Nickel sulfide (NiS) fire assay was used for the pre-concentration of Ir and Au in rock samples. The beads obtained after
fire assay were irradiated directly with neutrons to determine Ir and Au. To suppress the reaction of 58Ni(n,p)58Co, the fire assay was carried out by using a small amount of Ni (0.0625 g) and the NiS bead samples were irradiated by neutrons
with high Cd ratios. Analytical results of Ir and Au for rock samples were close to literature values, confirming that our
procedure of INAA with pre-concentration can be applied to rock samples for the determination of ppb to sub-ppb level of Ir
Authors:M. Ebihara, S. Fukatsu, K. Hirano, and H. Ozaki
For the determination of trace Cu, Zn and In in rock samples, a simple and convenient scheme of RNAA is presented. In this scheme, relatively short-lived nuclides,64Cu,69mZn and116mIn are radiochemically purified immediately after the irradiation of samples. Although the sensitivity for Zn and In is lower in this scheme than that in the RNAA using65Zn and114mIn at a higher neutron fluence, the present radiochemical procedures are simpler and were proved to be highly effective for the determination of these elements in most terrestrial igneous rocks and meteorite samples.
Authors:M. Ebihara, H. Ozaki, F. Kato, and H. Nakahara
Chlorine, bromine and iodine (hereafter, halogens) were detemined for rock samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The powdered samples and reference standards prepared from chemical reagents were simultaneously irradiated for 10 to 30 minutes with or without a cadmium filter in a TRIGA-II reactor at the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University. The samples were subjected to radiochemical procedures of halogens immediately after the irradiation. Iodine was firstly precipitated as PdI2, and chlorine and bromine were successively precipitated as Ag-halides at the same time. In this study, geological standard rocks, sedimentary rocks and meteorites were analyzed for trace halogens. In some Antarctic meteorites, iodine contents were observed to be anomalously high. Chlorine contents also are somewhat high. The overabundance of iodine and chlorine must be caused by terrestrial contamination on the Antarctica.
Authors:S. Sekimoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takamiya, M. Ebihara, and S. Shibata
Chemical composition of 15 magnetic spherules collected from deep sea sediment was determined by instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA) under two different irradiation conditions using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Based on their chemical
composition, nine spherules were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin. The differences in the chemical composition of the
nine spherules are discussed in terms of condensation temperatures for the elements. Comparing the detection limits derived
from INAA under two different irradiation conditions, the sensitivity for INAA using KUR is discussed.
Authors:Y. Oura, T. Ohtsuki, K. Hirose, and M. Ebihara
We introduce the status of the 300-MeV electron linear accelerator used for radioanalytical studies at Tohoku University.
In the accelerator facility, several scientific programs for producing radioactivities and use have been performed in several
fields, such as photon activation analysis, study of nuclear phenomena influenced by chemical nature, radioisotope production
for trace elements, radiation chemistry and irradiation effects by electrons and photons, radioisotope labeling and its mechanism.
We show the outlook of the facility, instrumental developments of a beam-course, an irradiation system and several measurement
devices. Further, we display a radioanalytical topic in practice, evaluation of trace amount of potassium in high-purity reagent
of Gd2O3 by photon activation analysis.
Authors:S. Sekimoto, T. Kobayashi, K. Takamiya, M. Ebihara, and S. Shibata
Chemical compositions of spherules separated from deep sea sediment dredged off Hawaiian islands and from Antarctic ice were
measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). Iron, cobalt, nickel, iridium,
scandium and manganese contents in those spherules were determined to be 19.3–97.7%, 23–4370 mg·kg−1, 0.08–7.04%, 0.84–35.4 mg·kg−1, 1.4–44.3 mg·kg−1 and 93.4 mg·kg−1–7.2 %, respectively, and compared with each other. Particularly, iridium was detected in seven spherules among fourteen from
Hawaii, but only one spherule among twenty-two from Antarctic, and those spherules turned out to be extraterrestrial in origin.
However, it was shown that there was little difference in characteristics of elemental contents between both kinds of spherules,
except for Ir-detected spherules.
Authors:M. Oshima, Y. Toh, A. Kimura, M. Ebihara, Y. Oura, Y. Itoh, H. Sawahata, and M. Matsuo
By combining neutron activation analysis with multiple gamma-ray detection (gamma-gamma coincidence), we have proved better
sensitivity and resolution for the trace element analysis than the ordinary single gamma-ray detection method. We now try
to apply the multiple gamma-ray detection method to the prompt gamma ray analysis (PGA). We have established a new cold neutron
beam line for PGA in Japan Research Reactor, JRR-3M, at Tokai establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).
It consists of a beam shutter, a beam attenuator, a gamma-ray detector array, a sample changer, and a beam stopper. We construct
a high-efficiency gamma-ray detector array specially designed for this purpose. Its performance has been evaluated with the
Monte Carlo simulation code, GEANT 4.5.0.
Authors:M. Oshima, Y. Toh, Y. Hatsukawa, M. Koizumi, A. Kimura, A. Haraga, M. Ebihara, and K. Sushida
A new radionuclide quantification method is proposed on the basis of multiple gamma-ray detection, which is two or higher
fold gamma-ray coincidence method. The coincidence method has so far been used for nuclear structure study. We apply this
method for quantification of radioactive nuclei. The advantage of this method consists of high energy resolution and high
sensitivity. It is successfully applied to nuclear waste analysis, neutron activation analysis and prompt gamma-ray analysis.
The principle of the multiple gamma-ray detection method and future perspectives for an innovative pulsed neutron source and
a new detector system will be presented.
Authors:M. Ebihara, Y. Oura, T. Ishii, M. Setoguchi, H. Nakahara, and T. Ohtsuki
Chondritic meteorite samples were analyzed nondestructively by photon activation analysis. Powdered samples weighing about 50 mg each were irradiated with photons (-rays) converted from electrons accelerated by a linear electron accelerator at 20 and 30 MeV. With 30-minute and 6-hour irradiations, 11 and 12 elements with duplication of 6 elements could be determined, respectively. Considering that several major elements including Mg, Si and Fe can be determined in addition to Ti, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr, which cannot or hardly be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with rather high sensitivity, instrumental photon activation analysis is as effective as INAA.
Authors:J. Chai, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Kokubu, M. Magara, S. Sakurai, S. Usuda, Y. Oura, and M. Ebihara
In order to search for isotopic anomalies of U caused by the disintegration of 247Cm in meteorite samples, an analytical scheme for determining 235U/238U ratio for a small amount of uranium (less than 1 ng U) was established. The isotopic ratio of U was determined by double-focusing
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS). With a great improvement of chemical procedure for purifying the
uranium fraction separated from meteorite samples, a variation in 235U/238U ratios was resolved at an order of ±4‰ for 100 ppt or 200 pg U in solution. For applying the procedure in searching an evidence
of 247Cm as an extinct radionuclide in the early solar system, a selective chemical dissolution of constituent minerals of meteorites
using EDTA and HCl was introduced and a chemical purification scheme of uranium for ICP-MS was established.