within seismology is proportionately larger and more distributed than that within geophysics. While the latter exhibits an established network with a hierarchy, the formation of a field in terms of new partnership relations is ongoing in seismology.

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Abstract  

University patenting has been heralded as a symbol of changing relations between universities and their social environments. The Bayh–Dole Act of 1980 in the USA was eagerly promoted by the OECD as a recipe for the commercialization of university research, and the law was imitated by a number of national governments. However, since the 2000s university patenting in the most advanced economies has been on the decline both as a percentage and in absolute terms. In addition to possible saturation effects and institutional learning, we suggest that the institutional incentives for university patenting have disappeared with the new regime of university ranking. Patents and spin-offs are not counted in university rankings. In the new arrangements of university–industry–government relations, universities have become very responsive to changes in their relevant environments.

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Summary Institutions and their aggregates are not the right units of analysis for developing a science policy with cognitive goals in view. Institutions, however, can be compared in terms of their performance with reference to their previous stages. King's (2004) 'The scientific impact of nations' has provided the data for this comparison. Evaluation of the data from this perspective along the time axis leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions: a new dynamic can be revealed which points to a group of emerging nations. These nations do not increase their contributions marginally, but their national science systems grow endogenously. In addition to publications, their citation rates keep pace with the exponential growth patterns, albeit with a delay. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly.

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Abstract

The Leiden ranking 2011/2012 provides the Proportion top-10% publications (PP top-10%) as a new indicator. This indicator allows for testing performance differences between two universities for statistical significance.

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