Authors:M. Reddy, T. Ramamohan, A. Reddy, and A. Damodaran
This paper describes a theoretical method for analyzing the behaviour of65Zn during solvent extraction from ammonium thiocyanate solutions with dialkyl sulphoxides. The mechanism of extraction of Zn/II/ from thiocyanate medium by sulphoxides may be represented by the following general equation:
where Mm+ is the metal ion and S is the extractant. Expressions for the distribution coefficients were derived taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by inorganic ligands and also the dissociation of the extracted ion-pairs in the organic phase. Using these expressions, the values of the extraction constants were determined by a least-squares fit with the experimental extraction data. From these extraction constants, the various species extracted into the organic phase were resolved. The influence of the metal concentration, temperature and the diluent on the extraction of Zn/II/ has been investigated.
The extraction behavior of yttrium and trivalent lanthanoids has been investigated from thiocyanate solutions using bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)octylphosphine
oxide (CYANEX 925) in xylene as an extractant by tracer techniques. The results demonstrate that these trivalent metal ions
are extracted as M(SCN)3•3CYANEX 925. The equalibrium constants of the extracted complexes have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis. The
extraction behavior of trivalent lanthanoids and yttrium was found to be ambiguous since the distribution ratios of these
metal ions are nonmonotinic function of atomic number (La<Y<Pm<Tm<Ho<Eu<Yb<Lu). The separation factors between these trivalent
metal ions have been calculated and compared with commercially important extraction systems like tributylphosphate (TBP),
trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), octy(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric
acid (DEHPA). The possibilities for separating yttrium from trivalent lanthanoids has also been discussed.
Authors:M. Reddy, A. Damodaran, J. Mathur, M. Murali, and R. Iyer
Mixed-ligand chelate extraction of trivalent lanthanides such as La, Eu and Lu and a trivalent actinide, Am into xylene with mixtures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (CMP) has been studied by tracertechniques. These trivalent metal ions are found to be extracted from 0.01 mol/dm3 chloroacetate buffer solutions as M(PMBP)3·HPMBP type self adducts with HPMBP alone and in the presence of CMP as M(PMBP)3·CMP (where M=La, Eu, Lu and Am) into the organic phase. The equilibrium constants of the above species are deduced by non-linear regression analysis. The synergistic constants of trivalent lanthanides do not increase monotonically with atomic number but have a maximum at Eu and that of Am was found to lie between that of La and Eu.
Authors:P. Santhi, M. Reddy, T. Ramamohan, and A. Damodaran
Synergism in the extraction of Ce(III) from thiocyanate solutions has been investigated using mixtures of 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (B2EHSO) or di-n-octyl sulfoxide (DOSO) in benzene. A very high synergistic enhancement of the order of 105 has been observed. If a mixture of both dialkyl sulfoxides (B2EHSO+DOSO) is used, an additional synergistic effect is found due to the formation of a mixed, solvated complex when both reagents are added to the metal chelate. These extraction data have been analyzed theoretically with the aid of a computer by taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by inorganic ligands and plausible complexation in the organic phase. The equilibrium constants of the various product species have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis.
Authors:V. Bhagavathy, M. Reddy, T. Rao, and A. Damodaran
A method is described for the simultaneous multielement determination of yttrium and lanthanides at microgram level. This is based on the preconcentration of these lanthanides on to 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) modified naphthalene. The optimal conditions for quantitative preconcentration viz., pH, amount of PAN modified naphthalene, time of stirring and aqueous phase volume were systematically evaluated. The quantitation of lanthanides was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzer, employing241Am annular source, via their characteristic K X-rays. The developed procedure gave reliable results in the analysis of xenotime samples.
Authors:G. Reddy, D. Pant, B. Rao, and M. Das Sankar
A scheme of analysis for the determination of Na, Mn, U, Th, Hf, Sc, La, Ce, Eu, Tb, Co, Rb and Cs in geological samples using
the neutron activation technique has been described. The results obtained in this work on eight geological standard rocks
and a trachyte are presented and compared with literature data.
Authors:R. Singhal, P. Sharma, M. Bassan, H. Basu, and A. Reddy
During this work selective separation of uranium from rock phosphate and columbite mineral was done before its quantitative
estimation by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometery (ICP-OES). Uranium from the rock phosphate and
columubite was extracted by sodium peroxide fusion followed by leaching in 2 M HNO3. To avoid spectral interference in the estimation of uranium by ICP-OES, the selective separation of uranium from the leachate
was carried out by using two different extractants, 30% Tributyl Phophates (TBP) in CCl4 and a equi-volume mixture of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) & TBP in petrofin. Uranium was stripped from the organic
phase by using 1 M ammonium carbonate solution. Determination of uranium by ICP-OES was done after dissolving the residue
left after evaporation of ammonium carbonate solution in 4% HNO3. The concentration of the uranium observed in the rock phosphates samples was 40–200 μg g−1 whereas in columbite samples the concentration range was 100–600 μg g−1. Uranium concentration evaluated by ICP-OES was complimented by gamma & alpha spectrometry. Concentration of uranium evaluated
by gamma spectrometry in case of rock phosphate and coulmbite was in close agreement with the uranium content obtained by
ICP-OES. Uranium determination by alpha spectrometry showed only minor deviation (1–2%) from the results obtained by ICP-OES
in case of rock phosphates whereas in case of coulmbites results are off by 20–30%.
Authors:S. Sujatha, M. Reddy, T. Ramamohan, and A. Damodaran
Extraction of Ce(III) and Nd(III) by 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) in the presence of water soluble complexing agent, glycine, has been studied. An improvement in separation factor between these lanthanides is observed. The extraction data have been analyzed theoretically, taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase with glycine and chloride ion and plausible complexation in the organic phase.
Authors:P. Santhi, M. Reddy, T. Ramamohan, and A. Damodaran
Synergism in the extraction of Lu(III) from thiocyanate solutions has been investigated using mixtures of bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (B2EHSO) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) or di-n-octyl sulfoxide (DOSO) or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in benzene. For comparison, the synergistic extraction of Lu(III) from perchlorate solutions has also been investigated with a mixture of B2EHSO and HTTA. These extraction data have been analyzed theoretically with the aid of a computer by taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by inorganic ligands and plausible complexation in the organic phase. The equilibrium constants of the various product species have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis.